Skip to main content

Full text of "Oporto, old and new : being a historical record of the port wine trade, and a tribute to British commercial enterprize in the north of Portugal"

See other formats


R. D. #2 

Hammondsport . New York 

Walter S. Taylor 




Hotel Administration Library 
Statler Hall 


Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 


4Q and 




Pkintep ey 



-- ,\>JI3 — 

25, 26, 27 & 28, VVR\ STRTiliT, ST. \L\RY .\X1'., E.C. 


Oporto, Old and new. 

BiaNC, A 



The Port Wine Trade, 


Sritish Commercial CELntcrf^rizc 

In thk North of PortlKtAL, 

j^^ Hotel Administration library 



(the Wine Sf Spirit Gazette) 

[All Unjili Riservfil.] 



1 1 4J^ I 













Ills majesty's most HL'MliLIi AND OBliDiENT SER\'ANT, 




¥fII^IOUS v\)ofks of mofG Of l^ss merit FjaOe been publisl^^d 
r^Spectin^ \\ie Win^s and fl7e (/9ine fprade of all countries in 
Wl7icl?, OiT'l naturally, a prominer^t position l7as been assi|ri.ed 
to port. fpi^e latest contribution of any importar\ce vJas from tl^e 
lifted p^n of l^-enry Vi^ettelly, but it Was obOiouj to all Wine sljippers 
from ©pofto tl^at in, his dialectical a^d discursiOe treatise tl^e a^utljor 
lost si|l7t of tijat Wl^icl? Would I7a0e been of most interest to l^is 
readers, ^'i^., tl^e j^-istory of tl^e ISritisI? piPms in. ©porto, Wl^ile ir\ h/is 
pl^asarit styl^ l7e Went oOef ground Wl^icl? l?ad beer\ far more ably 
CoOefed by preOious WfitePs, for \\}e simple feason tijat tl^cy RneW tl7eir 
subject bfttef from l^aUin^ liOfd longer in tl^e country, and l7a\;in<§ 
been cr\|a|cd in tl^e business. In tt/e folloWini| WoPR tl^e idea l^as 
been to present to tl^e public a l7istorical record of tl]e ISritisI^ families 
more especially corinerted Witl^ tl^e shipping of 09irie from tl^e H®''^'^ 
of Portugal, embracir^l a period of yearly tl^ree [jundred years, so 
tl7at all WI70 are interested r\ot only in tl^is |rand old trade but also 
in tl7G l^istory of our country's commerce, may l^aOe placed befofe 
ttjem a Wortl7y example of BritisI? enterprise under cit'cumstances of 
Oaryir\^ faOour and difficulties. eAll tlje data IjaOe been carefully 
culled from commercial and official documents, and in ofder to feeder 
tl^ese more acceptable to tl^e general reader Reproductions of many 
curious and l^itt^erto un,publisl7Gd pictufes are interspersed tl^rou^l^out 
tl7e ct?apters. ISy tl^ose more intimately cor^nected Witl7 ©porto We 
trust mucl] pleasure Will be derived in tl^us acquiring a lexicon of all 
tl7e names of ISritisI? families WI70 IjaOe resided eittjer at \:)ianr\a do 
(;astello, Wl^en t^e I^ed portu^al Wine f^rade Was in its infancy, or 
at ©porto sirice tl7e establisl^ment tl7ere of tl^e ISritisl? Pactors to tl7e 
present time. dA most exI^austiOe ir\dex appears at tl^e end of ti^e 
\)olume, and eOery er^deaOour Ijas bee^ employed to render tl7e Work a 
suitable testimony to tlje commercial ^er^ius of our countrymen in 
©porto, ©Id and j^leW. 


— cx:i>;;v<:Oo- 



I. Personal Reminiscences ... ... ... ... ... 1 

II. Tra\'elling in Portugal ... ... ... ... ... H 

III. Port Wine and The Fisheries ... ... ... ■•■ 17 

IV. The Portuguese at Home ... ... ... ... ... 25 

\'. The Royal Houses of Portugal ... ... ... ... 31 

VI. The English in Oporto ... ... ... ... ... 38 

VII. Oporto Factory Docu.ments ... ... ... ... ... 57 

\'III. The Douro and Some oe the Principal Ouintas ... 94 

IX. The Oporto Wine Company ... ... ... ... ... 113 

X. Hunt, Roope, Teage & Co 119 

XI. Taylor, Fladgate i.\: Yeatman ... ... ... ... 125 

XII. Croft & Co. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 135 

XI II. Offley, Cramp & I'orresters ... ... ... ... 141 

XIV. Sandeman & Co. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 149 

XV. Martinez, Oassiot cV Co. ... ... ... ... ... ](-;(-; 

X\T. Cockpurn, S.mithes & Co. ... ... ... ... ... 170 

XVII. SlFVA & COSENS ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 172 

XVIII. W. .V J. Graham .V Co 183 

XIX. Putli:r, Nf:i'|[e\v & Co. ... ... ... ... ... 188 

X.\. Ci.ode & IIaker ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 193 

INDEX TO chapters-Continued. 

Chapter Pa"c 

XXI. Morgan Bros. (Wme Shippers), Limited 199 

XXII. Robertson Bros. & Co 204 


XXIV. Smith, Woodiiouse & Co. ... ... ... ... ... 212 

XXV. GoxzALEZ, Byass & Co. 222 

XXVI. Wakre & Co 227 

XXVII. D. M. Feueriieerd, Jun*^' & Co 229 

XXVIII. C. N. KopKE & Co 232 

XXIX. Lambert, Kingston & Co. ... ... ... ... ... 238 

XXX. Various Firms ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 241 

XXXI. The late Baron de Forrester — His Work in Portugal — 

Re.viiniscences ... ... ... ... ... ... 260 

XXXII. Capture of Oporto by the French ... ... ... 285 

XXXIII. The Advance on Oporto by the British ... ... 290 

XXXIV. The Passage of the Douro ... ... ... ... ... 295 

XXXV. The War between the Two Brothers ... ... ... 300 

XXXVI. Origin of the Name Portugal 306 


Oporto, Old and New. 



T is one of the most 
select British commu- 
I' nities abroad which, 
for t»enerations, has 
talien up its residence 
in Oporto. The only 
reason I can assign 
for the exceptionally 
favourable prominence into which the 
British i-esidents in Oporto have brought 
themselves is the acknowledged excel- 
lence of Port Wine, of which, be it said 
to their honour, they are the originators 
and disseminators. Viticulture, or the 
growing of the grape vine, is one thing ; 
viniculture, or the combined art and 
science of preparing the Wine, is another. 
The latter industry in f^ortugal is essen- 
tially British. But whence came they, 
these Englishmen with all their insular 
prejudices, their indomitable energy 
anci extraordinary resources ? Weil, of 
course, they came from England, such as 
were English, or their forbears did, and the 
Scotch came from their own land. One of 
the oldest English firms is Devonian, still 
connected with Dartmouth by many family 
ties, and tracing its Wine history back 
almost to a date coeval with "that of the 
cod-fisheries on the banks of Newfoundland. 
Many came from that largest of English 
counties, Yorkshire, so famed for its 
stalwart men and buxom women. Others, 
but not so many, derived their origin from 
the modern Babylon, London. I must here 
observe that such as dealt in dry goods 
enjoyed the name of " rag merchants," as 

distinct fi-om " wine merchants," and only 
one firm has, to any extent, combined rags 
with wine. Of course, so far as Great 
Britain is concerned, the rag business is of 
more importance than the Wine business ; 
but in Oporto the proper thing, and very 
naturally so, is to ship Wine. The following 
are grand names in the vinous history of 
Oporto : — Newman, Bearsley, Dow, Hunt, 
Offley, Sandeman, Teage, Croft, Kingston, 
Warre, Dixon, Roope, Cockburn, For- 
rester, and others almost forgotten, but 
whose names are still to be found in the 
ar-chived ledgers of centin-ies ago. Then 
we have such good old names as the Dutch 
and German families, now Portuguese, of 
Van Zeller, Kopke and Burmester ; and 
among those who have contributed in a 
wider sense to England's fame abroad are : 
William H. G. Kingston, the novelist; 
Joseph James Forrester (Baron de For- 
rester), the essayist and eminent carto- 
grapher ; Albert G. Sandeman, late 
Governor of the Bank of England ; Henry 
Rumsey, the lexicographer ; John P. 
Gassiot, F.R.S. ; General Sir William 
Kidston EUes, K.C.B. ; Admiral Dunlop, 

Oporto has very much improved during 
the last forty years. The Rua dos Inglezes 
(street of the English) was one of the very 
few streets paved right through. There 
were others that were only paved on one 
side, and these had been done at the 
expense of the father of the present Senh(jr 
Antonio Bernardo Ferreira, the first gentle- 
man to own a carriage in Oporto, drawn 


by horses. Even the Riia dos Inglezes is they do now, for it was no unusual thing to 

changed, inr man)- of the old bLiildings 

have disappeared altogether and a public 

garden has replaced them. In this street 

the British merchants ha\e always met to 

transact business and see each other. 

Before steamers commenced running to 
Oporto, the trade between that cit)- and 
the principal English ports was carried on 
by means of small schooners, such as the 
''Mary Sweet," 


i M 1-1 \m ■ ini' " *•• "■ 

"John Orme- 
r o d," " R e d 
Port," "Alarm," 
&c., the skippers 
of which used 
to appear on 
'Change in dress 
coats and white 
gloves. For gi\- 
ing themselves 
the trouble to go 
to the ofhees to 
sign the bills of 
lading, t h e )• 
received " hat 
money " at the 
rate of Is. per 
tun ; this gra- 
tuity w as in 
later times paid 
as primage. 

I recollect 
seeing an ad\'er- 
tisemcnt about 
the sailing of 
one of tiiese 
schoonci-s from Lixci'pool. She was 
described as "the hue Clipper Packet 

, 99 tons I'eg." 1 hclie\c slic was the 

" Red P(jrt," and on this occasion she 
took six weeks on her \'(iya!4e out tii 
Opoi'to. There are still some ni' my 
readers who will reeolleet mei'i-y Captain 
Triplett, and how he coLild step the 

Fi'eights rLilcd considerably' hiL;her than 


LiUiioi I II L ) I 

pay as much as 100s. per tun of two pipes, in 
time of war, to London. The captains 
were frequently entertained at dinner by 
the merchants, and were on special 
occasions admitted as guests to the Biitish 
Club, called the Factory House, situate in 
English Street. 

It was in a house in this street, in 1394, 
Philippa, of Lancaster, gave birth to 

Prince D o m 
Henrique, the 
great navigator. 
The house is 
now distin- 
guished by a 
slab bearing an 
appropriate in- 

Oporto is 
supposed to be 
built on seven 
hills ; in this it 
is not singular, 
as 1 know many 
other cities that 
lay claim to the 
same number of 
e 1 e ^• a t i o n s. I 
am inclined to 
think, however, 
that Oporto is 
far too modest 
in its pre- 
tensions, for it 
would not at 
all surprise me 
to hear that the number is nearer fifty than 
seven. The streets are, with few exceptions, 
so steep that, foi' draw ing heavy weights, 
oxen are Lised instead of horses, and 
when the load is too great {or oxen, then 
the Cjallegos are brought into requisition, 
rhese stalwart, but most imsavourv, sons 
of (jalicia place j'opes under the load, 
and then run a stout wooden bar through 
the double rope, and, at an unearthly 

• y 


grunt given by the Capataz, or ganger, 
they all place their shoulders under the 
bar, raise themselves, and thus proceed 
with their burden. Be it said to their 
honour, they are always esteemed as 
servants by all the English families for 
their proverbial honesty. 

But again, reverting to Oporto, I may 
just mention that it is one of the most 
ancient cities in the Peninsula, and held 
very high rank during the Moorish invasion ; 
as this, however, is not a history of the 
country, but rather of the British com- 
munity resident there, 1 know I shall be 
pardoned if 1 simply refer my readers to 
the many well-known works on Portugal 
and its history should they desire to be 
informed as to the sailing of the Armada 
from Lisbon, or the implanting of the 
Monarchy in that country. Naturally I 
have now and again to refer to some 
historical data in order to fix the times in, 
and the circumstances under, which vine- 
growing was introduced into the Kingdom, 
as well as when producing copies of 
charters granted to Englishmen for liberty 
to trade and establish themselves there. 
But, as for history pure and simple, the 
arts and sciences, and other matters con- 
nected with the Portuguese themselves, 
are they not to be found in the chronicles 
prepared by many eminent writers ? Oporto 
still presents itself to the tourist as a city 
of unfinished buildings, of noble aspira- 
tions, but above all, and pre-eminently 
above all other cities, as the city that has 
given the name to the best Wine the world 
has ever produced. In this it has left its 
aspirations and its histcjry far behind ; 
when Portugal's great na\igators are for- 
gotten in the busy turmoil of e\'ei'yday life, 
their fame shall be remembered as fiiture 
generations drink from crystal goblets the 
generous Wine of many a Douro \ intage. 

Previous to 1842 the Douro, from 
Oporto to Villa No\'a de Gaya, was 
spanned by a bridge of boats, of which 1 

give a picture reproduced from a coloured 
engraving in the possession of Messrs. 
Dent, Urwick & Yeatman. 

For the next thirty-eight years a handsome 
suspension bridge, a little higher up the 
river, took the place of the bridge of b(jats, 
and now a splendid double bridge, made of 
iron and containing only one arch, places 
the uppei- part of Oporto in communication 
with that of Gaya, while the bottom plat- 
form or span forming the base to the arch 
serves for passengers to and from the 
lower parts of the city. It is on the south 
bank of the river, in Gaya, that the Wine 
merchants have their lodges, and as to 
these, the improvements made in the con- 
struction of casks, CS.C., 1 will ha\'e occasion 
to refer to them later on. I am now more 
concerned in speaking of Oporto as 1 ha\e 
known it and as it used to be long before 
I was born, but as it has often been 
graphically described to me by relati\es 
and friends. So far as 1 can make out, 
the game of cricket has been played in 
Oporto almost as far back as the oldest 
English resident could remember when I 
was a child. The field was on the spot 
now occupied by the Infantry Barracks, 
close to the Carrancas Palace. There 
was then, as now, a cricket club, and 
the merchants generally assembled on the 
field on Saturday afternoons. They wore 
high silk hats or bea\ers, and bowled, 
so I hax'c been informed, from the 
front of the wicket. As a schoolboy I 
have often played on the Torre da Marca, 
where the Crystal Palace now stands, and 
not far from the former field. As 1 have 
mentioned the Carrancas Palace, I will 
obserxe that when Soult was so uncere- 
moniously disturbed at dinner by the 
approach of Sir .Artluu- Wellesley, the 
palace belonged to the Barons of Ne\o- 
gilde, who were allowed certain pri\'ileges 
on contlition that they should entertain 
the Soxereign whene\er be, or she, came 
to Oporto. The building, with the gardens 


at the back, was bought by Dom Pedro V. 
about 1860, from his private purse, and 
was subsequently transferred to the 

And, now that I am speaking about one 
of the Royal residences, 1 may be allowed 
to refer to the Coat of Arms of the City 
of Oporto, of which 1 give a representation. 
The Shield is surmounted by a Ducal 
Coronet and quartered 
with the Royal Arms 
of Portugal and of our 
Lady of Vendome, 
between two turrets 
Argent on a field Azure. 
In the centre there is 
a Heart Or on Es- 
cutcheon of pretence 
purple. Surrounding 
the Shield is the Collar 
of the Order of the 
Towerand Sword. Sup- 
porter, Dragon Vert. 
The Collar was pre- 
sented by the Duke of 
Braganca as a reward 
for the heroic resis- 
tance during the siege, 
and he further granted 
to the city the title of 
" Very Noble, Always 
Loyal, and Uncon- 
quered." The Dragon 
is the supporter of the 
Arms of the Royal 
House of Braganca. 
The heart was added 
later on in memory of 

Dom Pedro IV., who presented his own 
to the city, whose inhabitants have worthily 
preserx'ed it in the Church of the Lapa. 

One of the greatest changes, if not the 
greatest, that has taken place in Oporto 
was the building of the new Custom-house 
on the sandy beach of Miragaya. Where 
the old alfandega still stands is, in my 
opinion, the most appropriate place for 

such a liuilding, because it is close to the 
Rua dos Inglezes (now called the Rua do 
Infante Dom Henrique), where all business 
is transacted, and also because there is 
very good anchorage opposite, and vessels 
can discharge alongside. 

Another very marked improvement, in 
that which concerns trade between Oporto 
and foreign countries, is the construction 
of the harbour at Lei- 
xfl'S, in close proximity 
to Leca da Palmeira, 
distant about six miles 
from Oporto. This 
" artificial port," as it 
is called by the Portu- 
guese, was much re- 
qLiired owing to the 
difficult, and often dan- 
gerous, navigation of 
the bar. The river 
Douro is liable to 
periodical freshets 
which render it im- 
possible for vessels to 
leave or enter the port. 
For many years the 
project for the con- 
struction of this port 
was assiduously nursed 
by a few Englishmen, 
who devoted all their 
spare time and energy 
in trying to impress 
the Government with 
the importance that a 
harbour would have 
on the trade of the 
north of Portugal ; they now have the 
satisfaction of knowing that their names 
will always be linked with the construction 
of the port of Leixces, where some of the 
largest steam packets call in regularly for 
passengers and cargo. 

If you want to have a bird's-eye view of 
Oporto you must ascend the steeple of the 
Clerigos Church, close to the Alercado do 

The City At mi ol Opoilo. 


Anjo. Right below you is presenteti a beauti- entrance forms the apex, so to speak, of 
fill panorama ; the city proper, with ail its the triangular shape of the market, and all 
numerous churches and squares surrounds the space disposable at the base is covered 
you ; to the south, but separated by the by dealers in vegetables. In the early 
lovely DoLiro, is Villa Nova de Gaj-a with moi-ning, when the country women arrive 
its long rows of wine st<jres, the convent with their loads for disposal to the st(jre- 
of the Serra do Pilar and the two bridges keepers, the colouring is very bright as the 
spanning the river; to the north are the native costume partakes, though in a 
heights of Bom Fim and the hills of modified form, of that brilliancy which is 
Vallongo, while to the east the snow-capped so much in evidence in Spain. Here do 

congregate the 
students from 
the neighbour- 
ing College of 
Surgeons; not 
only are they in 
quest of fruit, 
but also of some 
r e s p <j n s i V e 
smile from the 
dark-eyed pea- 
sant girls. Some 
twenty years 
ago the neigh- 
bourhood of this 
market was not 
pleasant at 
night owing to 
the number of 
h u n g r y dogs 
which infested 
the place and 
fought furiously 
with each other 
over some piece 
of offal. I have 
haci it asserted 

mountains ap- 
pear in the dis- 
tance. To the 
west the scene 
is still more 
lovely, as the 
broad Atlantic 
lies before you, 
into which the 
Douro poui's its 
limpid waters at 
Foz. From this 
high tower the 
city seems to 
be almost le\el, 
the t r a m c a r s 
drawn by six 
mules it soon be- 
comes evident 
that the streets 
are very steep. 
The Mercadodo 
Anjo is the 
oldest market 
place in Oporto 
and is decidedly 

worthy a visit. Under the wide spreading that in still some remoter days a few wolves 
shade of mulberry trees, are Ujcated the had been seen mingling with these curs of 
stalls where women, in native attire, sell every degree, and I recollect a wolf having 
fruit of all qualities, fresh vegetables and been trapped just outside the city. At the 
poultry. As you enter by the western gate eastern end of the market-place a hand- 
you have on your left hand a long row of some flight of steps leads to the open-air 
fruit stalls gorgeous in the display of lovely shoe and boot market, which is anything 
apples, pears, oranges, grapes, &c., while but picturesque, and on the opposite side 
on the right-hand side are located the of the road is the thieves' market, called 
poulterers and butchers. This western the /frro5 I'f/Afw (old pieces of iron), where 

TUl CUii^'os ZouLf in Oporto. 


every conceivable and inconceivable article more frequently found in the interior, at 

of native hardware is procurable. the houses of well-to-do farmers, and even 

I must not omit to mention the nati\e in the homes of river pilots, some of whom 

jewellery which is to be found on sale in the have amassed considerable fortunes bj' 

Rua das Flores, in Oporto. It is principallj- conxejint; cargoes of wine from the wine 

filigree work, and compares very favour- country to Villa Nova. In former days 

ably with the Maltese work. Portuguese the fiilalgos, or aristocrats, had all their 

women are much addicted to gold orna- dishes, plates, basins and jugs made of the 

ments, and at the Church festi\als some precious metals, and I have known them 

may be seen with gold chains worth retain these marketable chattels when 

a few hundred 
pounds. The 
artistic part of 
the jewellei'y 
worn by the 
peasantry owes 
its origin to 
the Moorish in- 
vasion, and if 
not of a very 
high order of 
merit has at 
least the charm 
of novelty to 
most English 
tourists ; and, 
moreover, the 
gold is abso- 
lutely pure; in 
fact, the Portu- 
guese look upon 
English gold 
jewellery as so 
m u c h base 
metal. In the 
reign of Dom 
Manoel " the 
Fortunate," a school of native art in 
gold work was instituted, and i-esulted in 
the production of some \cry beautifully 
executed articles ; bLit in these days, \\ hen 
originality too often gives way to imita- 
tion, the Manoelian school has been sLipcr- 
sedcd by French art. It is still possible 
to obtain some examples of hftccnth cen- 
tury work, but you must be prepared to 
pay a high price foi- them. These aie 

/• ill, I tloiil. 

p o \- e r t y w a s 
pinching, for 
with them it 
was a case of 
noblesse oblige. 

The acconi- 
panj'ing picture 
is from a photo- 
graph of a 
twelfth century 
house in the Rua 
da Reboleira, 
which was built 
for a nobleman. 
This house has 
been pulled 
down to make 
room for im- 
p 1- o \' e m e n t s . 
Oporto is full 
of alterations, 
but not neces- 
sarily of im- 
provements. A 
system of tram- 
lines eovei's the 
cit\-, and I bc- 

lic\'e the Company pa\s \•cr^• handsome divi- 
dends. Cabs ply for hiix in all the prin- 
cipal streets, each being drawn by all that 
remains of two horses. Horse breeding, 
which was at one time held in much 
esteem in Portugal, has now fallen into 
decadence, but e\en so the horses arc not 
to be dcspisetl. Horse racing and fox 
himting ha\c been tried, but the people 
imdcrstand not these pleasurx's. W'hyte 


Melville might never have existed as far as and is still, known as the pni/d tins luirlcscs, 

the Portui^uese are concerned. The turf or the " heach of the h^nj^lish." (3n the 

IS, therefore, as dead a letter to them as high rock separating the Portuguese from 

hunting. There is, or was, a sporting club the English bathing place William Kingston, 

in Oporto, but, as in the vicinity of the the no\'elist, \'cry often used to take his 

city there are more guns than birds, the perch, but the English ladies, with their 

members have not had much to do beyond In-own straw sun-bonnets and blue \eils, 

agitating. The British community retain would sit among the crowd and, while 

their national instincts; they have, as knitting, enjoy the merry sight offered by 

1 said before, their cricket and football the o\-er-dresscd native bathei-s. I think 

clubs, their boating and golf clubs, their that at English watering-places the bathers 

seaside club, their Factory house, their have too little regard for modesty, while 

places of worship, and, in fact, they make in Portugal this virtue is completely hidden 

life as pleasant as pcjssible under most by a superfluity of clothing. According to 

favourable circumstances. the police regulations all bathei-s at public 

As in our childhood's days the brightest places in Portugal mList be as completel)- 

are, as a rule, those we spend at the sea- clad as if the)- wci'e going for a -walk. 

side duringoiu- midsLmimcr holidays, so my There are no hideous bathing machines to 

memory carries me back to the time when be seen disfigLU'lng the beach, no nigger 

we used to close Lip our town house and minstrels to be heard with their discordant 

take up our abode in some small house at banjoes. The beach presents a town of 

Fez, or Le^a. The heavy furniture was white canvas, flat-topped tents, -with lanes 

forwarded in bullock carts, and the lighter dividing one row from another. The 

goods on the heads of women, who charged bathing women attend on the male bathers, 

2d. a journe}' for performing a run of six and the bathing men on the lad\- bathers. 

miles to Foz and back. Some of the From early morn up to about mid-day, 

English families retained their Foz summer this animated scene continLies without 

houses for many years, and among these interrLiption. Some guitar players stroll 

were the Nobles, the Kingstons and the aboLit the i-ocks and thi-ough these alleys 

Sandemans. Mr. Jt)hn Alexander Fladgate, formed by tents, picking Lip the few coppers 

(Baron da Roeda), acquired a heautifLil pro- from those who still Llelight to hear the 

perty on the Monte, and lived at Foz all harmonious and plaintiff nati\'e aii-s. 

the year round. I mention this fa\'OLirite When I was a boy, before cideclics had 

seaside resort as it enables me to gi\'e a commenced rLinning between Oporto and 

description of English life on the rocks at Foz, the narrow esplanade at the back of 

the Caneiro, and the better to bi'ing this the bathing-station was the standing 

subject befoi-e my readers I will state that ground for numberless badl)- ec|Lilpped and 

on the left hand side is the old castle, sorr^- looking tlonke)-s, which wei-e waiting 

situated close to the mouth of the ri\-cr, the return of their riders from their 

and on the right, the lighthouse. On the morning abhitions. Many families woLild 

rocks, watching the bathers, dcj congregate engage a huge carriage, something like oLir 

some of the native dandies. To this day coLintry omnibLises, bLit drawn by oxen, and 

the Caneiro is the spot most fa\oured by for these, while the family bathed, there 

the vlitc of Portuguese society, but the was a space I'cscrved in the ncighboui-ing 

English only frequented the rocks as streets. Our young people of to-day may 

spectators ; they had their own pvaia, not feel inclined to credit that in this 

about a liLindreci yards beyond, which was, fashion their ancestors had to tra^•el to 




Foz for their sea-dip ; tlie ladies used to 
ride on an andillin, a sort of cusliioned 
chair on donliey back. And as we English 
had a separate bathing place from the 
Portuguese, so we had our own donkey- 
men and women who pro\'ided us with our 

The 24th of August, St. Bartholomew's 
Day, is, in Portugal, dedicated to sea- 
bathing and the eating of melons. The 
Portuguese Clergy have ^■ery wisely intro- 
duced some salutarj' innovations into their 
religion. Knowing that the lower order of 
the population, like that of ahnost every 
other country, is averse to almost every 
form of ablution, they, from time 
immemorial, have done everything in their 
power to promote cleanliness, not always, 
I must own, with complete success. 
Tradition, or superstition, in the north of 
Portugal hath it that St. Bartholomew 
made a treaty with Satan that all people 
who had not taken thirty-three baths in the 
sea every year by the 24th August should 
be handed over to the modern Pluto. 
From all parts of the interior, therefore, 
the peasants assemble in vast numbers at 
all the seaside resorts, and many may be 
seen taking all the prescribed baths on one 
day. But education, which by some has 
been called the mother of civiHsation, has 

unfortunately weakened the faith of many 
Portuguese peasants in the necessity for 
this wholesale form of cleanliness, so that 
now the custom is fast going out of 

This was the grand day, par excellence, of 
the English ; this the day on which they 
had an opportunity of admiring the 
cunning work of the native goldsmiths on 
the necks and ears of the handsome and 
stalwart daughters of the north of 
Portugal. On the eve of St. Bartholomew 
a display of fireworks took place in front 
of everjf parish church ; a village band 
discoursed national airs, and the crowd 
consumed wine at Id. per pint. The 
Church in Portugal is ahvays foremost in 
keeping up these amusements for the 
people, and although we profess to have 
our more correct ideas on the subject, I 
feel confident that I am not singular in the 
opinion that innocent amusement, such as 
tlie Portuguese people enjoy on a Sunday, 
is preferable to a choice between going to 
a pubhc-house or to church. I also know 
that the English in Portugal do not keep 
aloof from these innocent entertainments, 
and that wlien we come back to England 
we feel there is a xoid in hfe ^xhich we 
stoically describe as a "true English 





,7 HBRE is now the 
tirriciro (muleteer), 
the former com- 
p a n ion f > f o u r 
j o Li rn e y s fro m 
Oporto to the Wine 
country, before the 
present railway had 
been made, and when (liligeiias were un- 
known ? He beloni^ed to a peculiar stamp 
of people, and in almost everything unlike 
his countrymen ; in fact, differing as much 
from them as the Manigiitos of Spain differ 
from the rest of Spaniards. But, unlike the 
Maragato, the Portuguese arriciro was a 
lively and song-loving man — true, he was 
most absurdly superstiti(jus and unmis- 
takably obstinate ; he loved the flowing bowl 
more than his prayers, while his language 
was truly shocking. But, even so, he was 
a man of manj' excellent qualities, and his 
horses and mules appreciated his eccen- 
tricities ; and, at evevy Arre Awe uttered 
amid an ocean of profanity, the)' seemed 
to waken to a fresh sense of their duties, 
and to put renewed vigour into that 
ambling gait of theirs, which ]-ludibras 
describes as — 

" Whether pace or trot, 

That is to say, whether tolutation, 
As they do tenn it, or succussation." 

The tiiTiciro did his ten Portuguese 
leagues every day on foot ; his arms sway- 
ing wildly on each side of him, and, so far 
as I could judge, he covered between three 
and four English miles an hour. In those 
days a Portuguese league conveyed no 
definite idea as to distance so far as the 

unwary English traveller was concerned ; 
sometimes you covered a league in less 
than an horn-, while sometimes it took 
nearly three hours, the horse's pace being 
always the same. " A stone's thi'ow," " a 
gun-shot," and other similar sayings were 
used to let you know h(;w far you \\'ere 
from your destination ; but, after half an 
hoiu-'s riding under a broiling sun, the idea 
commenced to da\\'n on you that cither 
Portuguese guns were of unusually long 
range, or the gunpowder most perilously 
strong. And how nuich oftener you 
ga\-e way to \mn utterings and vexation of 
spirit when, ha\ing arrived at the summit 
of a hill, the arrieiro mildly and ingenuously 
pointed out )-our destination looming in 
the far distance, without even a smoke- 
begrimed Tahcrna or Wine-shop between 
you and your place of rest ! 

The arriciro is an institution of the past; 
liut he is immortalised on many a canvas ! 
There he is portrayed in the kitchen of 
an Estdhijciu, seated at a rough deal table, 
his alforjas or saddle-bags by his side, his 
caiicca or tijclla of green wine before him, 
the smoke curling from his cigarette while 
his eyes are rivetted on the landlady's 
culinary operations. He was an epicui-e 
after his own fashion ; he knew when the 
hac(illiao (salted codfish) was sufficiently 
boiled. It was no go(xl attempting to palm 
off the lower c^iualities of this excellent fish 
for the best Newfoundland. The oli\e oil, 
his only gra\-y, was almost a matter of 
vital importance to him, and only next to 
his wine, which had to be rascantc, or 
throat-tickling. His knife he carried with 


him — not onljr for defence, offence, making hand, regaled you \\-ith an incessant yell of 
cigarettes, paring nails, &c., but also to alca, iilca, iJicrciia, equivalent to a "gee- 
eat with. The fork, however — a pooi-, up." No doubt that only those with very 
\\-eak thing! — \\-as the property of the hard heads could afford to travel by these 
tciidcira. But he was a jo\'ial man, fiill of conveyances. 

folk-lore, in which warlocks, witches, en- A rf;7;^'-i'»c((( was the nearest approach to 

chanted moorcsscs, freemasons and de\'ils a coach Lusian ingenuity could contrive, 

conspired to undermine the Throne and and the two were as much alike as a modern 

Religion in general, and arriciros in pai-- sea-going greyhound is to the representa- 

ticular. When lie had well eaten and tions we have of Noah's Ark, that 

drLuik he would Lmburden himself of many marvellous priKkietion in wood architecture 

a rollicking song, in «hich he would often which, however, no enterprising firm of 

hz led to waver in his allegiance to the ship-builders has thought ad\-isable to 

P(jpe and King, and hold up to the adml- copy. But \\-hat a fund of amusement it 

ration of his hearers the doughty deeds of has been to thousands of generations of 

the Cagots and other uncanny beings. children! On second thoughts I ha\-e 

I never knew an old arriciro : either they arrived at the conclusion that the Portu- 

succeeded in preser\ing their youthful guese omnibus or (////o'f«f/["( was an attempt 

appearance, or, what is more likeh', they (jn the part of the C(jach-builders to run 

became mule and horse proprietors with Noah's Ark on wheels and have it propelled 

t'le savings of manv years on the road. by the united efforts of the unfortunate 

Of course, the steam horse has rendered animals ab()\'e mentioned, representing a 

tl'a^'elling far easier and more rapid than spectacle likely to arcjuse the enthusiasm of 

in the days of the (irriciio, but it has dmie children to as gi'cat a pitch as the taking 

away with the charm of novelty. Diligences out of the animals through the roof of the 

I abominated : the)' were uncomfortable. Ark. The harness was as picturesque as 

rieketv, noisv, and dangerous. But the\- the quadrupeds and the coachman. It 

\\ere objects n(.)t easily forgotten owing to accommodated itself to all sizes and \ices. 

theii' CLimbrous appearance and the uLimbcr and a supply was always eari-ied in the 

of hoi'ses, mules, ponies, and jack-asses " hoot." It consisted of stout rope cut 

indiscriminately yolced together. Aimthei" into varii")Lis lengths and ingeniouslv placed 

means of travelling was by the liti'ird oi- over and imdei\ and about, the steeds, and 

litter, sti'ung up between two iimles : these g;"i\'e them the appearance of being tied to 

litters carried two persons, but thev e\en one aiiothei' so as to pre\"cnt theii' falling, 

now represent to ni)- minel what «-as most on the soluhI principle that " union is 

terrible in ti'a\'elling in Portugal In those strength." 1 called them quadrupeds 

days. "S'ou hatl next to nothing; to lean inadvertently, but the fact is they only 

against, and no space in which to stretch became so as they warmed to their work, 

yotir legs. K\-er\' now and again the front because on lca\ ing the stables thev would 

mule woLikl stumble, which wouki cause hobble out on three legs as if to economize 

you to be precipitated into the arms of the the strength of the fourth, which was 

passenger seated in front of \-ou : aiul, as artistiealb' suspciKletl in midair after the 

the mule cpiickly ret'ox'crcd itself, you aiul fashion of a well-bred terrier. The start 

your trax'cllin,; companion, in one frantic was a performance which offered the, were almost thrown o\ei' I he greatest amount of amusement to the 

back of the litter on to the hind mule, chaffing crowd of spectators eager to help 

During the ni'^ht the muleteer, torch in the coachman and his assistant in getting 



the animals to understand that they were 
meant to go fcji'ward and not backward. 
Some of the steeds would insidiously and 
assiduously develop a fancy for climbing 
over the traces, while others, much to the 
annoyance of the Jehu, had a fancy for 
lying down and biting the fetlocks of their 
companion. Much as this was pro\ocative 
of laughter to the bystanders and of higli 
sounding, but ni(jst uncomplimentai-y, 
language on the part of the driver, it did 
not tend to inspire the travellers with 
confidence in the Ldtimate attainment of 
that harmony so desirable among horses 
intended to pull together. At the head of 
this heterogeneous squadron of harnessed 
animals rode a youth whose only fear was 
that he might be late in starting when the 
other animals had, by many applications of 
the whip, desultory kicks from the spectators 
and stone-throwing on the part of all the 
loafers, deemed it prudent to make tracks 
for the open through the narrow streets of 
the city. 

The traffic was very limited in those 
days, and the streets throLigh which the 
diligeiicia was piloted, were kept clear for 
the occasion. Up hill the omnibus was 
drawn at a very slow pace, and \e\-y often 
a 3?oke or two of oxen had to be requi- 
sitioned to assist the horses and other 
jades. But down hill the rate of progress 
seemed to be prophetic of the steam 
engine, and it was as much as the animals 
could do to keep out of the way of the 
diligeiicia in its mad career. As we dashed 
through the villages the people waved 
their handkerchiefs, the dogs barked, and 
the pigs and hens bolted, and thus, by the 
assistance of the animals up hill, and the 
momentum of the diligeiicia down hill, we 
arrived at our destination sometimes before 
we were expected ; but oftener when all 
hope had been given up of our safety. For 
my part I vastly preferred the outside of a 
horse to the inside of a diligeiicia. The 
horses we used to bestride were not 

absolutely devoid of virtues, and as their 
vices were not backed by any lai'ge amount 
of over-feeding, there was not much to be 
afraid of. They had more peculiarities 
than \'ices, but when their riders ga\'e \\a.y 
to profanitj', which was of too frequent 
occurrence, they stood unmoved in the 
middle of a dusty road, or perhaps would 
kneel or sit down on their hind quarters, 
giving the appearance, to the miinitiated in 
their mysteries, of ti-ylng to get a hind leg, 
or b(jth, into the stirrups ; their motive, 
however, was simply to kick the flies off. 
But, after all this fatigue, was there not the 
prospect of the blessing of sleep before 
us ? 

" Good Wine makes a soft bed," is a true 
r-'(jrtuguese proverb. Had it not been foi- 
this excellent creature comfort the beds in 
the Alto Douro, with all their offensive pests, 
\\'ould have been absolutely unbearable. 
The pillow slips were one mass of cunningly 
devised embroidery ; the sheets were also 
fringed \\'ith a similar abundance of this 
now costly work, but the pillows were 
stuffed with sawdust and the mattresses 
with straw. Sometimes the furniture 
would be all of black oak, or chestnut, 
splendidly carved ; while the seats and 
backs of the chairs wei'c of mule hide, 
marvellously chased with allegorical figures. 

Carpet there was none, but the ceilings 
were generally festooned with coloured 
fly-catchers, so old and dirty, however, 
that it made one ill to look at them. Soap 
was almost unknown ; and the luxury of a 
bath had not then da\'\'ned on the mind of 
the Portuguese lower classes. But, of 
course, they are much improved now, as, 
by travelling beyond their own frontiers, 
they ha\'e adopted many salutary innova- 
tions. Once, at an hotel at Regoa, the 
chambermaid brought me a hair brush and 
a tooth brush, remarking that they were 
only used by their richer guests. 

Naturally the commissariat department, 
or the inner man, had to be provided for. 



as there is no doubt that good cookhig 
tends more to the perfecting of people's 
happiness than many schoohiiasters and 
students are willing to admit. As a rule, 
the Portuguese workman eats just enough 
to maintain life ; in his case necessity 
obliges him to adopt a thoroughlj? hygienic 
regimen. It is a case where poverty is a 
blessing in disguise. But is there a 
Portuguese ciiisitie, a school of cookery, 
any system, code or digest, which would 
place it on an equality with the art as 
understanded in Paris ? There is, 1 must 
admit, no school of cookery in Portugal ; 
it is a non-progressive art, but what know- 
ledge the}' possess of it is very excellent. 
Brillat Savarin, with a considerable amount 
of truth, declared that " the destiny of 
nations depends on the manner in "which 
the people are fed," and General Foy 
attributed England's victories to the eon- 
sumption of rum and beef. But the food 
of the Portuguese middle class is, as a 
rule, nutritious and savourj-. The cook, 
however, gets out of his depth when he 
attempts to imitate the French. He 
sometimes goes in for the various qualities 
of potages, unmindful that they are n(j 
better than his caldo fresco, (h fcijao (beans), 
dc galUnha (chicken broth thickened with 
rice), and many other kinds of broth and 
soup, among the latter one being made of 
dried chestnuts. The Portuguese cook 
excels in the ,!,''»/s(/(/(i, or stew, which should 
be prepared in a nati\-e pipkin. I ba\'e 
eaten this dish in the Alto Douro, when it 
was made of hare, partridge or chicken, 
cut up in pieces which are not washed, but 
dried in a clotli ; then they are fried with 
onions till brown, some fine olive oil being 
added. These pieces ai'c then placed in 
the pipkin with the oil, «itli cqLial quantities 
of wine and water; then garlic, bacon, salt, 
pepper and herbs are introduced, and this 
most sa\'om'y stew is allowed to simmci", 
stirring it all the time, and carclLdly 
skimming it with a 'n'oodcii spoon. This 

dish, when properly made, is better than 
all the French cookery put together. 

I purposely omitted to mention the 
famous clwurigo (sausage), without which 
no guisado would be perfect, as it deserves 
the honourable mention of a separate 
paragraph. This most succulent and 
savoury of all sausages cannot be prodnced 
in any other country. Fortunately it admits 
of no imitation ; it is an exquisite com- 
pound of all those delicate flavours for 
which the healthy stomach craves ; it is 
the ne plus ultra not only of all sausages 
but of all appetisers. I will not attempt 
to describe how it is made, lest some one 
of my readers might be temptted to try 
his or her hand at making one and miser- 
ably fail. The pig must be of Portuguese 
breed, fed on the acorns abounding in the 
oak forests of Traz-os-iMontes ; the curing 
should be carried out in a Portuguese 
chimney overshadowing a large part of 
the grim kitchen ; the smoke must arise from 
the wood of the cork or oak tree, and, as for 
the rest of the artistic merit it deserves, 
is it not carefully planned and carried out 
b)' the genius of a Lusian cook, tendcira or 
Fazendcira, and b)' her alone? 

Now conies the question of wine, the 
wherewithal to wash down this mar\-ellous 
production of Traz-os-.Montes, for it leaves 
you as thirsty as the parched wastes of 
Alemtejo. I ha\e attempted to desci-ibc a 
IViod \\ hich pre-eminentlv pre-disposcs vou 
for good Avine, and ^^-hcn you have obtained 
this and quenched your thirst you feel 
absolutel)- at peace with all mankind. It 
is owing to this result that I qualify Brillat 
Sa\arin's saying aboxe qiiotcd, because if 
the destiny of the French had depended 
on their culinary kno«iedge Fi-anee \\-OLdd 
ba\c been the most peaceable, instead of 
the most warlike, nation in Furope. I 
think far more depends on the digestion 
of the food; and inasnuicb as \\"c are the 
most linished catci's in the woidd so we 
are the most healthy, prosperous and peace- 


able people. To assist the digestive organs could not, with any justice, apply to all 

nothing can ecjual ^\■ine, and, therefore, Bonifaces. One EngHsh meixhant, 

when the i^nisiulo and tlie chuuriijo iia\e Tliomas W'hitcley, fell into the hands of a 

disappeared it is essential that we shcjuld somewhat needy gang, for thev not onlj- 

have recourse to our reser\'es — the de- took possession (jf his horse, purse iind 

canters filled with a wine of some grand watch, but they also despoileil him of his 

vintage, or, if this be not always possible, clothes, and then, placing him \\ith his 

then \\Q have the more humble I'liilio back against a pine tree and his arms 

tiiaduro or vcrdc, which, on a hot day, is around the ti-unk, they tied his wrists 

more thirst quenching than old port. But together and left him in this awkward 

to thoroughly enjoy it, it should be drunk predicament from which he was released a 

out of tijellas — earthenware bowls, some- few hours later by s(jme passers by. 

what after the style of the Grecian cup. Respecting what we should wear when 

A description of tra\-elling in Portugal travelling in Portugal, my ad\ice is — let us 

would not be complete without inti-oducing try to make ourseh'cs look less hidecjus 

highwaymen who were not Linknown on the than we do at own sea-sides, or when 

road between Oport(j and Regoa ; but they visiting oLir mountain scenery. On 

seldom attacked British merchants, as they referring t(j a guide b(Kjk f(ji- P(jrtugal I 

lived more on levying blackmail on the obser\'e that very detailed instiaictions are 

messengers empl(j)'ed in carrying money to gi\-en as to what the intending ti-a\eller 

the wine country. They were known by should wear, w1iat he should pay foi- a 

the name of vahiitocs (Braves), and their horse, for the attendant, and for his keep; 

system or plan was to charge a percentage also are we regaled with dialogues supposed 

on the amount conducted in return for to be of use to the tra\eller. All these and 

which they guaranteed the safety of the othei" things belong to the past, at least, to 

messenger and the remittance. This per- a very considerable extent. The acquiring 

centage was paid by the recei\'ers, farmei's of peculiar clothing suitable to the 

or river pilots. Not always did our Portuguese climate must ha\e been a 

English merchants get off scot-free, but matter of deep consideration to all 

the loss seldom exceeded a few cvnzados, intending tourists, for no two books agree 

paid more in the shape of a road toll than on the sartorial question. The result was 

in obedience to a threat. Many were the grotesque; s<jme appeared in suits of blue, 

tales told about the notorious Jose do grey, white, oi' black flannel, made as if 

Telhado who infested most of the Northern they intended to take sea baths, while 

roads, and I recollect the chorus of a song others, ^^■ith their black lunettes, Indian 

referring to an encounter between a helmets and gi'een lined white umbrellas, 

merchant and this redoubtable robber, tight-fitting jackets and knee breeches. 

Translated it rims thus; — made one imagine that Don Quixote had 

•■ With his heart-strings in his mouth, and his come to life agtiin and crossed the frontier 

stomach la h,s boots, ,„ ,^,jt <,f hig Dulcinea. But, in matters 

And his body full of fear of the robber— when ' r^ ,• , , ,,■ 

he shoots; sartorial, W'C hnghsh, when travellmg 

Then he shuts his eyes so close, for the deed abroad, have always been peculiar, and 

he would not see, ^^_^_^^,^ j^ ^_^^^ ^^^_^^,|^^ j|_,,-^j_^ ^^^.j,-,^ ^,-, ^^-^-^^ gj^^^,. 

While Telhado, boldly riding says, ' Amigo— 

hand to me.' ' 

larity, is due a great deal of our distinctive 
indi\iduality. This idea is carried to such 
an extent — this fancy for extraordinary 
of the road, but I know that this aspersion dress -that once, in Oporto, I recollect 

It was frequently suggested that the individuality. This idea is carried to such 
innkeepers were in league with these pests an extent — this fancy for extraordinary 



seeing a French Zouave officer in uniform 
wiio was put down immediately by the 
populace as an Enj^lishman on a pleasure 
trip. The Enjj;lish merchant resident in 
Oporto has no such weaknesses ; lie does 
not always -wear a topper, hut he is 
not conspicuous by the ugliness of his 

The Patoleia, or wide-awake hat, was 
the one usually worn by our merchants on 
their way to the Alto Douro. They 
generally carried their Alforjas (Saddle- 
bags) behind the saddle. This \\'ord 
Alforja is, like most commencing with al, 
of Arabic extraction, and is the (// hurcli 
used by the Moors in the Peninsula. E\'en 
in the packing of the saddlebags are 
instructions gi\'en in the old handbooks, 
but now one would ha\'e considerable 
difficulty in finding a pair of them. 
There is one thing an Englishman may 
still be found provided with when in a 
first-class railway carriage bound for the 
Douro, and that is a powder flask or 
pocket pistol, charged, ho\\'e\'er, no longer 
with the rarest produce of Cognac, but 
with whisky. Even the night cap has 
changed. And now, that 1 have touched 
on hand-books, and brand)-, and whisky, 1 
will mention for the amusement of my 
readers acciuaintcd with Latin, or the 
Spanish, or Portuguese, languages, that 
Richard Ford, in his ably written work on 
Spain, traces the origin of the word 
aguardiente, to tooth water. Well, I must 
say on his behalf that 1 haxe tasted some 
fig brandy in the Peninsula that \\-()uld 
burn your teeth away. 

The railway system now connects all 
the principal Portuguese towns, and if 

travelling be only at the rate of fifteen 
miles an hour, at least we have the satis- 
faction of getting plenty for our money. 
There are about 1,500 miles of raih-^-ay 
open for traffic and the carriages are very 
comfortable ; in fact, by some trains every 
luxury, excepting speed, can be obtained. 
Since the perfecting of the railwa)? system 
the macadamised roads are almost impass- 
able, but the hotels have improved very 
much, not only in Lisbon and Oporto but 
also in the interior, and the charges are, 
as a rule, moderate. The traveller, ho\\'- 
e\'er, must be reminded that if he wants 
any fine old port such as he is accustomed 
to get in Londoii, he will be soreh' dis- 
appointed. He can (jnly obtain it at the 
houses of the wine shippei's ; at the hotels it 
is almost unknown, and b)' the a\erage 
consumer would be Lmappreeiated. If the 
tourist would enjoy the beauties of nature 
by exploring our Minho \'alleys and 
Mountains, then he must hire a horse and, 
from his rosiiiante, he \\\\\ be able to under- 
stand the counti'y and its people. There is 
no more beautiful land than the North of 
Portugal, and to see it in its glory the 
months of August and September should 
be chosen. Tra\-el in the early morning 
and late In the afternoon, and rest during 
the heat of the day. A\-oid politics and 
religious discussions, and enjoy the hospi- 
tality of a peasantry that has no equal, 
and the natLU'al grandeur of a coanti-y 
without a i-i\al in all that is SLiblime in 
scenery. And aho\e all lea\'e n'olu- preju- 
dices at home for they are ymu' o\\ii pro- 
perty, and you need be under no fear that 
anyone will despoil you of them during 
^■oLn• absence. 





FTHR consulting many works the Peninsula as any inhabitant at the 
on Portugal, 1 ha\e present day. 

come to the conclusion It concerns us, perhaps, \-ery mucli 

that, so far as the in- more to know the origin of the wine trade 
ti-oducti(jn of the \-ine between Great Britain and Portugal. This 
into that country is is far more ancient than many imagine, 
concerned, little, if any, and can be traced hack to bartering on a 
information is ^•ouch- small scale, at first between the seafaring 
safed. Asia may be men of the two c<Hintries. The Poi'tuguese, 
credited as the (jriginal as the earliest navigators, were decidedly 
habitat of the grape- the originators of our m(jdern commerce, 
vine, but its introduction into Europe As far back as 1497, during the reign of 
is of a very ancient date, and I see no Dom Manoel the " Foitunate," the first 
reason why preference should be assigned king of the House of \'izeu, the Portuguese 
to the Asiatic continent in this matter any from A\-eii-o established their fisheries on 
more than to Europe. One fact, howe\er, the banks of Newfoundland, whence they 
so far as \iticulture in Portugal is con- shipped lai'ge quantities of cod to the 
cerned, seems to me \'ery clear, viz., that British Isles, to Spain, and to the Lexant. 
to the founder of the PortLiguese monarch)' But long before this, in \irtue of a treat)' 
is due the aid which science is able t<j with England made in the reign of 
bring to an)' indListry. It will be remeni- Edwai'd III., in the )'ear 1353. the 
bered that Count Henry of Burgund)' I^ortugLiese fished for cod on the coasts of 
received the Earldom of Portugal fi-oni England, and there is no d<jLibt that the)' 
Alfonso VI. of Leon, in 1095, whose bartered with us. 

daughter, D. Teresa, he married. The Among the comniodities which, be)'ond 

capital of his Earldom was the ancient citv cod-fish, the Portuguese ware able to offer 
of Leobriga, no-w known as Guimaraens. in exchange for oiu- manufactures, was 
The earliest record of cultivating the \ine wine, which at first was brought o\'er in 
in Portugal refers back t(j the rule of this their ships for their own consumption in 
doughty BLU'gundian, who introduced into skins and in small casks. Thus were 
his territory \'ine plants from Burgund)'. Portugal Wines first introduced to u'-, 
Froni this fact niany infer that the probabl)- not in their present form of Port 
grape-\'ine was unknown in Portugal up Wine, but more after the st)'le of the green 
to that period, but this deduction is cer- or eager wines, viiilm vcvdc, still con- 
tainly not in harmony with what may be sumed b)' the people. 

inferred from the writings of Seneca and From SLich small beginnings have most 

Pliny, who were as well acc|uainted with trades sprung, and long before English 




supercargoes and factors were known in 
the North of Portugal, the fishers of cod 
had been engaged indirectly in introducing 
into England the various prcxiuce of Minho 
in particular, and possibly of other pro- 
\'inces in general. We ha\'e never been 
slow to discoN'cr profitable fields for oiu' 
commercial propensities. If \\e, as a 
nation, do not hold first rank among the 
early navigators, at least we have known 
how to apply the discovery of others to 
practical purposes, and in this fixed intent 
lies the genius of the British people. W'hen 
others were content with the glorious halo 
produced by their deeds, we were studying 
to profit by them ; and, when later these 
nations \\'ere satisfied with the historical 
importance of being the first in the field, 
we were already inaugurating the era of 
protesting against monopolies. To these 
monopolies, the mammoth parents of pro- 
tectionist ideas, are due the downfall of 
Spain more than to anything else. Her 
notions of liberty were confined to very 
ephemeral ideas as to the rights of man : 
to a theory \\-hich was even more -^apid 
than her pi-osperit)', and which ended by 
bringing on herself, sooner than she 
expected, the e\ils of self-inflicted 

How different was the feeling per\ading 
the English people ; how further-seeing 
their aspirations ; how more decided their 
policy ! The theoretical ideas of the 
French school as to the rights of man 
were ncjt taken into consideration by the 
English when the)' first protested against 
the usiu-pations of their ci\il I'ights by 
,lohn ; it was something far more solid 
than a theory, it was unaccompanied by 
bloodshctl ; it was a practical ending to 
the cogitations of an cminenth' practical 
people. The_\- wantei.1 no more than their 
rights — they would ,i;i\c to Caesar what 
was his due, Init no more. And from that 
time up to the r-eign of Charles I. they 
were, as the\- still are, /.ealoLis df then- 

rights and privileges. Then it was that 
their protest against mcjnopolies became 
more accentuated, and while other nati(jns 
were groaning under unjust measures, the 
English shook off the trammels that 
fettered trade, and initiated the develop- 
ment of that commercial genius ^^■l^ich is 
peculiarl)' theii- own. 

1 refer to this period leading me up to 
the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell, under 
\\ hose rule the first English Consul \^as 
appointed with jurisdiction over Oporto, 
\iz., Thomas Maynard, in 1659, his bi'other 
Walter being Vice-Consul, residing in 
Oporto. We read that in 1578 the Portu- 
guese had fift)' vessels engaged in the 
Newfoundland fisheries, while England 
only had thirty. The P(jrtuguese had 
e^•erything in their favour for the curing of 
fish, as their salt is, e\'en to this day, 
considered to be the best for the purpose. 
But they gradually lost the trade, not 
because of any greater facilities offered to 
the English fishermen, butthat we surpassed 
them in the curing of the fish, in that very 
matter where they themselves should have 
excelled. This fact the Portuguese con- 
sumer was not slow to recognise; so much 
so that English-cured codfish realised a 
halfpenny more per pound than that cured 
by the PortLiguese. This trade, \\-hich was 
once exclusively theirs, is no\\- in the hands 
of the English, the Norwegians, and the 
S\\ edes. 

The fishermen of Espinho, 0\ar and 
A\-eiro are undoubtedly of Phtrnician 
descent. Their dress and their boats arc 
dilfcrent from those of the rest of the 
country, the latter bcin;^ like lai'gc canoes 
with a hi^h prow, somewhat similar to a 

In winter they wear a long cloak made 
of a brown homespLui cloth, with a peaked 
hood to it, and this is called a f^til>,h>. In 
sunnner their garments consist of a paii- of 
very shiirt coarse linen drawers and a shirt 
of the same material ; round the waist the\- 


display a blue or red woollen sash, and a the characteristic features of the Gotii. 

cap, gracefully falling down one side of the At some of the intei-mediate poi'ts such as 

face. These men are never seen walking — F;i7), Kspozende, and \'illa do Conde, the 

they always run, and so do the women, fishing boats are \-ery seldom painted all 

when selling sardines in the streets of o\-er, but bear mystic signs and symbols 

(Jpt^rto. Strange to say, they seldom \ery much resembling those of Free- 

intermarry with people from other districts, mas(jnry. 1 have never been able to gather 

and they have a peculiar sing-song way of from these men any informati(jn as to the 

speaking the language which is not abso- origin or meaning of these signs ; they are 

lately unpleasant. These are the most probabl_\- used as charms against e\il 

stalwart and active fishermen on the whole spirits, etc. 

coast. They work in cdiiipniihas, or gangs. It was, howe\'cr, from Vianna do Castello 

and their b(jats are generally the pr(jpe]'ty that the Hrst shipments of Poi'tugal red 

of a private indi\idual, \\-hose return for wines were made, when a Company existed 

capital expended is one-half of every haul, at .Moiicm for regulating the exportation. 

the owner of the net gets one-fourth of the The wines of .Moucckj and \'ianna are, when 

haul, and the crew the remaining fourth judiciously treated, very similai- to those 

part. Under such precarious conditions of Burgundy. I ha\'e paid 7s. for a quart 

these fishermen are content to work hard bottle (jf sparkling BLu-gund_\- which was 

and brave the dangers of the sea. Ti'ue, not so good as « hat I have obtained for 

there have been plenty of Banks for the as man)- pence in \'ianna. The conditions 

protection of native industi'ies, but the imder which this wine is prcxluced ai'e 

farmers and fishermen of I-'ortugal ha\'e xerj- different from those pre\ailing in the 

not profited to any appreciable extent by Alto Doin-o. In the first place, the com- 

them. These institutions ha\'e been con- position of the soil is not the same, and 

ducted on the principle of finding empkjy- the next important pcjint is that the geo- 

ment for the friends and relati\-es of the logical formation is as unlike that of Ti-az- 

large shareholders, and discounting the os-AIontes as the pasture lands of England 

bills of the Directors and their friends. are unlike the sandy plains of the Sahara. 

But the troubles (jf the fisherman do not Then, again, the culti\-ation of the wine 
end here ; after paying away three-fourths in the two districts differs m(jst materially 
of his hauls he is called upon to contribute as well as the making of the wine. The 
a certain percentage of the fish to«-ards the Alt(j-D(juro district is essentially and almost 
maintenance of the State; and this tax is absolutely a wine-pnjducing c(juntr)-. If 
levied in kind. At each harbour an officer its \ineyards disappeared, its lofty hills 
of the fiscal authorities awaits the incoming would be left bare. The northern part of 
boats and witnesses the counting of the the province of Minho is a grain-pro- 
fish. This officer is termed a Mrilsiiii or ducing country, and -the \-ine is only an 
informer by the people, and I believe the adjunct to the farmer's principal source of 
word, as well as the employment, to be of re\enuc. 
Moorish origin. Before 1678 all the red wines from the 

These men of Aveiro are the descendants North of Portugal were shipped, as I said 

of the mariners from Portugal who first before, from Vianna do Castello, and up 

fished and traded on our coasts. Further to about 1730 considerable quantities were 

North, between Oporto and Vianna do still exported from there. It must be 

Castello, a totally different stamp of recollected that in those early days the 

fisherman is to be found, manj- with all British shippers did not ascend the DoLiro 



to buy wine, but the farmers came to 
Oporto to oLir countrymen who were resi- 
dent there as factors representini; mer- 
chants in Bnuland and Scotland. These 
factors first established themsch'es at 
Monc;ab, on the banks of the Minho, and 
the region from which they bought entitled 
all wines produced therein to be classified 
as factory wines. In connection with 
this important branch of commerce, it 
must be I'emembered that red Portugal 
Wine came more into vogue in England 
owing to the famous Alethuen treaty which 
was signed on the 27th of December, 1703. 
The Right Hon. John Methuen «'as sent 
to Lisbon by the Whig xMinistry with full 
powers to negotiate a political and com- 
mercial treaty with Portugal. Owing to 
this treaty the Portuguese Wines were 
imported into England at a lower dut)' 
than those from France and Germany ; 
and the Portuguese, in exchange for this 
fa\'our undertook to buy our manufactured 
goods. Prom this time forward l-^ort 
Wine became a fav(nn-ite drink in England, 
and business in Oporto and N'ianna 
increased very considerablj-. These f-Sritish 
factors did not only trade in \\'ine, espe- 
cially so after the said treaty came into 
eff^ect. In most of the old inv(^ices I ha\e 
been able to unearth reference is made to 
bales of cotton goods, and, in fact, the 
Port Wine shipping business as it is now- 
conducted bears no similarity to that of 
200 years ago. 

The factors charged a commission on 
their account sales and another on their 
invoices f)f wine shipped. They receixed 
orders to bu}' so man)' pipes of Dolu-o, or 
X'ianna Wine, up to a certain price which 
the)' cndeavoui'ed to execLite to the best 
of their power, and then the)' drew for the 
amoLuit of the in\'oice thi'ough the 
uba|uitous and obliging .Jewish bankers. 
In these inxoices the cost of the sta\es, 
iron hoops, etc., was chart^cd, and the 
pipes were made b)- I-'nglish coopers, 

who taught the Portuguese how to put 
them up. 

But before these factors established 
themselves in the North of Portugal 
^'essels trading between England and her 
possessions in North America used to call 
at Vianna on the way home, and the 
supercargoes, i.\ho were the travelling 
clerks of important firms holding very 
often ships and large estates in America, 
would barter a nigger foi- a pipe or two of 
\\'ine, and it is on record that these slaves 
A\ere held by the English merchants in 
Oporto and Vianna, as I ha\e before me 
their baptismal and marriage certificates. 
Many of these supercargoes, it would 
seem, eventually became factors, and 
commenced making shipments direct to 
their principals. From \'ianna do 

Castello some wines fit for bottling were 
exported, hut I find that " Eager wine," 
or J'iiilio W'l'dc was principall)' shipped 
from there. Of this latter ciuality large 
ciuantities were supplied to the British 
Na\'al Commissioners as " be\'erage for 
the sailors." And in the State papers of 
10th February, 1662, the following entry 
appears : — 

Consul I\la\"nard to the Na\\" Commissioners. 
Has sent liis bills for bexerage Wines for tlie 
Na\'v. Asl\S an order to dispose of the remaining 
Wines, which are spoiling. 

In course of years the exports of N\'ine 
from the Proxince of Minho ceased 
because that from the Doin-o region was 
preferred ; fL(rthermore, manx' of the 
Alinho \ines succunibed to a disease of 
which we ha\e no details. Who the fii'st 
Englishman was to visit N'ianna I cannot 
find out, but it was a place of importance 
seeini^ that we had a Consul there in the 
scNcnteenth centiir\'. It is asserted on 
apparcntl)' good authorit)' that Peter 
I'jcarsley was the pioneer to penetrate the 
Douro; be was tlie son of Job Bearsley, 
one of the earliest arri\als in \'ianiia. 
The following correspondence proxes 



beyond a doubt that our ancestors 
established themselves there before }4oini» 
to Oporto. The writer sailed from Li\er- 
pool in 1703, just after the death of 
William III., and his sorrowful and 
exciting experiences on his \oyage to 
Vianna are most decidedly worthy of 
chnjnicling. The letters are addressed to 
the young gentleman's father, \\ ho resided 
at Kettering. 

\'|AXA, 27th JJec., 170J. 
Dr. Sir, 

After bidding you farewell at Liverpool on bord 
the brig " Bonaventure," John Smalls master, we 
fell in with \'ery bad weather out.side ye river and 
I was fain to lie down, beinj; very sick. The 
master had not thought to see land again, the gale 
being so severe, but by the Providence ol God we 
ankired in Holyhead, and J was joyfull that ye 
\\aves could no longer molest us. Master Dowker 
who had already made the journey as well as 
Mister Peak did say, that more awfuU wether 
could not be. Ye storm raged furously for ye 
space of ten dayes, when ye shippe put to sea 
once more ye wind blowing fresh from ye north- 
west. Again was I ill, but Mister Smith, \'e mate, 
he bade me be of good cheer for that ye shippe 
was well built and rightwel laden being not too 
much at ye bow. When we were in PJiscay we 
did see a brigg with short sails as if coming 
against us. Our skiper not liking ye look of 3-6 
stranger, took a more westerly course, ye wind 
being more north, and att ye same time as we did 
cros her bows a shot sudently fired from ye brigg 
did bring down our formast, which did in fallin 
kill three marrineers. Ye brigg's bote pott of and 
horded us. Y'e officer told us in English we were 
his prisoners and that he would take charge and 
make for Sherburg. Our skiper had opened the 
case of wine you gave him and he was not steddie 
for some time, but when he did get better he was 
much taken aback at his losse. On the 28th we 
were in ye English Chanell, when just olT ye 
French coste we spide a shippe, 3'e " yielpomene," 
under English letters of marque, and again we 
were free, but Mr. Smalls did complain that ye 
prize money would be great. Thick wether had 
we until we made Falmouth for repares and 
stepped a new mast. In ye towne I met Mister 
Jno. Fox, ye wine merchant, and att his house to 
dine Sunday. Ye bay was free from privateers 
inasmuch as none did molest us, and on ye morng. 
of ye 2ist we made Finisteer and saw ye English 
fleet under Sir Cloudsley Shovell. Ye winds 

being co.itrary, and ha\ing lost 2 men for the 
Queen's service, being impressed by ye admirall 
we made further west, and on Christmas day 
arri\-ed here, \\here Mr. Job Bereslie, an English 
merchant, together with Mr. Christopher Battersbw 
ye Consul did welcome us. I called on ilr. 
Bradley with letter from you, and on ye Sunday 
had diner with him ; after that \"e Clerg)-man had 
read the service. After diner some Portugal 
Cockrels did engage in batel, ye Minister direct- 
ing, and then ye older gentlemen did playe att 
cards and sipp wine. I comend to }0U ye barer 
of these, Mr. Dissoulerie, master of ye Jersie 
brigg " Benaime," and with all my dutis to you, 
Your obedient son, 

The next lettei" is not less important as 
it gives us an insight into English life at 
\'ianna and Oporto in those days :--- 

ViAN.\, 2jrd Jan., 1704. 
Dr Sir, 

Since my last, with my duty^ to you, I ha\'e 
been in ye wine country at ilonson with our good 
friends. Ye last cropp was not so good as was 
expected, but ye number of casks will not be smal. 
Ye price regulates 15 meel-reas per pipe of 144 
gallons. .\tt Mellgassy ye vines have not yelded 
well, but at Validars ye quality is excellent. Att 
Monson we al dined att Mr. B's and he did showe 
me soiTie wine such as I had not yet sipped. Ye 
English cupers are a drunken lott, but ve natives 
now know how to make casks. This town is a 
military poste, but the robers are not afeered. 
Ye houses are good and cheap, but ye ins are very 
bad and ful of thievs and ^■aggrents. 
With my dutis to you, 

Y'our obedient Son, 


In the following letter we ha\e a graphic 
account of a .journey from \'ianna to 

Oporto : — 

O Porto, 

10 Setr., 1704. 
Dr. Sir, 

Hopiing these may find you in ) e blessing 
of health, I now write to say that after many 
troubles I am now with your friend, Mister Page 
in ye Ruo Nuovo, who has two smal children. 
From \"iana I came in ye compagny of Mister 
Samuel Foster and Mister Montgomery, both of 
ni}' own a,ge or thereabouts. We bestrode mules, 
with awkward straw stufd sadles, and with us 
came 3 murderous looking men to beat our mules. 
In a flat bote we crossed ye ri\"er and landed at 
Darkee, where yiisler Foster's father hath his 


wine stalls as well as on t'other side. We then with that courtesy natural to the Castilian 
made for ye harder sand near ye sea where there aentleman, treated his fair prisoners and 

their brothers-in-arms \vith the greatest 
consideration, and told his men to learn 

is abunt^lance of wild pigeons, our guides yt \vhile 
using iTiuch noise and man\' othes to keep ye 
starv'd mules agoing, but wlrcn we were as half- 
way between Viana and Fon my mule did roll with from the Portuguese how to defend a 
me, and shortly it .vas disco\er'd she was dead, so town. X'alladares is tiTe next place 
ye rest on foot. At Fon I procured a horse from mentioned ; it is nearly t\\-(j hours' ride 

ye Priest which did kick for reason of ye flies, but ,■ i,t — i ^ ^ r i .ui 

. -. ' from Aloncao, but strangely enough, the 

he \vas not il fed. It was cttir intention to stay . ' 

■ , , , ,7 II , 1 t -^ t , distance is reckoned to be one league. 

over ye night at Viliadecon, luit it was not so to " 

be, for G 'arm'd men did stop us in ve Iving's Melgassy is Melgaco, the most Northern 

name, and examin'd our pockets, taking all we t(jwn in the Kingdom; it is n(jw celebrated 

had ; our guides running away at first sight of for its hams, but it has the honour of 

them. Of our clothes, they took all but our long |^^.j,^,, ^|^^, ^j.^^^ ^^.^^^^,^ ^^^^ Standard of 

coats and hats, and then tied each one to a tree . . , „ ■ , , ■ , 

.,, , . , u- J ■ , • , r. independence was hrst raised during the 

wnth his arms benina in which sorr}- plite we were ^ . . . 

fam to spend ye night until ye next morning, French invasion m 1808. 

wdien our 3 rascalls, coming by as if b\- chance. In describing his journej' to Oporto, our 

cutt ye cords and we were again free. Att ancient correspondent speaks of crossing 

Viliadecon our countryman ^fister Herault, who the river Lima to a small place called 

there resides for a season, did lend us some r\ i 1 1 ■ t 1 , ■,. .. 

, ,, I J 1, I • f 1 t ^ , 1, 1 Uarkee, by which he means a beautifully 

clothes, but he being of short stature we had ■' ■' 

difficulty in walking. Ahso he had lent us monie situated village on the South bank, the 

and provided 3 sma! horses and thus to O Porto proper name of ^\"hich is Darque. The 

partly by an old rode with lovely fruit trees and main road to Barcellos winds past this 

grapes on either side. There be many of Lord village and over the hill called the Penedo 

Galwa\-'s men interfering with passengers. i t i ~ 1 ■■,-., 

r, T>' . ■ V, 1 ,1 T-- 1 '-'" f-adrao, but otir excursionist followed 

O forto IS much larger than \ lana, and 

here are more English and Scotch families Ye ^""^ '^"''^'^'^ '"""^ ^* ^'^'" '^* P'^~J '^^"'-^ Espozende. 

wine of the r)uro is much praised by Mister I n referring to the soldiers of Lord Gah-\-a\', 

Harris and olhers. Of the langwidge I know but 1 would remind my readers that, in 1704, 

little, the servants being mostly blacks from Henry de Ruvignv,' Lord Galwav. at the 

America who s->eak Englisli. , , ,- , ,-, ,^/,,^ 

head of about 8,000 men and assisted by 

With my duty to you, ^i »>r ■ j »!■ , , , T 

,. , ,: , the iMarquis de Minas ad\anced through 

\r.ur obedient son, at 1 ■ 

THOAI.VS WOOn^IA&S. iMinho and seized on \'alenca and 

Salvaterra. By X'illadocon is meant \'illa 

It is just as well that 1 should glx'e the do Condc. 
correct names of the places mentioned by The next letter I have selected from a 

Mr. Thomas Woodmass in his letter to voluminous correspondence seems to 

his father. Of course, we all know that anticipate trouble from Portuguese intcr- 

Viana is Vianna do Castello, which in the fcrcnce with English wine lodges:— 
days of the Roman Empire was known as 
Nementanobriga. The town which he __ '•-' T^kto, 19 Xo\r., 1704. 

calls Monson is Moncali, on the frontier, " .' 

. . . . tMuco mv last respects to \-ou I ha\e seen 

tamotis tor Its heroic resistance, in l(io8, Mici,,,- t ,,-. ,,„rrr^„,,i ,, tt . ■ , 

' luisiei Ix'C, out consul, at a small la\-ern in the 

to the Spaniards under the .Marc|uis de Puo \novo. with rognnl to ve wav in which ve 

Vianna. It was to a wry considerable authnriiics unukl deal with our trade INIistcr 

extent defended by the women under the ''''*-' ^-"^y^ ''i'"'^<^ 's had feeling against us, inasmuch 

cmmand of Helena Pires, and only •;^^ ^^ P""^''!^'-^"™'--" '^f v^' -~™n'>-v's ,n our hand, 

. ■ liiit that ye treaties ol commerce are in our fa\-our 

capituUited alter all the cats, rats, and , ,„ ,,,,1,.,,,., , ., 

' Among tlie 1 ortuguese there is a desire to have 

mice had been eaten. The Marquis, control of our lodges, so that we should have to 



bribe ye oficials in order to do lousiness. Ye 
farmers seem honest enough but ye Customs men 
are a bad class, and I fear me would soon destroy 
our trade. There is much talk about the Govern- 
ment raising a heavy tax on us, and by all 
accompts they will not be saptisfied until they 
have driven us out of ye country. With this I 
send you my diary to Ragoa with Mister Stert. 
With my humble duty. 

Your obedient son, 


O I'oRTo, 25 Set., 1704. 

Att 7 in ye morn'!' started on horse back with 
Mister Sttrt for Ragoa. Ye inhabitants throw all 
ye refuse into ye streets, which are not paved and 
ye stench is very bad. On leaving ye city we 
foUow'd a path thro beautiful scenery until we 
reached Valongo, a village of noisy bakers and 
lankee pigs. Our horses did have a porridge of 
wine and brown bread and once more on our \va)" 
troubl'd by dust and flies untill we made Penafiel, 
Here we stay'd for ye night sleeping on ye tables 
for reason of ye insects. 

Pen.vfiel, 26 Set., 1704. 

This is a small town in a pretty position on 
St. Catherine's Mount. There is but one street 
full of beggars and monks. After ye space of 
I hour we came to Ucanha, where we overtook 
3 English Merchants to wit. Mister John Clark, 
Mister Phayre and Mister Pratt, who had slept 
overnight at Penafiel, and had thought to evade 
us, but that one of their horses cast a shoe and 
had to be led. Att Villa Mea we alldin'd together 
in a kitchen, where ye cook with a long knife cut 
off ye head of a cock and then pluck'd him. Ye 
food was \'iIlanious and )'e \vine \-ery sour, but we 
were hungry. After dinner we pass'd through 
Pidre where we first sighted orange gro\es. 
There ye rode is \ery steep. From here we saw 
Amarante where we had supper, and stay'd ye 
night. There is a fine bridge here built by St. 
Anthony over ye ri\er Tamega. 

27 Setr., 1704. 

In the morns- we started for Quintella and 
thence to Meza"bfrio. . . . (some pages are 
missing at this point). 

30 Setr., 1704. 

Ye heat is so great that breathing is dificult. 
Wine is at 13 millreas ye pipe, but of this vintage 
there will not be abundance. Today dined with 
Mr. Campion here on business. Tomorrow with 
your old friend J. H. and some more f.^etters 

from O Porto ; I regret our apprentice is dead and 
was buried in ye sand at low tide. Jlr. Stert is 
sick from ague, but thank God I keep well. The 
Cupers are here and at work. I have spent up to 
now equal to Three pounds seventeen shillings 

I have, in the above diary, spelt the names 
of the places cori-ectly, so as to avoid 
repetition ; and this in no way detracts 
fi'om tine \'alue of tlie document as fi.xing 
the dates ^\•hen certain of our merchants 
were in residence in Oporto and Vianna. 
As the copying and deciphering of these 
letters is considerably tedious and uncalled 
for, I \\\\\ give the substance of them as 
succinctly as possible. Mr. Thomas Wood- 
mass speaks of factoi'y \\-ines at MoncdTj 
but not of dinners, and infers that there 
was a sort of club or tavern. When Lord 
Galway arrived at Vianna he was well 
received by the English merchants, 
although he was a Frenchman in command 
of British troops. These men gave great 
trouble to the authorities, as they \\-ere 
very hungry and thirsty. Complaint was 
made that they became uninvited guests 
at the wine stores, and drank so much 
that there was danger of an attack by the 

The majority of the men were cjuartd'ed 
in the castle o\'erlooking the bar, which 
castle was built in the reign of Philip II. 
On the parade ground many casks of wine 
were opened for the refi'eshment of the 
soldiers, and b)- night time "the reign of 
disorder became so acute," to quote fr(jm 
my historian, that the merchants retii'ed to 
their houses. 

The meeting place or 'Change-street of 
the English at Vianna was on the quay, 
but the ships lay on the opposite side. 
There is no doubt that some of the old 
houses still standing in Vianna were built 
by our countr3'men, as Mr. Woodmass 
refers to a " house build't by Mr. Page 
facing the river." 

Of vinej^ards, such as «e understand 
them now, there was none in that district. 



The vines were trained on trees growing 
round coi'n fields, and tlie farmers seldom 
liad more than five pipes to sell. 1 observe 
that, as a rule, cash was paid for the wine 
or the equivalent in cotton goods. \'ianna 
was the principal port for the importation 
of codfish from S. John's, Newfoundland, 
in fact, it was almost of more importance 
to the English than Oporto. The English 
communitj' at Vianna, though not \'er3' 
numerous, was important ; hut before the 
middle of last ccntiu-y there were not more 
than half a dozen English families left in the 
place. When we consider that this corres- 
pondence was written 105 ^'ears before 
the l^eninsular war, and that the Poi-t 
Wine trade was even then an established 
institution, we are able to appreciate at its 
true value the history of our ancestors in 
Portugal. The first charter of pri\-ileges 
was granted, as I have previously stated, 
in the reign of our Edward III. ; but it \\'as 
in Cromwell's time that the State papers 

became of great interest to us. In one of 
these the Lord Protector instructs Colonel 
Popham, his representati\'e at Lisbon, 
to assure the King of Portugal of his 
anxiet)' to preser\'e the ancient alliance, 
but that if certain English merchants were 
not immediately set at liberty, and a 
reasonable recompense gi\en them for 
their \'iolent detention, then the fleet was to 
be removed from the Bay of Wej'res 
(Oeiras) and Lisbon attacked until " the 
King, our dear alii, acknowledge our claim." 
Colonel Popham, foi'tunately, did not 
require the fleet. 

It was decidedh- during the Protectorate 
of 01i\-er Cromwell that the English in 
Oporto and Vianna were most successfLd. 
In the State papers, to which I ha\e 
already referred, the character of the Lord 
Protector is almost photographed. He 
seems to have fathomed Portuguese com- 
mercial genius deeper than the present 
generation can. 

'5: ,'..^-^^K,j^ 





ANY writers on Portugal 
affirm that less is known 
about the Portuguese 
than of any other 
European people, but 
v\ if I am to judge by 
what some authors 
have written about 
the Dutch, Spaniards, 
Italians and other 
nationalities, 1 do not think that the 
Portuguese have been more misrepresented 
or are less known than these. It is 
always difficult to arrive at a just 
estimate of a foreign people, because 
we cannot always feel as they feel, act as 
they act, or remain inactive as they do 
when confronted by imminent dangers. 
Then, again, it is vei-y often the case that 
the writer, in describing the characteristics 
and customs of a foreign people, has only 
made himself acquainted with the inhabi- 
tants of that part of the country which 
convenience, or climate, may have recom- 
mended to him as the place in which to 
fix his residence. Lord Byron speaks 
disparagingly of the Portuguese, but at 
the time he wrote his " Childe Harold" he 
might, with almost as much justice, have 
referred to the want of cleanliness in the 
towns of his native country. It is, as I 
have already said, a difficult task to sit in 
judgment on a whole people and offer to 
the world a summing up that shall neither 
err by its fear of offending, nor by an 
intemperate desire to please. 

The Portuguese are as different from 
their neighbours, the Spaniards, as we are 
from the Japanese, in dress, food, thought, 
song, construction of houses, &c., and 
only like them in religion. The two 
languages differ as widely from each other 
as French from Italian ; their bull-fights 
are not alike, their temperaments are dis- 
similar, and, as the wine of the Douro is 
more generous than that of Xerez, so 
are the Portuguese more demonstrati\-e 
and sincere in their hospitality than the 
Spaniards. The latter requii'e a great 
deal more kn(jwing ; the former almost 
carry their hearts in their hands. I speak 
of the masses of the people more than of 
the classes ; of the peasantry even more 
than of the shop-keepers. They are 
honest, sober and hard-working; they are 
patient under soi'e vexations ; they are 
pre-eminently thrifty, without in any way 
being mean, and, although they farm their 
lands on the system which obtained 
in the days of Pharaoh, they get a more 
abundant return for their labour than 
the agriculturists (jf countries where 
modern science is supposed to have come 
to the assistance of husbandry. As then- 
ancestors ploughed, so they plough; as 
they drew water for their fields by the 
ancient ii<n;i, so they do ; nothing has 
changed but their political position, which 
guarantees greater liberty of action. 

The Portuguese, as compared with other 
nationalities, are more creditably repre- 
sented by their peasantry than by their 




middle and upper classes. Especially is 
this the case in the province of Minho, 
the garden of Portugal, and by some 
described as the paradise of Europe. The 
district of Maia is peculiarly favoured by 
nature ; the fields are well cultivated and 
yield well, and the people are very indus- 
trious. Nearly all of them own a small 
plot of freehold ground and a cottage. 
The women spin and weave, attend to the 
poultry, cook, wash, and sing all the time ; 
the men, during the week, live in Oporto, 
or Braga, and work as stonemasons, car- 
pentei's, or bricklayers. Excepting death, 
nothing seems to interfere with their 
domestic felicity; they look upon illness 
in a most Christian-like spirit, and when 
their children die, during infancy, they are 
not only resigned but cheerful, as they feel 
confident that 

" There is beyond the sk)- a Heaven of joy and 
" And little children when they die go to that 
world above." 

Let us imagine a country road between 
fields of Indian corn, among which the 
quail are raising their cheerful notes; 
lindens, oaks, larch, elms and pines skirt 
these golden tinted fields, and from the 
branches of the trees bang clustering 
bunches of purple grapes. The yellow 
melon and green water melon festoon the 
banks of a faii-y-like rivulet where the 
oxen are slaking their thirst, and the 
I'Lidely built walls of stone are completely 
hidden by the elder tree, ivy and dog-rose. 

Just beyond, where you see that white- 
washed cottage with red tile roofing, close 
to the cane-brake where the dark green of 
the olive and orange trees hlends most 
perfectly with the lighter gr-ecn of the 
cherry and apple trees —the scene suggests 
all that is idyllic, and the poem is not 
wanting. Across the field of maize, guitar 
in one hand and quarter-staff in the other, 
comes a suitor for the hand of the lowly 
born, but kjvely, daughter of the cottager. 

His white shirt is too good to be hidden by 
his jacket which he carries over his 
shoulders ; his clogs are covered with 
velvet and soled with orange wood ; his 
waist-band is of many colours, among 
which scarlet predominates. She has 
seen him, and awaits him under a wide- 
spreading elm. The salutation is more or 
less after the following style : — 

FIe : " I bring you this bunch of flowers, 
Not for what they are worth - 

She : I accept them, for God's showers 

Made them spring from His earth." 

It is really wonderful to hear them 
rh)-me, and tell the old, old tale over again 
in language more or less new. Once I had 
an opportunity of taking down a dialogue 
in verse between two lovers, who are 
generally termed Manoel and Maria, as 
ours are known as 'Arry and 'Arriett. The 
verses lose immensely by translation, but 
even so I have no hesitation in offering 
them as an addition to the very small 
collection of Portuguese peasant lore : — 

He : As the roses love the dew 

That at night-time falls around. 
So thy smiles my lo\e renew. 
So with joy my heart is bound. 

She : Dew but falls in suninier time, 

Comes the frost of winter soon ; 
Thus will change thy love and rhvme, 
Thus will change thy present tune. 

He : As the green wine slakes the thirst, 
As the lemon cools the brain. 
So thy kisses were the first 
That relie\'ed me of my pain. 

She : Pretty words are like the breezes. 
Quickly corae and soon departed, 
First 'tis warm and then it freezes, 
Woman's love is more deep-hearted. 

He ; In mv garden there's a rose 

That I've tended day bv day ; 
It alone my secret knows 

When I'm sad and when I'm gay. 

She : In my garden there are heart's ease, 
Primi-ose, marjoram and daisy, 
Creeping i\-y on the high trees, 
And the myrtle all a-niazv. 



He : Round my window there are roses, 
White and pink and lilac flowers ; 
Round my heart thy thought reposes 
In the day and midnij^ht hours. 

She : Once I gave a nose-gay, smelling 

Sweet with all the blooms of spring ; 
Every bloom a promise telling, 
But no premise did it bring. 

He ; Faded are the flowers, but living 
Is the hope they brought to me ; 
Strong is still the scent they're giving 
As the faith I have in thee. 

The origin of the airs to which they 
chant these extempore rhymes I do not 
pretend to know. The word " air " hardly 
conveys to the Englisli mind what the 
music of the Minho peasantry is ; heard 
from a distance it becomes monotonous, 
but, as the singer approaches and you hear 
the words, the effect is pleasant to the ear, 
while the rhymes, if not always good, are 
often amusing. This music must not in 
any way be confounded with that of the 
" fndo repertoire,'" which, in my humble 
opinion, if not very elaborate, is decidedly 
artistic, and seems to bear the impress of 
Oriental harmony of such remote antiquity, 
however, that I will not attempt to trace 
its history. The instruments also are 
different, but though I prefer the "fiulo " 
as rendered by the Coimbra 'Varsity men 
to the inartistic strumming of the peasantry, 
I must admit that the native poetry of the 
latter entitles them to a high place among 
impromptu versifiers. But there is no 
country of any repute without its songs in 
praise of fair women and good wine ; in 
fact, it would be impossible to imagine a 
people «'ith the very slightest pretension 
to a place in the history of literature 
without a poet who had sung of love 
coupled with generous wine. 

The Germans are, perhaps, the foremost 
among modern nationalities in their wine 
lore and song ; then come the French, the 
Italians and the Spaniards. The Portu- 
guese are not in the running ; they have 

some wine songs, but they compose no 
more ; they have almost forgotten those 
which they possess. The Portuguese 
troubadour sings only of love ; he knows 
no other theme; he drinks inspiration 
from the dark-eyed beauties of his native 
land. Now and again he descends t<j 
politics, but he no longer rises to the 
praise oi the richest product of Lusi- 
tania ; he drinks wine, but it does not 
inspire him with thoughts of all that is 
beautiful and good. He has, in this sense, 
sadly fallen off from the position among 
poets he might have occupied. 

The journalists in Portugal preserve the 
good old custom of electing a president 
every year f<jr the Ckib de S. Martinho. 
On the eve of S. Martin's day many of 
the members of the journalistic profession 
meet at some tavern to appoint a president 
for the ensuing year. In my time these 
meetings were held in a tavern situate on 
the right hand side of the Rua de D. 
Pedro. Editors, sub-editors and reporters 
met about ten o'clock at night, when all the 
glasses being fully charged, the retiring 
president declared the meeting duly open. 
Then commenced the speeches, which in 
most cases were very amusing, generally 
with a tendency to compare the warmth 
afforded by wine with that engendered by 
a stout cloak, such as S. Martin distri- 
buted among the beggars. The first 
speaker proposed the name of some 
colleague as the future president, which, 
bein<J ably seconded, was carried neiii. con., 
and then the newly-elected president had 
to aarnish the table with half-quarterns of 
wine in order to propose the health of 
<5enerous S. iMartin with all the usual 
honours. Although journalists are pro- 
verbially poor they are notoriously dry, 
or, as a Spanish adage hath it — 
El vino y la mujer 
Hacen un hombre beber. 

Naturally on these festive occasions song 
follows wine, and many a merry tale is told. 



The Portuguese, as a rule, are good racon- 
teurs, liut they are verj' prone to prefer 
stories imported from France to their own. 
On one occasion a colleague, whose con- 
sumption of \'\'ine in one day exceeded 
what he ^\■ould use of ink in ten years, 
ha\'ing arrived at that pitch of animation 
when a man suddenly acquires a know- 
ledge of all languages and forgets his own, 
started addressing us in Castilian, and 
inquired why a man under the influence of 
drink is like a fair woman ? We gave it 
up, and then he told us, Porqiie cs uii 
cute di-viiid, which, being literallj' trans- 
lated, is Because he is a being di-viuc (of 

We had on our staff of the jfonud do 
Porto a reporter who was a king among 
merry companions ; he was only ten }-ears 
yoimger than his mother, a Brazilian, hut 
looked ten j'cars older. He was a lioii 
coiii/^iif^'iioii, de\-oted to Bacchus and never 
troLibled with head-ache ; but, alas, he has 
long since been dead. He was one of the 
^•cry few Portuguese that ever attempted 
to sing a Bacchanalian song, but until he 
had taken his (/noiit. suff., which was about 
as mLich as would have obfuscated six 
honester men, he M"(nild never attempt to 
^\■aken up the echoes in the well-stocked 
iiniKi'jciii. His voice, when he was sober, 
was not particularly pleasant, but when 
the l/ntii uiifund was full there was some- 
thing terrible about it. It reminded j'oli 
of nothing in particular, but of e\erything 
harsh-sounding in general. If every 
Englishman were, however, to consume 
as much Port Wine as Mazambomba, 
we Oporto men would have to bestir olu-- 
seU'cs to get fresh vineyards, and the 
PortLiguese (jo\ci'nment might probidily 
ha\e to look about for an inci-ease of 
terrilory. k!ut he died yoimg, not because 
he drank too much at one sitting, as he 
would ol'ten sa)', hut because he drank too 
olten. Mazambc^mba's fa\'ourite song was 
entitled — 


Com uulao, Vinlio de tostao. 
Give me some wine, I want to dine, 

Wine a testoon per bottle : 
E"or a melon iine to clay is mine, 

iV rind of 3-e!low mottle ; 
A sausage grand, from Douro land. 

With garlic nicely tlavoured ; 
And serve it hot, from boiling pot. 

Or pipkin onion sa\'Oured ; 
A capon fat that ne'er begat 

A brood of chirping pullets ; 
Hang up my gun, my work is done. 

No need ha\'e I of bullets. 
But bring me wine, sweet muscadine, 

To drown fatigue and sorrow ; 
I li\'e to-day, so I'll be gay, 

Though 1 be dead lo-morrow. 

Oh ! smile on me, fair hostess be 

Most kind when I admire, 
For in thine eyes all folly dies. 

And born is fond desire. 
Fill high the cup, FU drink it up 

To quench of lo\e the hre ; 
I \\\c to-day, and Fll be ga)-, 

So come thou somewhat nigher — 
And pledge me, mine, in muscadine, 

A brimming, bumping measure. 
While in thine eyes sink all mv sighs 

To rise again in pleasure. 
Oh ! smile on me, and let it be 

A look that I may treasure : 
A loving kiss thou wilt not miss. 

Still less of \\ine a measure. 

Wilt thou sa)' no — to this thv beau, 

\\"\\\. thou, my s\\eet, sa)' " ne\'er ? " 
I love thee, mine, like fragrant «ine 

From which I would not sever ; 
For there my lips, 'tween draughts and sips. 

To keep is my endea\"our : 
I love the glass as thee, mv lass. 

And love ye both for ever. 
I ^ing, I drink, I forge a link 

Of loN-e the warmest, purest ; 
I live to-day, so Fll be gav. 

Of friends 'tis wine the surest ; 
So fill the cup once more and up 

To thy sweet moulh direct it. 
And leave the dregs to me who begs 

Thy \m-Q for I respect it. 

Natiu-ally in a song of the above des- 
cription, 1 had to allow myself great 
latitude, but I flatter myself 1 have pre- 



served the meter which \y\\\ admit of 
it being sung in English to O-fmlo. Another 
difficulty in translation lies in the fact that 
so few of the Portuguese popular songs 
have been reduced to \\riting, so that 
unless the translator be endowed with a 
retentive memory it would be impossible to 
accomplish the task. Unfortunately I am 
not so gifted, and have, therefore, to con- 
tent myself with a few snatches from songs 
1 have heard. The following saying is 
worthy of chronicling : — 

The first glass for thirst, 
The second for pleasure, 

The third, if well nursed 
By a fourth, is a treasure; 
The fifth and the sixth will lead you to heaven. 
When thirsty with climbing you'll prize number 
The Portuguese are very fond of music, 
but they produce no great composers ; so 
are they fond of admiring painters without 
ever having had one of their own, unless 
we accept Grao Vasco as a Portuguese. 

Wine, with the Portuguese, is more often 
considered from a religious point of view 
than from an amorous one. To them it 
represents that which, by a Divine ordi- 
nance, most nearly approaches the sublime 
Christian mystery; and to this devout 
sentiment is due, more than to anything 
else, the sobriety which characterises the 
people. One may say of them that, as a 
rule, they use wine and very, very seldom 
abuse it, which is the only way of enjoying 
it. Like those of other countries the 
I^^usian friars of days gone by are credited 
with having been more than partial to the 
juice of the grape; but romance ascribes 
to all whom it contemplates with its recol- 
lections, weaknesses, and sometimes 
virtues, wholly at variance with truth. If 
a friar were caught drinking a glass of 
wine after a heavy day's «-ork, imagina- 
tion, the too fertile field of the poet, 
ascribed to him the rights and privileges 
of a libertine, and sometimes did not 
hesitate to damn the whole monastery — 

even the Order itself ; foi" that one fi-iar 
was seen enjoying one glass of liquor 
which, in the words of the Bible, "cheereth 
the heart of man." Having thus far ex- 
plained my views on the stibject, I will add, 
in confirmation of them, that on the closing 
of the monasteries in I^ortugal thei-e was 
n<jt one that possessed a cellar of bottled 
wine — in fact, the only wine found was of 
that humble quality termed by the natives 
" green wine." 

Among the highest and middle classes 
there is a pastime which, in the way it is 
undertaken, may offer many subjects for 
the artist, but is decidedly stupid to those 
concerned. I speak feelingly, because in 
the siege «here Cupid commands, I was 
always one of the earliest in the breach. 
Love-making is as much a part of sociokjgy 
as good manners, onl)- it should prove 
more pleasant. But the contrary is the 
case in Portugal; the Romeo is a dejected 
looking creatiu-e, a love-sick youth staring 
from the pa\-ement at his Juliet seated at 
a window of the fifth flooi-. In all proba- 
bility he has not even spoken to her, but 
in his letters he addresses her in the 
second person singular. He braves the 
fierceness of the summei' and autumn sun, 
and the chaff of the errand boys; or under 
an umbrella while the rain c(jmes down he 
wafts kisses to her. Even if he have had 
the favour of an introduction he may not 
call at the house, or meet her ; etiquette 
forbids either. As a rtile these courtships 
end in nothing more dreadful than a bad 
cold or a sun-stroke. The more practical 
development of courtship is generally the 
result of negotiations between the parents, 
to which may be traced an Oriental 
descent. But these young lovers fancy 
themselves terribly in earnest, and when a 
rival steps in a disorderly scene ensues. 
The guitar-playing lover is more a creature 
of the imagination than of reality in middle 
life ; the twang of the instrument in a 
quiet street would dispel the seci-ecy which 



is the essence of these lookings-up and 

All j'oung men in the big centres are 
looked upon with profound suspicion by 
the fathers of marriageable daughters. 
There is a wide gulf which separates them; 
it behoves the father to look sternly on his 
daughter's admirers, as if he disapproves 
of the acquaintance, although in reality 
he would be delighted if a marriage \\ere 
to be the result. The intermediary 
between the lovers is one of the servant 
maids, and she is worthy of all praise for 
the ingenuity slie displays in robbing the 
Postmaster-General of his dues by con- 
travening the Act of I^arliament and 
delivering the letters herself without their 
being stamped. During the three last 
days of Carnival the iKmioriido has an 
opportunity of saying a few woi-ds to the 
lady of his choice should she go to one of 
the tlieatres to witness the tom-foolery, 
because from behind his mask he is entitled 
to address anyone. 

Portuguese present-daj' literature forms 
no school of its own; Camoens, Gil 
Vicente, Sri de Miranda, R(jdrigues I^obo, 
Barboza du Socage, Almeida Garrett, and 
Alexandre Herculano left behind them a 
priceless legacy of poetry and prose ; each 
one founded his own school of literature, 
but the present generation is apt to imitate 
the modern style of Prance. No counti-y 
can contribute a finer selection of ballads 
than Portugal; her runiiiiicclro is unique 
In its cokau'lng, but is no longer studied. 
As for the dally press, the most powerfLil 
lever of civilization, it is far behind the 
requirements of the age. The Portuguese 
merchant is as fond of his moi-ning paper 
as any other Bui'opean, biit he nuist ha\c 
It served up like his toast, done to his 
fanc)'. His c<iUiiti')''s wi'ongs must not he 
forgotten, not, ho\ve\'er, witli the idea of 

being righted, but in order to satisfy his 
natural vanity. English politics are 
strangely garbled for him in Paris, the 
soi-(Iis(Vif centre of enlightenment. Lord 
Gladstone and iVlr. de Salisbury, Earl 
Joseph Chamberlain, and the Duke of 
Balfour, all these important personages 
are known to him ; so were Lord Parnell 
and Viscount John Bright and his profligate 
brother, seloji ciix Baron Jacob Bright. 
In Oporto, however, we have one readable 
paper, Counncrcio do Porto, which, how- 
ever, gives but very meagre information 
from the wine country. The rest of the 
joui-nals are no better, and not less waspish, 
than the innumerable small sheets which 
inundate the boulevards in Paris. 

Beggars perambulate the principal 
streets ; they are a sorry spectacle, and 
they have not even the advantage of 
adding any colouring to the scene. They 
are a dismal and dirty-looking lot, but it 
would seem that they are essential to the 
welfare of the people whcjse iVirmcr 
Moslem conquerors believed that alms 
would give them admittance into Paradise. 
But Oporto without its beggars would be 
like I^ondon divested of its match-box and 
newspaper-sellers. There is, however, 
about the beggar in his more conventional 
form the irritating whine, the exposure of 
sores and deformity, which render him 
almost a greater nuisance than the shixxr- 
ing woman and child standing outside our 
public-houses with a box of fusees to sell. 
Mendicancy has always been one of the 
most difficult institutions to suppress : the 
natural love of freedom deters many 
paupers fi'om seeking parish relief, 
xxhilc others are as deeply attached to 
the idea of begging their daily bread 
foi- the sake of seeing the x\orld in xxhich 
tlicy li\e J List as the more favoured by 
fortime are. 





OTHlNGcanbe pleasanter 
in the pursuit of literature 
than to trace the ori,nin 
of so noble and dis- 
tinjJuished a familj- as 
the present dynasty of 
Portugal. It has been 
-my pri\ilege to kiss the 
hand of Donna Maria II., 
to be honoured with con- 
versations with her son, 
Dom Pedro V., his brother, Dom Luiz, 
and I recognise in the present Monarch 
one of the most illustrious men of his 

The history of Portugal is so full of 
romance, of such beautiful episodes, and 
of feats of arms achieved in every pait of 
the world, that it renders the task of 
writing of such a country \\ell-nigh 
impossible, because so many of the facts 
seem almost as if they belonged to the 
domain of fairyland. Naturally, I have a 
most affectionate remembrance of the land 
«here I was born, of its people, of their 
hospitality, of their nobility of thought 
and action, of their literature, of their 
marvellous genius in every sphere which 
they have undertaken, and 1 feel privileged 
in having been born among a race that 
taught the world commerce, and put it 
into practice. 

Tradition is, no doubt, an interesting 
element when writing history ; facts 
are, however, of far greater importance ; 
we have produced men in Portugal such 

as the greatest powers on earth fjf the 
present day would be pr<jud of, men who, 
by the s\v(jrd and by their wisdom, sub- 
jugated nations far older than that which 
they i-epi'esented, but \\hich were not so 
ci\'ilised ; in the sands of time where our 
Portuguese heroes trod, the warriors of 
to-day, considered prodigies, might easily 
cf)nceal their individuality. But, speaking 
as a son of that illustrious nation, I regret 
that there are not more who will stand up 
for the good name and honour of the 
country. Indifference to ever)-thing is the 
one great trouble which perplexes that 
land where Sagres is situated, where the 
Plantagenet Pi-ince Dom Heni-ique, the 
Xavigator, thought out well the road to 
India, which is now one of our own 
glorious possessions. I Iw'e to think that 
P(jrtugal has a glorious destiny before her, 
that she will be as grand in the future as 
she was in the past, that her sons will rise 
to the truth, that they have something 
nobler than themseh'es to live fo)', the 
continuation of one of the grandest 
histories, not even excepting that of Gi'eece 
or of Rome I 

I claim the indulgence of my readers in 
a matter of such imp(jrtance. British by 
blood, I can never forget that I was born 
among a people, numerical!}' small but 
historically great, that fought under our 
great Wellington, Beresford, and other 
great captains, like giants ; and I ask myself 
to-day, as all true sons of that Western 
kingdom should ask themselves, why is it 



that we are so reduced in circumstances 
and in finance ? 

Who win dispute with us, with the 
descendants of tlie Phoenicians and other 
invaders, the usages of commerce ? We 
opened the portals of the East to the 
commercial world ; long before Britain had 
thought of colonising, PortLigal was a grand 
and powerful nation, and even to this day 
she presents to the world memories of 
what our ancestors did in various parts by 
the colonies we still retain. 1 will not 
give way, even to the most patriotic son of 
Portugal, in the love 1 have for a country 
which captivated me by its beauty, by its 
climate, and by its hospitality, and I 
sincerely hope that in years to come those 
men wliom 1 may claim as countrymen, 
will feel it their duty, as it most 
undoubtedly is, to maintain the glorious 
traditions bequeathed them by all practical 
means, and not by vain orations. 

The history of Portugal proper is not so 
ancient as many would imagine, but it is a 
very interesting one. 1 shall not, how- 
ever, find space enough in this work to 
write the history of the world during two 
centuries, because in two hundred years 
Portugal represented all that was grand, 
noble, and chivalrous. This book refers 
more to the men of l-]ritish blo(5d than to 
the Portuguese ; but we have li\ed on 
such friendly terms with our ancient allies 
that I have not the slightest hesitation in 
plunging into that field of glorious and 
historical flowers of chivalry, such as the 
history of Portugal presents to the 

Need I tell you of Count Dom Henrique 
of Burgundy ? It seems to me you all 
know him, his castle at Gulmaraens, his 
wife, Donna Tereza ; howe\'er, 1 may be 
allowed to quote from the latest edition 
of tiie " Bncyclopa-dia Britannica," as 
follows : — 

" Count FJom Henrique of l-Jurgimdy. 
the first Count of Portugal, was the second 

son of Henry, third son of Robert, first 
Duke of Burgundy, and was in every way 
a typical knight of his century, a brave 
I'estless warrior and a crusader, but, when 
once firmly established in his country, he 
thought more about his chances of suc- 
ceeding his father-in-law as King than of 
trying to carve the kingdom for himself 
out of the dominions of the Mohammedan 
caliphs. When, therefore, Alfonso VI. 
died in 1109, and left his thrones to his 
daughter Urraca, and nothing to Heni-y, 
the Burgundian at once invaded Leon. 
For five years Alphonso Raimundes (the son 
of Count Raymond), Alphonso of Aragon, 
and Queen Urraca fought together, when 
Count Henry died suddenly at Astorga in 
1112, leaving his wife Tereza to rule the 
ecjuntr}' of Portugal during the minority 
of his infant son Affonso Henriques. 
Tereza, wlio ruled at Guimaraens during 
her son's minority, was a beautiful and 
accomplished woman, and devoted all her 
energies to building up Affonso's dominions 
into an independent State ; and under her 
rule, while the Christian States of Spain 
were torn by civil wars, the Portuguese 
nobles were prevented from interfering, 
and began to recognise Portugal as their 
country and to cease from calling them- 
selves Galicians. Her regency was a 
stormy one, in spite of all lier efforts to 
maintain peace; in 1116 she was per- 
suaded by Gelmires, Bishop of Santiago, 
to try and extend her frontier towards 
the north, and seized Tuy and Orense ; in 
1117 she was besieged by the xMoham- 
medans in Coimbra, and in 1121 her sister 
Urraca took her prisoner, but. tlirough 
the interposition of Bishop Gelmires and 
.Mauneio I^LU'dino, Archbishop of Braga, 
peace \vas quickly made bet\\een them." 

At the age of sexenteen Affonso 
HenrlLiues assumed the government of the 
country of Portugal. In e\ cry sense of the 
word he was one of the heroes of the 
Middle Ages and a great warrior, so that 


after sixty years of ciintinLiuLis fighting he i-;ing's polic)'. In 1245 Duni Sanclncj's 

bequeathed to his successors a powerful brtjtlier, Affonso, placed himself at the 

little kingdom, he having been proclaimed head of a nLimber of Pcjrtuguese nial- 

King by his soldiers after the signal contents, and in the following \'ear I.e 

victory obtained over the .Moors at Canip(j a)-i-i\ed at Lisbon and declared himselt 

d'Ourique, at which it said that no less defender of the kingdom, which i-esulted 

than five kings and two thousand AToham- in a ci\il war lasting two years, and 

medans were utterly defeated. It was ending in the retirement of Sanchcj to 

during the reign of this soN'ereign that the Toledo, where he died on the 12th January, 

order of S. Bento d'Aviz \\as instituted, 1248. 

which had its origin in the union of some From a constitutional point of \lcw the 

knights who swore to live together and t(j reign of Dom .Affonso HI., br(jther of the 

die, if need were, for their country and late king, was (jne of the most important 

their faith. At the Ccjuncil (jf Coimbra, in in the history of Portugal, for it was then 

1162, they received a Cistercian rule, and, that the nation concluded its warfare with 

from their fixing their head quarters at the Mohammedans. In 1277 he was 

Evora, they derived their name for some succeeded by his s(;]i Dom Diniz, surnamcd 

time from that city. Their subsequent " the Husbandman." He was man-ied to 

appellation of Aviz arose from their ehoos- Saint Isabel. During this reign took 

ing a situation tor their new seat at a place the sLippressi(jn of the Order of the ■ 
place where two large birds {urssj were Knights Templars b)- I^ope Clement \'. 

obser\-ed close together under a tree. Dom Diniz ha\ing interested himself most 

From the end of the 12th centui-y to the \\-arnily in the fate of these unfoi-tunate 
time of Dom Duarte tiiese knights were Knights, reconstituted them under the 

subject to the Order of Calatra\-a, from Oi'der of Christ and, by degrees, i-estored 

which they were exempted by the last- all their possessions to them. This Ordci- 

named monarch. The .Master of A\'iz, was first settled at Castro .Marlm, hut 

afterwards Dom JoiTo 1. was the last wh(j afterwards, in 135(3, rem(ncd to Thomar. 
was elected to that office. Since the time From the circumstance of Dom Henrique 
of Dom Joofj III. the sovereigns of Por- having been Go\-ernor of the Order of 
tugal have called themseh'es the perpetual Christ, he exercised a klndof spiritual juris- 
administrators of this Order. I3om Affons<j diction for his disco\-cries of Madeira and 
Henriques died on the 6th December, Porto Santo. He was a great adminis- 
1 183, andwas succeeded by Dom Sanchfj I., trator and lo\-ed JListice, and was much 
surnamed "the City Builder." To this devoted to literature. He encouraged a 
king is due the conquest of the Algarves, scho(jl of Portuguese poets and established 
with the help of some English, Dutch, a L'ni\-ersity at Lisbon, -s\-hich e\entually 
Danish and Frisian Crusaders, but the found a home at Coimbra. This peacc- 
pro\-inces of Algar\-es and Alemtejo \\-ere loxing monarch died in 1325 and was 
reconquered in 1 192 by Yusuf Abu Vakub. succeeded by his son Affonso I\'.. surnamed 
In 121 1 this great warrior and Iving died at "the Bra\-e," who pursued his father's 
the convent of Alcobaca. policy of making an alliance with the kings 

Dom Sancho was succeeded by his son of .Aragon and Castile. Dom Pedro, the 
Dom Affonso II. at the age of thirteen. king's s(jn, man-ied the beautiful Ignez de 
As might ha\-e been expected during Castro, whose mcnirnful histoi)- is so 
his minority the nobility andclei-gy of that beautifully depicted in the Lusiads of 
period did theii- utmost to rexerse the late Camocns. In this reign took place the 



battle of the Salado, and the iMooi'ish made a Knight of the Most Noble Order 

power in the peninsula was finally of the Garter. He died in 143S, and was 

erushed. succeeded by Dom Affonso \., who was 

Dom Pedro I., siu-named " the Se^•ere," surnamed "the African." He was a 

on succeeding his father, caused the body minor, and his reign began with a struggle 

of his nuuxlercd Ignez de Castro to be for the Regency between his mother and 

taken from her tomb and to be crowned, his uncle. The people of Lisbon supported 

Far more important to this work is the the latter, the Duke of Coimbra, \\ho was 

fact that in 1352 this king entered \nU> a recognised as Regent, and his conduct 

treaty of commerce with our Edward III., justified the choice. It ^\■as during this 

which formed the foundation of the alliance I'eign that was founded the Order of Torre 

between the t«-o countries. At his death, e Espada. " Towei- anci Swoixf," in 1459, 

which took place in 13(-i7, he \^-as succeeded as a recompense to those knights «-ho had 

by his only son Dom Fernando, who signed fought in Africa; it is at present that 

the Treaty of Alliance with Edward III. of which is held in most esteem in Portugal, 

England. It \\\\\ be remembered that, in and during the Civil Wars was granted to 

1381, the Earl of Cambridge, lirother of men of every rank who distinguished 

John of Gaunt, ai-ri\'ed with a powerful themselves in battle. He \\-as succeeded 

force, and his son Edward was betr-othed by Dom Jo;io, "the I^erfect," during 

t(} Donna Beatriz, Dom Fernando's only whose reign the feudal system gradually 

child. In 1383 the interregnum took weakened. Th(.)ugh he had proved himself 

place, Dom Juan 1. <>{ Castile claiming the a courageous soldier at the battle of Toro, 

kingdom in right of his wife ; biit Dom he pi'cferred the ai'ts of peace and 

Jo:{o, Master of Aviz, legitimate son of formed family alliances with Castile, and 

Dom Fernando, was elected king by the strengthened the commercial intimacy with 

Cortes at Coimbra. The Spaniards dis- England. In his latter years he lost his 

puted the succession, but were defeated at only son Affonso, and died in the prime 

the battles of Atoleii'os and Trancoso, and of life in the year 1495. 
Dom Jo;io "of Good Memory" was Dom .Manoel, " the Fortimate," was the 

acknowledged king. In 1387, he married first king of the House of \'izeu, and it 

Philippa of Lancaster, from whom «'as was during this reign that some of the 

descended the (jreat Pi-inee and Na\igator, principal diseo\eries were made b\- the 

Dom Henricpie, who laid the foLindation great PortLigLiese na\"igators. In 1497 

of the maritime greatness of Portugal. N'aseo da Gama had crossed the Indian 

It was King .lohn of Poi-tugal who further Ocean and reached CalicLit : m 1500 Pedro 

cemented the friendship and alliance Al\ai-es Cabral discoxered Brazil on his 

between b]ngland and PortLigal, for on the way to India: in 1502 N'aseo paid his 

9th Ma)-, 1380, was signed the Treat)' of second \isit to the Malabar coast : m 1503 

Windsor, by which the two ciumtries were Diiarte Pacheco defended Cochin, and with 

declared allies foi- e\-er in e\er)- ti'ans- 900 PortugLiese, defeated an ai-m\- of 50,000 

actiun, and \ery naturall)- this alliance was nati\es : and in 1505 Fi-aneiseo de Almeida 

rendered still closer b)- his marriage wilh was appointed lirst \'ieei-o\- of India, 

the iini;lis|-| Princess. Dom ,li ;hi tlicd in Piexdiid these important diseoxerics we 

1433, and was sueccetled b\' his son Dom ha\c those of the Island of .Ascension, 

Duarte, or I^dward, who was so called and l\io de la Plata and Para'Hiav : the 

after om- lidward III. of b:no|and. He occupation of Malacca and of Colombo, of 

ratified the Treat)- of Windsor, and was Canlon, and of Pekin ; the discover\- of 


the Moluccas and the passage throu}>h the the Portuguese Empire in Asia and con- 
Straits of Magellan by Magalhaens. Doni cjuered nearly the \\hole of Brazil. In 
Manoel died in 1521 and «as succeeded hy 1821 Dom FilipelJI,, '■ O Desditoso/'ascen- 
Dom Joab III.,during \\-hose reign PortLigal ded the throne, and in 1(S40 a conspii-ac\- 
attained the height of its glor\-. This liing was staited at Lisbon, headed by the Duke 
died in 1557 and left the crown to his of Bi'aganca, for the emancipation of 
grandson, who was three years old, the ill- Portugal. The day fixed was the 1st 
fated Dom Sebastia"o, "the Regretted." December: the plot succeeded ; the Arcli- 
It was a most unfortunate tiling for bishop of Lisbon was appointed Lieutenant 
Portugal that at this period the succession General of the kingdom. .Messengers 
should ha\-e fallen to a minor. It \\\\\ be weve sent to the Duke of Braganca to 
recollected that in 1578, when he made his inform him of what had happened, and he 
second expedition to .Morocco, he suffered offered him the crown, which he accepted, 
defeat on the 4th August at the battle of and ascended the throne on the 13th 
Alcacer Quihir, and though he fell in the December of the same year, under the 
engagement, there is a small sect in title of fJom Jocffj 1\'. The whole of 
Portugal that still believes he is concealed l-'ortugal at once rose and expelled the 
on some unknown island and will some day Spaniards, and on the 19th January a full 
i-eturn to Portugal. He was succeeded by Cortes met at Lisb(jn. Dom ,Joa6 l\'. was 
Cardinal D(jm Henrique, who had been succeeded b)- his son Affonso \'I, "the 
Regent during the late king's minrjrity. \'ictorious," who expelled the Dutch in- 
The Cardinal king died in 1580, and the \aders fi-om Brazil. This So\-ereign, 
succession was disputed by Don I-ilipe 11. owing to ill health, went into retirement in 
of Spain; and Dom Antonio, Prioi- of 1667, and his brother Dom Pedro was 
Crato ; IJonna Catharina, Duchess of appointed Regent, and succeeded to the 
Braganca; Emanuel Philibert, Duke of throne in 1683 as Dom Pedro II, surnamed 
Savoy; the Prince of Parma; and Marie "the Pacific." It was during this reign 
de Medicis. The claimants resoh-ed them- that Spain ix-nounccd all claims on 
selves into Don Filipe of Spain and the Portugal. His reign was mai'ked by good 
Prior of Crato, but the Spanish kmg \\as internal administi-ation, and by the signing 
successful and the Castilian usurpation of the Methuen treaty on the 27th 
commenced, which is called by the Portu- December, 1703, b}- which Poi'tuguese 
gLiese, "the sixt)- yeai-s' captivity"; and Wines were to be nnpoi'ted into England 
this king, who was Filipe II. of Spain, at a lower duty than those from France or 
ascended the throne as Filipe I. of Poitugal Cermany, and to which I have referred in 
and was surnamed "the Prudent." It another chapter. This king died at 
was during his reign that the decline of Alcantara on the 9th Decembei-, 1706, and 
the Portuguese Empire commenced. Had was succeeded by Dom Jocto V., surnamed 
the Portuguese chosen the Duchess of " the Magnanimous." The Archbishopric 
Braganca as their Queen, mattei-s might of I^isbon was erected into a Patriarchate 
have been vej-y different, but from 1580 to and the title of " Most Faithful " was 
1640 there was a continuous series of conferred upon the kings of Pdi'tugal, 
disasters for the country. The Poi-tuguese to con-espond with those of "Most 
had good reason to detest the Spanish Christian" and ".Most Catholic" he- 
yoke. In 1598 Dom Filipe II. of Portugal longing to the Kings of France and Spain 
and III. of Spain, surnamed "the Idle," respectively. Dom JoaTj \'. died m 1750, 
ascended the throne. The Dutch ruined and was succeeded hy his son Dom Jose, 



whose reign was rendered memoi'able by 
the appointment of the Marquess of 
l-'ombal as Prime Minister, and the oreat 
earthquake whieh destroyed Lisbon on the 
1st November, 1755. The close of this 
Monarch's reign \\-as disturbed by dispLites 
with Spain; he died on the 20th February, 
1777, leaving four daughters, the eldest of 
whom, Donna Maria Francisca had married 
tlie king's brother, Dom Pedro. Donna 
Maria I., sh(jrtly after her accession to the 
throne, suffered under some mental dis- 
order, and in 1799 her son Dom Jo;tb was 
declared Regent. In 1807 Napoleon made 
his bombastic proclamation that the House 
of Bragan^a had ceased to reign, and 
tliis marks the commencement of the 
Peninsular war. In 1816 the Queen died, 
and the Regent succeeded to the throne 
as Dom Joab VI. In 1820 the Constitution 
was proclaimed, whieh the king accepted, 
and he surrendered hjrazil to his eklest 
son D(jm Pedro. In 1826 Dom Jo;k) \T. 
died and Dom Pedro I., of Brazil 
and I\'. of Portugal, succeeded to the 
throne, and tlie next twenty-five years 
pr(.)ved to be of gra\'e difficult}' to the 
govei'ning powers, owing to the influence 
\\hich the army exercised. Marsiial 
Beresford had raised a fine fighting army 
with a goodi)- number of generals, some of 
whom gave wa)' to intrigue. On ascending 
t'ne United thrones, Dom Pedro pixjceeded 
to draw up a Charter containing the basis 
of a moderate Parliamcntar)- Goxcrnment, 
and sent it o\'cr to Portugal by the 
linghsh minister Sir Charles Stuart, and 
then abdicated the crown of Portui^al in 
fa\'(jur of his daughter. Donna Maria da 
(jloria, a child only se\en years of age, 
with the understanduig that she should 
marr\' his brother Dom Mii^uel, who was 
to recognize the new ConstitLition. The 
l-'arliamentary part\' welcomed the Charter 
with great enthusiasm, and the Didic of 
Palmellawas appointed Prime Minister; 
in 1827, hin\e\'er, the king appointed 

Dom Miguel to be Regent in Portugal. 
This Prince was very popular with the 
nobility, the army and the poor, and 
relying on these elements he declared 
himself absolute king, and drove the whole 
Constitutional part)-, Saldanha, Villa Flor, 
Palmella, Sampaio, and their followers 
into exile. The young queen was then in 
England, to whieh country they fled, where 
the popular opinion was strong in their 
favour; but the Duke of Wellington and 
his Ministry favoured Dom Miguel's 
behaviour, whose reign soon became one 
of terror, and a new movement was 
initiated by the Chartist and Radical 
parties to oppose the usurper, \\'ho had 
never been recognized as king by the 
inhabitants of the Island of Terceira, to 
whieh place the Marquess of Palmella, 
the Count of Villa Flor, and Jose Antonio 
Guerreiro had gone, and where they 
declared themselves Regents for thej-oung 
cjueen. In 1831 Dom Pedro i-esigned the 
Imperial erown of Brazil to his infant son 
(the late lamented Dom Pedro II.), and 
came to London to join his daughter, antl 
make preparations for a struggle against 
his brother. The Liberal Party was then 
in power under Earl Grey, ^\ho morally 
encouraged Dom Pedro, so that he was 
able to raise a large loan ; he enlisted as 
many troops as he could and embarked for 
Terceira, and on bis arrival he appointed 
the Count of \'illa I-lor, General-in-Chief, 
and Capt. Sartorius, of the British Na\;,-, 
Commander of the Fleet. Ha\ing em- 
barked his forces he sailed for Oporto, and 
arrixed at Arnosa, near Mindello, on the 
8th jLily, 1832, at the head of an army 
of se\en thousand fixe hundred men. 
Wanting troops to ad\anee on Lisbon he 
shut himself up in C)porto, where he was 
inisuccessfully besieged by Dom Miguel, 
liLit as I de\-ote a chapter to this important 
SLibject I will now limit my observations 
to stating that, after the Rebellion had 
been quelled, Dom Pedro, who had 



throughout been the heart and soul of 
his daughter's party, retired to Oueluz, 
near Lisbon, \\here he died six days 
afterwards from the effects of his gi-eat 
labours and fatigues; previous to his 
demise, on the )8th September, 1834, 
feeling his health failing, he declared 
Donna Maria II. of age. In 1835 the 
young Queen married the brother of her 
step-mother, Augustus Charles Eugene 
Napoleon, Duke of Leuchtenberg, second 
son of Eugene Beauharnais, but she 
unfortunately saw him die two months 
after her marriage. The Queen's subjects 
being anxious to ha\-e an heir to the 
throne, Donna .Maria in the following 
January married Prince Ferdinand of 
Saxe-Cobui-g-Gotha, nephew of Lef)pold, 
the first king of the Belgians, and cousin 
of our Prince Consort, by whom she had 
five sons and two daughters. Her, Majesty 
died on the 15th .\o\ember, 1853, and her 
husband the King Consort, Dom Ferdinand, 
became the Regent until his eldest son, 
Dom Pedro \'., came of age, two j-eai's 
afterwards, when he assumed the reins of 
Government. To the short but illustrious 
reign of this good king, the Portuguese 
owe a very deep debt of gratitLide. Fi'om 
e\'ery point of \-ie\v he excelled in all that 
is worth emulating, and he so endeared 
himself to his subjects that when he died, 
on the 11th Xowmber, 1861, from an 

attack of blood poisoning, the soul of the 
nation mourned for a beloved king and 
leader, whose beautiful Consort, the 
Princess Stephanie of Hohenzollern Sig- 
maringen had pre-deceased him. He was 
succeeded by his brother, Dijm Luiz, Duke 
of Oporto, who married Donna .Maria Pia, 
daughter of King \'ictor Emanuel of Italy, 
on the 16th October, 1862. It was during 
the reign of this illustrious .Monarch that 
railway communication with e\'ery part of 
the kingdom was established, and many 
other works of national utility were under- 
taken and carried out. King Dnm Lluz 
died on the ]9th Octobei". 1889. and was 
succeeded by his srjn the present Soxereign, 
His -Majesty, Dfjm Carlos, who was boim 
on the 28th September, 1863: he married 
Her Royal Highness, the Princess .-Vmelie, 
daughter of the late Comte de Paris, on 
the 22nd .May, 1886, by whom he has issue 
two sons, the Heir .Apparent being Dom 
Luiz Filipe. Duke of Braganca, born 21st 
.Maixh, 1887. His .Majesty is nearly 
related to our Ros'al Famih" : he is nephew 
of King Humbei^t of Itah" : first cousin of 
Prince \'ictor .\apoleon, and on his 
Consort's side he is connected \\ith the 
Royal Family of France. Like nearly all 
his ancestors, His .Majesty is a Knight of 
the .Most .Voble Order of the Garter, and 
has on more than one occasion honoured 
this country with his presence. 





pecially in 

ROM due east to \\-est, 
that is from Pinheiro 
Railwaj' Station to S. 
Jo;ib da Foz do Doiiro, 
the distanee h)' road 
is about five miles, 
eo^-ered the whole way 
by tram lines, the 
trafifc on whieh, es- 
summer time, eommenees 
very early in the morning and ends 
very late at night. This enables people 
li\-ing in town to have their morning dip 
in the sea and be back for breakfast 
long before business hours. The extreme 
western part of Opoi'to is sea-side, and is 
ealled St. John of the Mouth of the Doin'o. 
Many niee looking houses have been biLilt 
all along the sea front, some of them after 
our English style of subm-han \'illas. A 
fe\\- English families r-eside at St. John's 
or- Foz, as it is more generalh' ealled, but 
the majority of them have gone oLLt still 
further and \\\c at the sea-side \'illage of 
Leca da I^almeira. There are also a few 
English families residing at Caudal on the 
south side of the Douro, and a few at 
the east end of the town, where there 
are some picturesque OLiintason the hanks 
of the rix'cr. Mut on a SumlaN' moi-ning 
most of the hjritish rcsitlents meet In the 
church)'ard at Campo Pequcno, where 
aliout Christmas time all the camellia 
ti'ees are in full bloom. Some of these 
trees are from tweU'c to Hfteen feet in 
height. The displa) of \arioLis flowers 

is \er)- grand throughout the year, but 
particularly so towards the end of autumn. 

There is a beautiful a\enue formed h)- 
lindens, under whieh a sort of church 
parade is held, with this difference from 
ours in England, that it takes place 
before, and not aftei", chLirch serxiee. In 
this a\'enue is erected a painfully plain 
monument to the memory of Johannes 
Whitehead described as in ao;rn Lancastria-. 
(iniiii^cr, wJio was British Consul in the 
North of F-^ortugal for about fifty years. 
During the PeninsLilar w"ar the English 
soldiers who fell in action close to Oporto 
were biu-ied in a piece of gixiund on the 
south hank of the ri\"er, and I much I'cgret 
to sa)' that, although representations were 
made to Lord Clarendon on the subject, a 
manufactcirv was bmlt o\"er the resting 
place of some of Bi'itain's bravest sons. 

.Although we ha\e not always had a 
British ChLu'ch, or Cliapel. m Oporto, we 
ha\c seldom been without a clergyman, 
and it woLild seem that tlKw obtained their 
appointment h\ being elected b\- members 
of the factoi'y and then haxing the appoint- 
ment confirmed by the Crown. In the 
reign of George 111. the Re\'. Richard 
Pennell became the Chaplain, as will be 
seen by the following document : — 

In the name .aiiJ on the behalf of His ?\Iajesty 
Geor^;e, I '.K, 

Georne the IliirJ b\ the Grace of God, l">efender 
of the Iviith, \c. To all whom these Tresents shall 
come (n-eetinj;. We ha\ing received a good 
character of the [.oy.alty, or orthodox Learning 
andrietyof our Trusl\- and Well belo\-ed Tlie 



Rev. Richard Pennell and he havin.c'been humbly 
recommended unto Us by the principal iSTerchants 
settled at Oporto to be Chaplain to the British 
Merchants there, We have b>een graciously pleased 
to ;;'rant, as by these Presents AVe do give and 
grant unto him Oar Royal License and Protection 
for that purpose And We do hereby require 
Our Ambassador, Envoy, or other Minister at the 
Court of Portugal, and Our Consul General in that 
Kingdom for the time being to countenance and 
assist him, the said Richard Pennell, in the quiet 
enjoyment and exercise of his Office and Function 
as Chaplain to Our said Merchants, he beha\'ing 
himself in such manner as not to give any just 
occasion of scandal and rtffencc t" the Xati\es and 
Inhabitants of the said I-'ort of C)porto (ji\'en at 
Our Court at Carlton House the Thirteenth Day 
of December, Ore Thousand Eiglrt Hundred and 
Thirteen, in the Fift)-fourth Year of His i\Iajest\'s 

By the Command of His Royal Highness the 
Prince Regent, in the name and on the behalf of 
His Majesty. 


The Rev Ricii.^kd Pennell 

From many dcicLiments I ha\'e before 
me I am able to state that di\ine service 
Lised to be held e\ery Sunday moi-nini^ at 
the house of some British Meix'hant, who 
<>enerally entertained a pai"t of the con- 
gregation to dinner after a rtibhei- at whist. 
In the reign of Charles II. \\e had the 
following British chaplains in (Jportu, 
which informtition I gather from the 
" Histoi-y of the Chtn-ch of Hngland," 
Vol. III., page 87 :— The Rev. .Mr. Stevens, 
Rev. Dr. Barton and the K\-\-. .Mr. Hmde, 
who also styled themseKes chaplains to 
the Bi-itish Factory. During the Common- 
wealth I suppose we had some soi"t ot 
minister in the place, but I can find no 
record of his appointment ; in fact, from 
the reign of James II. until that of 
Oeorge I. I am imable to present my 
readers \\'ith an)- fiu'ther information 
respecting the names of the chaphuns; 
hut in 1717 the K'e\'. D. Primrose was 
appointed: he was succeeded in 1723 hy 
the Re\ . Henry Pakenham. In 1731 the 
Rev. John .Vichols, ,M..A., obtained the 

cure, and following him came the Rev. 
Henry W'cjod, ,M.,-V., in 1753. The ne.xt 
chaplain was the Rev. William Fmmanuel 
Page in 1 769 ; then the Rev. Herbert 
Hill, and aftei- him, in 17S2,the Rev. John 
Bell, who in 1798 was succeeded by the 
Rew Conway Stafford, brother-in-law of 
Air. J. H. .\oble. In 1813 the above- 
mentioned l\e\'. Richard Pennell was 
appointed, and after him came the Re\'. 
Bdward W'biteley, .M..A.. who was the first 
consular chaplain, then the Rev. Robert 
Bui-ton Leaeh, Al.A., and the present 
incumbent, the Rev. Thomas Polehampton, 
Al.A. The following doctmient is of great 
interest, as it cleaiJy shows that the chui'ch 
plate belonged to the Factor)-, and in fact 
the present chapel and the gi-otmds 
sLn'r(junding it used tis the churchyard 
were paid for out of a fund raised b)' the 
said Factory House undei" a special Act of 
the British Parliament. 


A Flagon i 

2 Chalices . . . . . . 2 

1 Saher . . . . . . i 

2 Plates . . . , . . 2 
And a Bason . . . . i 

7 pieces. 

Iveceived from the Re\d. Herbert Hill, 'jtli 
.\pril, 1782, delivered the said seven pieces of 
plate 10 the Rew John Bell, ]3tli Jfarch, 1783. 

The above mentioned plate was delivered bv 
me April the gth, 1798, to the Rev. Conway 
Stafford, my successor. 


The aforementioned plate was delivered by me 
this twenty-eighth da\' of Sep)tember, 1805. for mv 
late brother-in-law, the Rev. C. ST.AFFORD to 
WILLI.AM WARRE, Esq , Consul 


The aforementioned plate was brought by me 
to England upon the expiulsion of British subjects 
irom Portugal the ist No\'ember, L807, was 
returned and ackn^owled.ged to ha\'e been duly 
received bv the Rev. Richard Penne.l, l;y his 
letter to me of the 13th Jul)-, 1S14, from Porto. 

London, .August loth, 1814. 




The present chapel, in a smaller form, 
was built during the consulship of Mr. 
John Whitehead, who employed a master 
carpenter of the name of Manoel Aloreira 
da Siiva to carry out his instructions. 
The land wasaequired in 1 787 from the Prior 
of Cedofeita for 240 mil reis, and duly 
conveyed to the British consul ; it was only 
consecrated on the 20th of Au.qust, 1843, 
the ceremony having been performed by the 
Most Rev. Dr. Tomlinson, first Bishop of 
Gibraltar, and the chapel was dedicated to 
the service of God under the appropriate 
designation of St. James' Chapel. The 
following is an extract from a letter sent 
me by a very old resident in Opoi't(j : — 

" Previous to the building of this chapel 

our- Oporto chapel is hidden from the 
public gaze by lofty walls, as if a HoLise of 
prayer coLild pollute the air. Some thirty 
years ago the chapel was considerably 
enlarged, and the shape is now cruciform. 
During the last century the Rua dos 
inglezes was called the Riia Nova de S. 
Nicolao, but when the British Factory 
Hlouse was bLiilt it became tinglish Street, 
and I now have the pleasure of repr-oducing 
the wcll-liiiown pictLu-c (;f this street, by 
the late Baron dc Forrester, in which we 
find depicted the portraits of ncarl)' all the 
principal I3ritish merchants resident in 
Oporto in 1834; it is the property of his 
son Mr. William Offley Fori-ester, and the 
following is a key to it. 

[' J t 



divine service was held in the ball-room of 
the British Association, or Factory House, 
and the chapel in its original proportions 
was a replica of the room devoted to 
Terpsichorean amusements. But before 
the Factory House was built service was 
held at any of the houses of the British 
residents. The selection was generally 
made on the Saturday and the church box 
was forwarded to the house. Marriages 
and baptisms were solemnised anywhere, 
and burials took place at low tide on the 
sea beach." 

These may seem small matters to those 
who are devoid of that sentiment which is 
called human love, but it is the history of 
our race in many parts of the world where, 
without abandoning our religious or racial 
principles, we have patiently submitted to 
contumely until it became heavier than we 
could bear, and we had to uphold our 
rights and privileges. Even to this day 

Oporto, the birth place of Prince Henry 
the Navigator, son of our Philippa of 
Lancaster, has for many centuries been a 
commercial centre, not only of Portugal, 
but of the Iberian Peninsula. And a 
thoLightful Providence so willed it that 
this great Prince was born in a bouse 
situate in English Street, not scj named 
owing U) his descent, but that it was the 
meeting place of our countrymen in the 
pursuit of commerce. 

It will be remembered that King Dom 
J(XKi I., husband of the Plantagenet 
Princess Philippa, was the father of three 
princes who made their mark in the his- 
tory of the world. Edward, the eldest 
son, after the conquest i;f CcLita, drew 
up the first code of Portuguese law. 
Peter, who came next, was not only con- 
spicuous for his literary tastes as well as 
for his military prowess; while the third 
son claims the glorious title of " The 


Navigator." We must not lose sight of able building known as tiie British Factory 

the fact that these three heroes were the HoLise, but now styled by the members 

cousins of Henry v., and great-grandsons the British Association. It is a noble 

of Edward III. of Hngland, the latter of edifice, constructed of granite, and occu- 

whom especially devoted no little time to pies the sites of three houses which were 

cementing a friendly alliance with a coun- acquired last century by some of our 

try whose sons opened up the portals of eoLuitrymen residing in Oporto. In the 

the East to the noble and pacific aspira- Rua No\'a Dos Inglezes the frontage is 

tions of commerce. aboLit 70 ft., and in the Rua de S. 

Oporto may well he pi'oud (.)F the inheri- No\o about 90 ft. 
tance which her forem(.)st son bequeathed The plan was prepared by C<jnsul John 
to the world; and England, through her Whitehead, who superintended the work of 
Pi-incess, glories in the fact that the dis- construction until its completion in 1790. It 
ccrt'cry of new continents is traceable to a belongs to no particLilar school of architec- 
genius who claimed dii-ect tleseent from ture, but is typical of British solidarity and 
her Plantagenets. What Oporto was like comfort. The principal entrance is from 
in those days we can gather from the the Rua Nova, where there are five iron 
records to be foLmd in the libraries of gates, all leading to the capacious vestibule 
many Etu-opean museimis. Like otiier which was intended, so many people main- 
cities, it was surr(]unded by a wall, and tain, for the holding of an Exchange for 
the principal entrance was fr(.im the east, the British merchants. On the left-hand 
where the Porta do Sol still stands. The side is the cloak-room, now generally used 
western gate I remember well: it was as the porter's room, and on the right are 
called the Porta Nobre, and hence through the passage and staircase leading to the 
a number of narrow lanes, which in former library. The \'estibLile itself is so se\'erely 
times were inhabited by Dutch and Genoese simple that we lorik aroimd us for some 
mei-ehants. This ntjble gate and the sculptural evidence, either in the capitals 
miserable lanes to whieli it ga\e ingress of tlie pillars supporting the masonry 
have all disappeared, having been replaced abo\e, or o\-er the doorwax's, of this build- 
by a wide sti-eet ULuned the Rlui d'.All'an- ing, hax'ing been erected bv merchants 
dega No\-a, which joins the Rua No\'a dos connected with the wine trade. The 
Inglezes, or, as it is now termed, the Rua principal staircase is as plain as it is 
do Infante Dom HenriqLie. imposing in its proportions, almost mar- 
This famous street faces due east and vellous in its construction. Each step Is 
west, and is one of the broadest in Oporto. formed of one massixe block of granite. 
About half of the houses on tlie northern unsupported by pillar or coUimn : the 
side were remox-ed some \'ear-s ago in order hand-rail has nothing to tell us, either in 
to make r-oom for a pLiblie garden, which the cunning of desii^n or escutcheon, and 
was very tastefully arranged. The palm the bai'e walls that ha\e looked tqion 
trees were cut down, and the (lower beds crowned kings, marshals of Bi'itain and 
vanished in a week in order that some France, statesmen, literar\- men and others 
local orators might dclix'cr frothy speeches of lesser note, are equally silent as to 
on the occasion of laj'ini; the foimdation- their history. 

stone ol' a monimient in memory of Prince The idea which seizes one in contem- 

Dom Henrit|ue. plating this vast ediHce on first entering it 

On the same side of the street, lormini.; I'cfcrs more to the past than to the present ; 

the north-eastern angle, stanils a memor- at each step the impression grows upon 



you of the ma^nitudf of a trade carried on 
by our countrymen wlien tile expense of 
tra\ellin,u; between Hnijland and Oporto 
was so t>reat that the principals preferred 
residint; in the country where they did 
business and which was endeared to them 
by numerous ancestors who had been born 
and liuried there. Commerce between 
Great Britai)i and l-'ortui^al is no less 
important now than it was then, but 
no such hoLise 
woLild be built 
at the pi'esent 
time for the 
c o m f c> r t (if 
[British resi- 
dents. In its 
earlier days it 
I'esounded daily 
and nightly to 
the festive 
carousals of 
men who were 
makino; for their 
posterity names 
with which to 
eonjinx' in the 
wine trade. And 
their successors 
now live within 
two days' reach 
comfortabi)' at 
h(jme m Hng- 
Lmd. The sim- 
p 1 i c i t y w h i c h 
c h a r a c t e i" i s e s 
the building of 

the British Association in Oporto is 
eloquent of the austere principles which 
have always marked the ad\'ance of 
British commerce in every part of the 
world. Here we ha\'e nothing super- 
ffuoLis, nothing ostentatious, nothing 
imposing hut the magnitude of the 
building — nothing more notable than the 
fact that it is a c(jnnecting link betw een us 
and the past. The severity of its archi- 

tecture savoin-s of the pro\'ei'bial rectitude 
of om- pioncei'sof commerce, f-or what 
ha\e we here in this edifice erected by 
I-iritish enterprise ? Xeither grand paint- 
ings nor sculpture ; no pompous designs, 
nothing but the building itself to tell (T 
princely fortLmes giLined by men whose 
original capital was honesty of purpose. 
And this has been the mainspring (jf 
British success. That I-actor_\- House in 

Oporto, w ith its 
massi\e walls 
(jf i^ranite, with 
its rooms com- 
fortabh', bLit un- 
(jst e n t atiously 
f Li r n i s h e (.1 , 
\\ here, however, 
hospitality has 
e\'er been host, 
is thoroughly 
represen tat i \'e 
of the genius 
of oui' people. 
Other nationali- 
ties have en- 
jO)'ed the same 
ad\antages in 
Oporto, but 
ha\'e left no 
such landmark 
behind them. 
The fact is, we 
are essentially 
British wher- 
ever we may he 
called up(jn t(j 
work for a li\-elihood, for we never t(jrget 
the land which we are proud to call our 

This spirit of nationality, not of frothy 
patricjtism ; this sense of individual respon- 
sibility in the maintenance of a glorious 
reputation gained by our forefathers in the 
vast field of commerce ; this collectivity 
and homogeneity of thought and purpose, 
ha\-e built up the mighty fabric of our 



empire not only within oui* dominions, liLit 
coverinu that hinterland whieh is the rest 
of the world, where our rivals pause 
amazed in their endeavours to outstrip us, 
at the continuitj' of our progress, and at 
the indomitable pluek in commerce as n-ell 
as in warfare of Britain's children. The 
British empire of commerce covers the 
globe. In architecture we shine not 
excepting as architects of colossal fortunes, 
of mighty ideas gradually, mechanically, 
and surely, worked out. 

This Factory House, call it what you 
vill, Club or British Association, is not a 
monument erected by the sons of a decayed 
nation ; the thousands that pass by it are 
prcjbabi)' LinmindfLil of the glorious 
traditions it represents, of the majesty 
which commei'ce confers on a pet>ple «4io, 
by toil, became not only prosperous but 
apostles of light. As we ascend that 
staircase we remember that it has 
resouncied to the scabbard of famous 
warriors, officers in some of our crack 
regiments of the guards and line, so many 
of \\h(.)ni fell in the terrible Peninsular 
campaign. In the banqueting hall many 
of these heroes ha\'C been feasted. It is a 
fine njom with a long table down the 
centre capable of seating about sixty 
guests. Only the dinner is ser\'ed here, 
dessert being prepared in another room of 
similar proportions leading from it, and of 
the latter I produce a photograph. When 
lighted lip the effect is very grand; 
better still when the fine ^\•inc begins to 
circulate. The ball-room (which is con- 
tigLious) is a spacious and artistically 
decorated apar-tment with embedded Doric 
pillars, gallery for orchestra, &c. The 
accompanyin.L; photograph gi\'es one a very 
good idea of this room devoted to the 
Terpsiehorean art. The billiard and 
smoking I'oom, sitting i-ooms, and all the 
appLU-tenanees of a cUib liouse on a large 
scale are comprised in this fine bLiilding 
which is maintained by a smaller number 

of members than any institution or- 
association of its kind. 

The library contains close on 20,000 
volumes, hut of paintings, beyond two oil 
colours in the dining room, there is none. 
About one of these pictures there is the 
following tradition : — The son of a former 
steward, much after the fashion of some 
boys of the present day, attempted his 
skill at the decorati\'e art on the walls of 
the rooms by making original designs in 
black lead. This, naturally, could not be 
tolerated, but as some of the members 
recognised a cei'tain amount of talent in 
the would-be artist he was sent to Italy to 
study at the expense of the members. In 
gratitude to his benefactors, Joao Vieira, 
such was his name, presented them with a 
large cjil painting supposed to represent 
Eleanor sucking the poison from her 
husband's arm. It is dated 1795, and is 
not wholly without merit. The other 
picture is supposed to be a correct 
likeness of Consul John Whitehead. 

Now, respecting this Factor^' House I 
must tell you that I had the \'ery greatest 
difficulty in obtaining any information 
about it, and, in fact, what I am able to 
place bef(jre my readers was not i,>btained 
from Oporto, but from official sources in 
London. Where the building now stands 
there «'ere three houses \\hich had been 
boLight hy the British merchants for 
residential and club purposes, but \^•hich 
were pulled down in 1786, so as to make 
room for the building of the present 
Factory House, the cost of which \\as 
defrayed hy a contribution which by 
special Act of the British Parliament was 
imposed on the exportation of wine at the 
rate of MK) reis per pipe ; 400 reis per pipe 
of oil, 100 I'cis per bag of wool; 00 reis 
per box of fruit, 25 i-cis per quintal of cork 
wood ; 60 reis per barrel of tartar. This 
contribution was distinct from the one 
authorised by another Act of Parliament 
on the freight earned b\' Hnglish vessels 


«hich was applied to shipwrecked and under whom the Hnghsh factories in 

in\-alid sailors as well as for the mainten- Portu.t<al enjoyed greater freedom than 

ance of the Consul and Chaplain of the they had done previously, or for many 

British residents ; hut hoth contrihutions years after the Restoration, 
were received and administered by the Our ancestors in Oporto are not always 

Consul and the merchants through a described by the consular representatives 

treasui-er annually appointed by them. in euhjgistic terms, as will be seen later on, 

As 1 am, in another chapter, giving a hut they suffered grievances which, now 

copy of all the documents I possess fortunateU', nrj longer exist. Their children 

respecting the Factory House 1 will limit were nearl)- alwaj-s kidnapped when they 

my remarks here to obser\ing that, on the were aboLit eight years old, and taken 

in\asion (jf PortLigal by the French, and charge of by the Inquisitorial Fathers in 

for a short time after, the building was order to be brought up in the Faith of 

turned into a hostelry, with an eating-house Home, and on the slightest suspicion of 

for all English travellers, and there was interfering with the religion of the State 

also a public coffee-room at the entrance the parents were c<jnsigned to a dungeon, 

to the building, managed by a man of the 'I'he first document to which I give publicity 

the name of Oueiroz, where every and any is a statement made by the Rev. Samuel 

person might be provided with drinks, Barton, chaplain to the port factory, of 

free admission being granted to English " his illusage at Oporto, and of his being 

captains and clerks to read the public forced away therefrom." It is a history 

papers in a room set aside for that in itself, and is dated .March 8th, 1882-3. 
purpose; furthermore, sales by public Upon the 13th of Ap«l in the )ear i.'„S2 I was 

„ ^. 1 1 J ■ ^i -1 'leputed by the Right Revd. Father in God 

auction were tor a time held in the said '' , ^\j- , ?, 1 . u ^ 

Henry, L"- Bishop oi London, to be Preacher to 

house, under the Arches at the entrance j^e Factory at Oporto in Portugal. I arrived 

where the English merchants desired to there due the ;!j the same year and \vas received 

establish them instead of in the streets as into the house of English merchants, partners, 

was the custom, but they were not able to ■"^I''- P^'^r Burrell, .Mr. Peter Baldwin, Mr. 

^ ^1 ■ -I ,| n . - Archibald Mayne, and quickly after my arrival 

carry out their wish as the l^ortuguese , I , • , , 

^ began to exercise my lunction duly e\erv Sunday 

merchants w.nild not join them, seeing that according to the order prescrib'd by the Church 

the building was British, and not national. of England, privately in the same house, the 

I will again refer to some treaties of whole Factory comonly resorting thither except 

peace and commerce entered into between four who before my coming had resorted to the 

, , ^- r 1 1 i<- ■ r • -1 , Church of Rome. And in the doing of this itho' 

the two nations. In 1446 special privileges .,,,„., . u , , 

A If 17 T'- r indeed the Bishop of the place made some enquiry 

were granted by Dom Affonso V., King of concerning me and sent for the English Vice 

Portugal, to English merchants trading in Consul to know the intent and grounds of my 

his dominions, and in 1571 a treaty of li\ing there) yet I met with no manner of dis- 

commerce between the two kingdoms was turbance till a little before the Christmasse 

entered into. In 1(S40 certain articles Allowing, at which time havmg given warmng of 

of commerce were concluded between 

the Sacrament which I intended that day to 
administer about 4 or 5 days ere it came I was 

Charles I. and Dom Joao I\'., and among summoned to appear before the Chancellor or 

them not the least important was that deputy Governor of Oporto. .Accordingly I went 

which allowed Englishmen the free to him and with me went the Vice-CoDsul, Mr. 

exercise of their religion, without the Edward Murcot, and Mr. Peter Burrell one of the 

... , , merchants at whose house I lived. "When I came 

interference of the Inquisition. I nese ., ^. n 1 1 i r u ■ t 

' 1 the Chancellor demanded of me what time I came 

concessions were again confirmed during ^^ y,. cty, and what my business was there' I 

the Protectorate of 01i\-er Cromwell, told him the time that I came to be Preacher to 



the English Factory. I le demanded by what 
authnritv ^ In answer whereLuitc) I produced a 
Paper which I hati to }''■ purpose in Latine, sign'd 
and seal'd 1)V the L^'- Bisliop of London. That 
he read and then told me that there could be no 
such thing allow'd there. He was answer'd that 
the Articles of I'eace allrjwed us the privilege, 
and we quoted the 14th ^Vrticle which ailo\vs the 
English the free exercise of y""- religion in 
private wch they cou'd not exercise as they ought 
to d(j w"' -out a Minister. Me answer'd that 
the Article ijul)- meant that e\-ery Englishman 
might exercise his own Religion in private but not 
y' all the English families in the City should 
meet together for y' purpose. We replied y' the 
Article had bin otherwise understood formerly, fir 
they had bin a Minister at Oporto undisturbed for 
se\'eral years. Pie answer'd that \\as alco tcntJHiic 
(I suppose he must mean under a different state of 
affairs) that he was a chaplain to a particular 
nobleman (l(jr so I have heard some say^ that he 
was to the Earle of Sandwich, tho' wt that cou'd 
signify towards tire licensing of him to preach at 
Oporto I cannot tell), and in fine that he was 
remanded home again at last I.'}' order from the 
prince (w*^'^ it he were it is more than any of the 
Factory or anyone else y' f can meet w"' e\-er 
heard of). We replied stiil that there was a 
Preacher allowed at Lisbon and that the Articles 
were the same for all p"^ of the Kmg^ f-fe 
ans\\ered that he at Lisborr was in the Embas- 
sador's House, which was free to all counlrys. 
We told him there had bin one at l^isbon when 
no lunbassador was there, and when there was 
one lie had preached a great while in the Consul's 
house and not iir the Envoy's. He gave us no 
answer to that, but only that it was the Prince's 
command I should be gone, and that I should 
embarque upon the next shipi. Yet he would not 
straighten me to the very next (there being one 
then ready to be gone) but it should suffice if 1 
went by the next after. I desir'd that 1 might 
have liberty to go to Lisbon first, but y' he said 
he could not grant. Being returned home with 
this answer I was atfvis'd to send him a Petition, 
y' I might have leave to go to Lisbon and 
embarque thence. And accordingly the Vice- 
Consul drew up a Petitirm in the Portuguese 
Language t(j this ellect, viz , That udiereas we had 
war with Sally and none but siuall \essels went 
from (Jporto therefore considering the danger I 
might be in, I made it my humble request that I 
might ha\e liberty to go for IJsbon and embarcjue 
thence in a Ship of better Delence. This Petition 
the Vice-Consul carried him and the Answer he 
brought was, That the Cliancellor wou'd sent it to 

the Prince and I might stay at Oporto till I had 
an answer, prcnided I did not exercise m}' Function 
in the meantime. So I continued there and obey'd 
the orders, we having no farther meeting then 
after that time, But the Factory wrote a Letter 
subscrili'd by a good number of 'em to Mr. 
F'anshawe to desire his Assistance, He told me he 
had mov'd in the business and shou'd nrjt fail to 
do the utmost he cou'd and seem'd to think they 
wou'd grow more moderate, at least that they 
would irot presume to send me out of the Country 
and advis'd me not to depart unless they sent me 
away by Order of Justice, but within 3 weeks or 
a month [I do ni:)t exactly^ remember whether) after 
my f^etition had been sent to Lisbon, I was agam 
sunt for by the Chancellor wdio told me my 
Petition had been presented to the Prince h\ii he 
did not think fit to grant it, but continu'd his 
comand that I shou'd embanjue from Oporto by 
the next Ship. I told him I had orders from the 
Envoy not to go unless sent away in a course of 
Justice, He answered that I shou'd be if I plea'd 
and promis'd tc> gi\'e me a Comand under his hand. 
There was then no English Ship in the Harbour 
but we were to wait upon him again when one 
came to have the Comand under his hand and he 
took Securit}' in the meantime (a \"erbal security 
of the Vice-Consul and Mr. Elurrell, who were 
piresent in 5,000 Crowns that I shou'd not go to 
Lisbon in the meanwhile). Of all this we gave 
notice to Mr. Fanshawe (\xho I di.mbt not did his 
best Endeavour in the case, Imt how far he might 
be hinder'd by that .Vccident wliich befell the 
Merchants in Lisbon 1 know not) and he still was 
of opinion that tho' they did silence me for the 
present, yet they wou'd niit presume to send me 
by publique order out of the Countr\-. But so 
soon as an English Ship arrived within 4 or 5 days 
he sent for me again and told me he unclerstood 
such a Ship {\iz. the Palm-rree) was arrived and 
Coraanded me to embarque upon \-' Ship. He 
was then told over again that I had orders not to 
go aways unlesse lie wou'd send me awav in a 
Course of Justice, So he told me he wou'd and 
that when the Consul came to him (as is the 
Custom) to dispatch [he Ship he wou'd send a 
Marinlio [lUiii nili,') with me (so they call an 
(Hlicer til, It is used in .Vrrests, etc.) to ha\ e me on 
board. And accordingly so he did. On Monday 
February /;., he sent his Marinho and a Scri\ener 
with him to passe a Certificate of what he did. 
So they h,id me on board late in the night and the 
next mnrning we came o\er the Barre, I^ut the 
Merchants promis'd to take the Certificate and 
send it after me. Since my arriwd in England I 
received a letter from one of them b\- a Ketch 



y' parted thence 4 Days after the Ship that I 

caroe on, In it I am advised that the Certificate 

shall bs sent by the next Ship together with a 

Letter from the Factory to my L"' of London 

which they had not then leisure to write. 

March 8. i6 S,^. 


Earlier in the same year Consul 
Maynard, writing from Lisbon to the 
Secretary of State, refers to the ill-treat- 
ment of the Re\'. Samuel Barton, and, 
in the course of his dispatch, says : — 

" To which I replied : that no man knew better 
than my Selfe (beiny employed in that bussinesse) 
that King John the 4th did grant to us the free 
exercise of our Keligion in Portugal, and told me 
after he had Ratified the Treaty, that we should 
doe to give noe scandal to his Subjects but have 
our Meetings as privately as we could, and after- 
wards for 22 years together Dr. Cradocke, the 
Bishop of Peterborough, that is now, used their 
Function in my house and for other Divines, 
though I was no Publicke Minister and in Oporto 
they had a Minister for several years and preached 

in a Merchant's House The Secretary 

of State is a L)ominican Fryer, and a Bishop, and 
a principal Member of the Inquisition so wee may 
expect little favour from him." 

The next document to which 1 give 
publicity refers to a dispute between the 
()port(j Factory and Consul Thomas 
Maynard as to the power of the lattei- to 
appoint or recall a Vice-Consul. 

Oporto, Gth March, iGHj. 
Worthy Sir, 

Your general letter to the Factory came well 
to hand as alsoe your prohibition to Mr. Murcot 
in acting any farther in the Consulship, or Lingoa, 
the latter is not well understood ; neither will the 
Factory consent to your option without have 
better grounds, your patent not haveing any such 
tenour, the Chamber with the approbation of the 
Factory elects one whome they finde most capable, 
and deserving ; this is their allegation ; and further 
they wonder you should impose or intrench on 
their privileges whereas they never violated any 
of yours, never denying the Consulage, for you are 
well assur'd it hath been punctually paid and will 
so continue ; Your nomination of a persone so 
well knowne by some, and others by hearsay will 
be hard to impise them, without the approbation 
of their principals in England and are fully 
resolved to withstand you to the utmost. Thus 
I finde myselfe in Duty to acquaint you with their 

humour and designe, as allso my bare single 
opinion, which is to let it run as it has done; I 
meane the Consulage and then \"ou m.ay li\'e in 
quiet trouble yourselfe no farther; neither will 
they molest you. Thus have I shot my bolt I 
hope you will pardon me. 
I am. Sir, 

Your affectionate Sonn and Servant, 

The dispute between Consul .Maynard 
and the Factory i-eferred to abo\-e was 
owing to Consul Murcot having gone over 
to the Roman Catholic religion. Thomas 
Maynard obtained his patent as Consul- 
General for Hngland from Oliver Crom\\-ell, 
and it can be easily understood that he 
was, what is now tei-med, a dissenter, and 
a very ultra-protestant. Ha\ing obtained 
his Consular Patent he had the confirming 
of the selection of Consuls or \'ice- 
Consuls to act under him in different parts 
of Portugal, \\here\'er there was an English 
c.ommunity. The selection was made b\- 
the Members of the Factories who then 
submitted the name of the one chosen to 
the Camara and Ci\'il Go\'ern<;i% mcj'ely 
as a formality, after which the appointment 
recjuii-ed the confirmation of the CimtsuI 
General in Lisbon to whom the Consular 
fees, less a small percentage, were i-emitted. 
The electing of such a Consul was by the 
votes of the members of the Factories, 
and on one occasion in Lisbon w here the 
\'otes were ecjually divided between two 
cmdiJates, the Consul, to get over the 
diffictilty, appcjinted both of them \'ice- 
Consuls. In a letter 10 the Oporto Factory 
dated 27th February, 1683, Consul-General 
.Maynard refers to his having re\'oked the 
p:)wers conferred by him on Vice-Consul 
Murcot, but that, notwithstanding this 
revocation the members of the Factoiy 
had continued to employ him as \'ice- 
Consul and Lingoa (Interpreter or Trans- 
lator). Continuing, he says: — 

Mr. John AVillmore is preparing himselfe with 
all Expedition to goe to take possession of the 
Vice-Consulship whome I deputed long since for 




that employment ; and I am sure that you will by 
his Industr)' and Long Experience of aftairs in 
this Country be very well satisfied with his 
Service, and his discreet carriage and proficiencie 
in the Portuguese Language, will render him grate- 
full to you and merrit all your good wills and 
affections ; in the meane tyme before he cau 
arrive there ; which will be in few Days I have 
intreated iSIr, Castel to dispatch y'our Ships and 
serve you in an)'thing else. 

As, however, the members of the Opofto 
Factory considered that the appointment 
of a \'ice-Consul without it being by their 
election was an infringement of theii' 
rights and privileges, and bej'ond the 
powers conferred by the patent on Consul 
Thomas Alaynard, thev refused to recei\e 
Mr. .John Wilimore. The fact is the 
English merchants and Factors in Oporto 
were enthusiastic royahsts, as they are to 
this day, and they would not quietly 
submit to the will of a Consul who had 
been appointed by the regicide. In their 
reply to Consul Maynard they note that 
Mr. (John Wilimore is making preparations 
for his journey, hut they state that : — 

" Ere we receive any person . you must 

give us )ea\'e first to be well informed of the 
encomiums you give him amongst wdiich had you 
inserted his fidelity it would not have made him 
the lesse acceptable to us, provided it might be no 
blemish to his other accomplishments, else we 
cannot persuade ourseh'es our approbation could 
be gratefull to our principalis, seeing theirs noe 
lesse than our owne Estates are more immediately 
concerned in the affaire not imagining that any 
private Reason you may have, can be sufficient to 
expose either to hazard, wherefore Sir you must 
pardon us if wee suspend our consent to your 
propositions: till we haxe the miituall Concurrence 
of our Chorespondents herein being well satisfied 
there doiit want ver\" judicious men on the 
Exchange of London that of their owne experience 
can impartially represent to our friends the 
unquestionable honesty and abilitj' of the worthy 

Gentleman you ]Tropose to us 

as touching the three nullrcs which we ha\e 
disposed of as a gratuity wee did it on such mature 
consideration that wee shall ever owne our said 
act, while good reason may induce us to bestow 
it elsewhere and Sir during this inhibition of 
Mr. Murcot's oHiciating ; we shall not interrupt 

Mr. Castell in his private affaires that relate more 
nerely to him, having servants of our owme to 
supply the defect. To this wee shall be attending 
your Answer." 

The signatories to this remarkable 
document are P. Burrel, Pet. Bald\-\'in, 
John Lister, Will Adams, Richard Shipton, 
Matthew Kenrick, Ben. Lordell, Peter 
Lawrens, Samuel Lordell, \Vm. Burgoyne, 
John Stephens, and Abraham Mayne. It 
is dated 6th March, 1683. 

Naturally Consul Majmard was much 
vexed with the Oporto Factoi's, and in a 
dispatch to the Secretarj' of State, he 
says : — 

'■ I mai.le my Agreement with the Merchants 
trading to Portugal for the sallary contained in 
my I^atent as I did for what I was to pay out of it, 
which was a hundred pounds a vear to the 
minister of this factor}', and noe more, as my 
Patent very clearly explained." 

In order to enforce his authority Consul 
Maynard had recotu'se to tlie law, for he 
says : — 

" But they continued obstinate to have none but 
Murcot Howexer, I proceeded to cecal his patent 
to which he put a demurr, and so runs a Law- 
suile with me to this Day, haveing the assistance 
of that Factory to support him ; and upon this 
account Severalls of them denv to pay me mv 
Rights with whome I am conslramed to contend 
in Law Lykewy se, and of this I complained in my 
f.ord Sunderland's tynie being then Secretarv of 

In another document the fnllowing 
appears abotit the Port Factory : — 

'• So ignorant are these young men (the I'actors), 
as to suffer themsel\-es to be imposed upon by 
those that are fallen off to the Church of Rome 
and some tow that are the most fittest for 
that purpose are embarkt for England ... 
which are one Pickering, Sonne of Sir Gilbert 
Pickering, sometyme a Member of Cromwell's 
Ciuinsel, the other name is John AX'riolh.dy, and 
both Factors to Mr. 1-Ioubson of London . . ." 

At last the matter was settled by the 
appointment of Mr. John Lee as Deputy- 
Cdiisul, in 1690, and Consul Thomas 
Maynard was eventtuilly remo\'ed from 
Lisbon owing to the strong oppositi(_)n 



shown him by the Factories of Oporto 
and the Capital. 

The i<idnapping of Protestant children 
was one of the greatest grievances of the 
English residents in Oporto. On tlie 4th 
April, 1706, Consul John Milner writes: — 

"As to the business of the Children haveing 
the Assistance of your favourable protection and 
support I shall take all possible care either to 
prevent their being taken, or to recover them for 
the future. My Lord Gallaway twice before he 
went desired me to continue the Solicitation for 
those already taken." 

In another dispatch the same Consul 
writes : — 

"Another great complaint is about taking and 
stealing children of which there are too many 
instances, and one very lately, and never recovered 
but the little boy they took from me. This has 
been complained of a great while, and at last upon 
my Lord Callaway's application there was an 
Alv»- passed (which I send you enclosed) which 
instead of redressing the evil gi\es full power to 
take all above 7 years old, being then as they 
pretend able to choose their religion, which as it 
is y- most inhuman and barbarous method that 
ever was taken in any Country, so certainly is the 
highest affront and indignity to the Queen Herself, 
and as there are many marryed families in Portugal, 
exposes them to the hazard of losing y' Children 
for ever. My Lord Gallaway says, he did protest 
against this Alv^"- and gave an account of it home. 
Yet a little before he went a child was stolen from 
her Mother and carried to a Condegas, and upon 
his and my application, no satisfaction could be 

In 1 7 10 the Port Factory protested against the 
heavy duties imposed upon "all Wine, Oyl, 
Brandys, Shumach, etc.," contending that this 
was in opposition to the Treaty wherein it was 
stipulated " we are not to pay any duty .... 
but the Consulado of 4 per cent." 

The British Factor)- at Oporto was then 
composed of men dealing in woollen goods, 
cotton yarns, exporting wine, fruit and 
oil, etc\ They also petitioned that " they 
might have the Privilege confirmed to them 
of sending home Bullion, as money in 
exchange for their commodities." The 
sionatories are Geo. Clark, Geo. Hammond, 
Timothy Harris, Malachy Pyne, Robert 

Jackson, Dowker, Stuckey and Stert, 
Phayre, ct Bradley, Jackson, Turner &Co., 
John Alaggott, John Stevenson, William 
Sa\-age, John Lee (Consul;, \\'right & 
Lewen, Duncalf & Foster, James Brails- 
ford & Co., Aylward & Pearce. 

The exportation of bullion from Pijrtugal 
had long been prohibited, and the infringe- 
ment of this Law on various occasions gave 
rise to much bitter feeling between the 
British factors and the natives. It was no 
unusual thing for the former to conceal 
mone)' in the wine casks, btit when they 
were detected e\-erything was confiscated 
to the State, ship and all the cargo, and 
the captain and his crew cast intodungeons. 
Thus on the i} January-, 1683, Consul 
Maynard, in a dispatch to England, 
writes : — 

"I made bold about three dajs since to gi\e 
your Honour a hasty Relation of an unlucky 
business that befel the Factory upon our English 
New A'ear's Day, since I gave you the trouble of 
that Paper there hath been more money found 
aboard those unfortunate ships, it will exceed 
fifteen thousand pound in all, wee cannot yet have 
notice of the certainty what is lost, I wish it doe 
not amount to twenty thousand pound sterling, 
their Ministers proceed with the Merchants and 
Seamen in Prison with the greatest severity and 
our Lawyers tell us that they streth the Laws to 

the utmost Rigour the Merchants 

have been in a dungeon e\'er since they were 
apprehended, e\"ery man in a hoi and none suffered 
to speak with either of them. Leonard Bushel 
the Master of the Resolution hath confest all the 
mone}" that was aboard his ship, William Bird 
hath declared that he bad three thousand pieces 
of Eight, and Thomas Thornton, confest he had 
a thousand pounds in both ships, and John Smith 
from whose house the money was carried hath 
confest to every particular circumstance, and so 
have the English Seamen that carried the money 
aboard, and I feere Smith hath declared something 
of past actions, if so many of this Factory will be 
Comprehended and our greate Enemy the Conde 
de Terceira will drive it on to the utmost of his 

malice All the goods that 

were aboard those two unfortunate ships are 
brought ashore and put into Warehouses, so that 
we cannot be Master of anything that wee had 
there. I had a little Wyne and some other things 


in the Ship, Grace and Susan, and hoped to have of a Spanish missionary, a Franciscan 
received the Honour of your Acceptance, but Fryar, wlio is daily stirring up the People 
nothing will prevaile with tlieir severity, and I a'-'ainst us, tellin;^ them that 'tis a reproach 

thinli Mr. Fanshawe is in the same condition with 

and scandal to them and their Religion, t<j 

the Wynes he had aboard there were about 600 ,-,,■■ ^ , , ri i 

Pypes and Hogsheads of Wyne in both Ships and suffer a false Rehgion to he puhhkly p. o- 

tliey open every vessel and search them for mony fcss'd among them A serious 

in which they have made a good progresse without state of affairs had ensued, since "this 

iinding any the' they spoile the Wynes, when this Fryar \\-as no oi'dinary Fryar, as hy an 

diligence is over tlie Ministers say, all the goods i^jefatigahle and Furious Zeal and by 
shall be delivered to the Owners if they be not 

- , c ,u T-' !„„,„ Several little tricks of leger de mam . . . 

convicted of sendmg monv out of the Kmgdome, -^ ^ r o ■ ■' 

and seeing I cannot^be Master of those I intended he has acquired the reputation ot a Samt. 

for your honour before this ship goes, I have This petition is signed hy Geo. Brailsford, 

made bolde to send aboard this ship the Tyger, a Geo. Hammond, Hum: Duncalf, George 

Hogshead of White Wyne, etc'' " Bulllmore, William Savage, Roh'' Godschan, 

Is it necessary to add that our country- Benedict Stafford, Rich''- Thc^mpson, Sam: 

men never got their money or their goods .^ Brailsford, Sam: Foster, David Jackson 

In fact, dtiring the establishment of (Consul), Peter Dovvker, George Clarke, 

Hnglish Factories in Portugal vexatious Sampson Stert. Before the year had 

measures were the order of the day. expired the said Fryar had, b)' order (jf the 

In 1710 our countrymen in Oporto once King, been turned out of Portugal and 

again endea\oured to obtain the exercise ordered not to return " under the penalty 

of the pri\ ileges that had been granted of being punished as the King of Portugal 

them, more especially respecting a house can, that is, the sending him to Angola in 

in which they might worship God according Africa." Again on the I4th Nov"^- 1718 do 

to their faith. Rutin 1718 Consul Henry the "Consul, Merchants, and other, your 

Worsley informs the Secretary of State Majesty's Subjects, residing in O Porto " 

that "the Chancellor of O Porto had petition their Sovereign for the redress of 

forbid the Hnglish to have any such their grievances and state that " this four- 

iMeetings for the future, for the Exercise teenth day of November 1718the Chancellor 

of their Religion, Since the said Chancellor of this City issued an Order from the King 

ordered an English Merchant the master of Portugal forbidding all such Meetings 

of the House where they used to meet to (religious) for the future." This is signed 

leave it in 8 days time, under the penalty by David Jackson (Constil), John Allen, 

of being imprison'd, and v\-hereas he had Geo. Allen, John Ltind, W'" Pawson, 

bought it, the person that had sold it to Alexander Fry, John Bankes. Alexander 

him was order'd to rettirn him his money Allen, John Page, Edward Strutt, Benj: 

btit as yet an order has not been executed. Bo)-den, Ste: Dupuis, \\'"'- Harris. Nicholas 

Hcjwever they are prohibited to meet for Travernier, John Pitman, Robert Rogers, 

the Exercise of their Religion." Btit the Jtinr., James Godfrey, Henry \\'eston, 

members of the Oporto Factory have Daniel Primrose (Chaplain), Humphrey 

alwa)'s been worthy the name of EZnglish- Duncalf, Samtiel Foster, Robert Godschall, 

men; they did not desire to interfere with Geo. Clarke, Geo. Hammond, \\''" Ham- 

the religion of the State, but they wt)uld mond, John Stevens, Sampson Stert, Peter 

not be molested in their devotions, and so Dowker, Tymothy Harris, Robert Jackson, 

they kept on writing to Mr. Worsley, the James Brailsford, Geo. Brailsford, Geo. 

Constil at Lisbon, and in a petition dated Ikillimore, William Savage, Charles Ham- 

1718 they set forth that " by the instigation mond, Thomas Croft, Rich: Dowker. 



According to the Consul's report from 
Oporto, Divine Ser\ice iiad been held " in 
a private Merchant's house, in a bacli- 
ward room, that has no manner of 
communication with the Street, liut looks 
into the Merchant's garden and the Street 
door is i<ept shut, as well before as during 
thetimeof Divine Service." These petitions 
continued being presented, but met with 
little success until this centui-)', when the 
Portuguese go\'ernment allowed the British 
residents in Oporto to build a chapel. 

The constitution of these British Fac- 
tories in Portugal is not generally known. 
By an Act of the English Parliament these 
Factories were authorised and instructed 
to levy import duties on all goods recei\ed 
into Portugal from Great Britain, the 
amount of the contribution to be raised 
being settled by Parliament. These con- 
tributions were levied on each member of 
the Factory presenting a declaration of the 
value of the goods he had imported, and 
the money thus received was paid into the 
Factory treasury. From this fund the 
consul received his salary, and in certain 
instances the chaplain as well. It seems 
that there was a considerable amount of 
trouble sometimes in getting in the money, 
for on the 5th May, 1720, N.S., the Consul 
writes to the Secretary of State, who had 
informed him that a previous communi- 
cation from him had been referred to the 
consideration of the Commissioners of 
Trade, " 1 would beg leave to take notice 
to you farther that this Affair grows every 
day worse : and as the ill example of those 
who have withdrawn themselves from our 
Publick Meetings, and have refused to 
give their Accounts of Contributions, is 
attended with no ill consequences to them, 
1 am afraid that this Impunity will in- 
fluence even those who have hitherto con- 
tinued punctually in their payments, so far 
as to retain their Contributions in their 
own hands, to apply to such Law Suits as 
they may be engaged in, and as they shall 

think fit to call National Ones. By this 
means, the Publick Officers of .Justice, and 
Lawyers as well as the Chaplain to the 
Factory may find no Money in the 
Treasury to discharge their Salarys." In 
another communication it is suggested 
in order to pay off some debts that " a 
Ryder to s(jme Bill during this Session of 
Parliament (1726) be added, whereby it 
may be enacted that all Goods imported 
into Portugal from any Foi'eign f-^cjrts in 
British Bottoms should be subject to the 
same Contribution as is required by the 
Act of Pai-liament past in the Eighth Year 
of His Majesty's Reign t(j be paid for all 
Go(xls exported from any port of the 
D<jminl(_)ns of Great Britain to this King- 
dom Which is a thing already practised 
\\ith(jut the Authority of Parliament in 
most of the British Factorys in Spain. 
They (the members of the Factory) flatter 
themseUes that you will honoui'them with 
your Protection in this affair, and thro' 
the weight of your Recommendation, 
Obtain for them the Ryder above men- 

It is e\'ident by the abo\e documents 
that the British Factories in Portugal were 
officially recognised by the British Govern- 
ment, inasmuch as the members enjoyed 
the power of selecting their own consuls, 
or, more correctly speaking, deputy- 
consuls, and their chaplains, for the main- 
tenance of \\hom they had a fund raised 
by the contributions levied on goods 
imported from Great Britain, and these 
contributions were fi.xed by Act of Parlia- 
ment. In fact, the home authorities had 
such confidence in the members of the 
British Factory at Oporto that on the 
16th April, 1741, these were informed that 
" the Admiralty had intrusted the com- 
manders of His Majesty's ships stationed 
on this coast, to obey the directions of 
this Factory and to be entirely at their 
disposal." Respecting this fa\our shown 
our predecessors in Oporto, it is recorded 


in a dispatch to the Duke of Newcastle the firm of Harris, Page & Pratt, the 

that " The Factory is mightily pleased founders of the present firm of Messrs. 

with this unexpected Po«'er given them. Noble & Murat, married, in 1728, Ann 

which they look upon as an unprecedented Dowker, daughter of Mr. Peter Dowker, 

favour; I \\ish they may use it with Dis- originator of the firm of Lambert, Kingston 

cretion and that it may be a means to and Co. ; therefore the descendants of this 

suppress the Malignity -which reigns in couple can lay claim to a connection ^^•ith 

most of the Members towards the present two \'ery old firms — nay, to four or more. 

Administration. (Signed) John Burnaby as 1 will show you further on. 

Parker." That there was not unanimity In 1733 John Wye mari-ied, at Oporto, 

among the Members of the Oporto Factory Sai-ah Page, sister of the above-mentioned 

is highly probable, because the names of John Page, and one of the descendants 

some prominent Merchants who v.:-re of this marriage was Sir Robert Newman, 

living there do not appear as subscribers Bart., of the firms of Messrs. Newman, 

to the various petitions, but I think there Hunt & Co., of St. John's, Newfoundland, 

can be no doubt that all the British sub- and Hunt, Roope, Teage & Co., of Oporto, 

jects trading in tlie place were Members The first record I have of the Wye family 

of the Factory irrespective of the nature as port wine shippers goes back to 1741. 

of their business. It is as follows : — 

It seems, by documents in my posses- Jcjhn Wye ... ... ... 1741 

sion, that when the British community first John and George Wye & Co — 1763 

established itself in Oporto, the Members John Wye ... ... ... 1767 

thereof intermarried far more than is now In the j-ear 1734, at John Page's house 

the case. It must be evident, therefore, in the Rua Nova dos Inglezes, was born 

to such as are accustomed to study the Sarah Wye, daughter of the aforesaid 

pedigreesof private families that it becomes John Wye and Sarah his wife, and in 1754 

somewhat difficult to decide to whom pre- this young lady was married to John Page, 

cedence is to be given in the matter of junior. Next to her came her brother 

antiquity, seeing that data are so often John, who was born at \'illa Nova in 1736. 

wanting. Furthermore, in dealing \\'ith and married Elizabeth W^ird in .May, 1761. 

any one of the old English families of The ceremony was performed bv the Rev. 

Oporto I sometimes find that if I start William Emmanuel Page, .M..A., chaplain 

with one name it is connected with more to the British Factory at Oporto from 

than one firm. The reason for these 1756 to 1777, when he became N'icar of 

intermarriages at that time is obvious. Frodsham, in Cheshire. Then came 

Those who were domiciled in Oporto had Susanna, boi-n in December, 1738, and 

not the facilities for visiting England that George, born November, 1740, at X'illa 

now exist, and consequently, if matri- Nova, and who married Charlotte Maria 

monially inclined, contented themselves Page in 1766. 

with the limited selection of English I must again refer to the marriage of 

ladies at their disposal. To illustrate my John Page with Ann Dowker in 1728, 

argument I will mention the follo\\ing which was solemnized by the Rev. Henry 

case: — Pakenham, described as minister of the 

Mr. John Page, who was born in the Poi-t Factory. By this marriage there 

Rua Nova de S. Niciilao (afterwards called were nine sons and fi\e daughters. The 

Rua Nova dos Inglezes), Oporto, in 1702, eldest son, John, was twice married, first 

and who eventually became a partner in to .Miss Sarah Page and then to a Miss 


Moore ; William Emmanuel and Stephen 
came next, the former entered the Church, 
and was, as already mentioned, chaplain 
for the Factory at Oporto ; then came 
Charles who married Isabella Ward In 
1771 ; then Thomas, Gregory, Samuel, 
Christopher, and Peter. The daughters 
were Anna, who probably died single, and 
according to a certificate I have before 
me, she was baptised 
on the 17th August, 

1729, "by Joseph 

Sims, chaplain to the 

British Factory, Lis- 
bon, West Lisbon." 

Elizabeth, the next 

daughter, married 

John Cauiette, some- 
times spelt Caulet, 

widower, on the 29th 

of April, 1749; he 

was partner in the 

firm of Cauiette, 

Clarmont and Lin- 
wood, of Oporto. 

Amelia married Mr. 

Thomas Trollope on 

the 30th of March, 

1750; he was partner 

in the firm of Warre, 

Lesueur & Trollope. 

Priscilla married Mr. 

Campion, of the firm 

of Page, Campion 

and Co., of Oporto, 

whose relatives, if 

not himself, were 

connected with the 

old firm of Etty, Offley, Campion and 

Co., and Charlotte Maria married a 

Mr. Wye. 

Old Mr. John Page died in Oporto in 

July, 1771, and his will was opened on the 

4th of the same month, in the pre- 
sence of John Whitehead, Consul ; James 

Brett, of the firm of Brett, Pearce & Co., 

Thomas Pearce of the same firm, Gabriel is the well-known head master of Eton 

Herault and William Warton, representa- 
tive of the firm of Offley. Among various 
bequests he declares : " 1 give to my black 
slave, Francisca (if at any time my executor 
shall dismiss her his service, and she 
should not remain with any of my children), 
24 mil reis per annum during her natural 
life, to be pay'd in half-j-early payt's in 
regard to the tender care she took of most 
of 'em during the time 
of their infancy." 

The name Stafford 
may still be in the 
recollection of a few- 
English people in 
Oporto. The Staf- 
fords, as far back as 
tlie middle of the last 
century were con- 
nected with the firm 
of Dawson & Harris, 
better known in 
more recent years as 
Ouarles Harris &■ Co. 
Conway Stafford 
married Isabel Page, 
and Emma Stafford 
was married to .Mr. 
John Hatt Xoble. 
Charles Page, Junr., 
son of Charles I^age 
and Isabella Ward, 
married Margaret 
Robinson, by whom 
they had the follow- 
ing children : — Emma 
Newman, Margaret 
Ward, and Charles 
Reynolds, the latter married to Catherine 
Georgiana Daniels; Caroline to Alexander 
CockbLirn, of the firm of Messrs. Cock- 
burn, Smithes & Co. 

The Warre family is one of the most 
distinguished in Oporto, and have held 
various positions of trust there. The 
cousin of the present Mr. George Warre 

Tlie late Mr. ClidrUs ['a-^e 



College, whose brother is a canon of 
Salisbury Cathedral, and proprietor of a 
considerable amount of land in \'illa Nova. 
Mr. George Warre owns many quintas in 
the Alto Douro. Among other men of 
note I will mention the Rev. ^^'illiam 
Emmanuel Page, D.D., son of the gentle- 
man to whom I have already referred ; he 
was Senior Student of Christ Church, 
Oxford, and married Miss Daxis, of 
Bicester ; he eventually became head 
master of West- 
minster. Strange 
to say, no less 
than five of this 
family were Senior 
Students or Pel- 
lows at different 
times in the same 
college — Christ 
Church, Oxford. 
When the Murat 
family first went 
to Oporto I cannot 
tell, but as earlj' 
as 1724 I notice 
that xMary Eliza- 
beth, daughter of 
Joseph iMurat and 
Ann, his wife, was 
baptized. Then we 
ha\e the Thomp- 
sons and the Crofts 
and the Heskeths, 
the Bearsleys and 
many others who 

are still represented in the old city, and 
I very much regret that I lune been 
unable to obtain a copy of the r'egistei-s 
previous to ]7I(S. 

The copy of a silhouette on the prc\i(>us 
page is the portrait of Mr. Charles Page of 
the firm of Page & Co., of Oporto. He \\as 
born in the old city in 1770 and died in 
1834. His lather, of the same name, was 
also born in Oporto, in 1739, and died In 
1789, and, thei-efore, the former was the 

grandson of Mr. John Page, who was born 
in the Rua dos Inglezes, in 1702. The 
subject of this brief memoir had a son of 
the same name born in 1808, who also 
traded in Oporto ; he married a Miss 
Catherine Daniell, and is still li\'ing. The 
son of the last-mentioned was Mr. Charles 
Lindsey Page, bor-n at Oporto, who 
married Miss Mary E. Arnold and became 
partner in the firm of Page & Sandeman, 
of Pall Mall. This Mr. Page died in 1885, 
leaving a son, Mr. 
Charles A. Lindsey 
Page, at present 
in the employ of 
Messrs. Tatham, 
Hughes & Earle. 

The next por- 
trait is that of 
JMr. Cecil George 
Lushington Page, 
great, great-grand- 
son of Mr. John 
Page above-men- 
tioned. Mr. Cecil 
Page's sister is 
married to Mr. 
H a r r y O s w a 1 d 
^'eatman, senior 
partner in the firm 
of Messrs. Taylor. 
Fladgate & Veat- 
man, of Oporto, 
and, as I have 
already had oe- 
c.ision to sa\-, this 
lad\- and her brother arc related to most 
of the old English families who formerly 
resided in that city, and are the great- 
grandchildren of the Rew W. 1^, Page. 
D.l)., Canon of Chester, who was at one 
tniie Chaplain to the Factory of Oporto. 
1-or twelve years. Air. Cecil Page was 
eonneeted with the firm of Messrs SiKa 
and Cosens, and since 1885 he has been 
associated with Messrs. Hunt, Roope, 
Tcage & Co., of Oporto. 





NCE again 1 would im- 
\ press on my readers the 
\ importance of distin- 
/; guishing between the 
/ British Factory, and the 
British Factory House 
in Opcjrto, which latter 
is now called, by the 
members, the British 
Association. The perusal 
of the following official 
documents will show that 
at the time the building \\'as erected it ^\■as 
described as the Factory House situated 
in the Rua Nova de S. Nicolfix), now better 
known as the Rua Nova dos Inglezes, and 
furthermore in the lease it stipulates the 
amount to be annually paid as ground-rent 
in respect of the " Factory House." This 
cjuit or ground-rent was eventually com- 
muted by one payment made by the 
members so that the said property is 
virtually a freehold. I will not here dis- 
cuss the merits of the two contending 
parties, but I will leave it to the judgment 
of the present generation to say if the 
building was erected at the cost of the 
whole British community residing in 
Oporto and trading with Great Britain, or 
at the expense of a few who thereby con- 
stituted themselves guardians of the 


I, Bento de Oliveira Queiroz, Citizen of 
this district of Oporto, one of the clerks of 
the Exchec]uer, and Records of the Royal 
Crown, appointed by His Most Faithful 

Majesty, Whom may God preserve, etc'' do 
hereby certify and make known that in m)' 
Office and possession is kept the Register of 
the Leases of this Exehecjuer, and on page 
Sixty-eight of the Same is found the Lease 
of the English Factory House, and its 
appurtenances, granted by Sebastiao 
Correa de Sa, Judge of the Records and 
Royal Estates, to William Warre, Consul 
of the British Nation, to wit : — 


Perpetual Lease, granted by Sebastiaij 
Correa de Sa, Gentleman of the Roj-al 
Household, One of His Royal Highness 
the f-'rince Regent's Counsellors, and Judge 
of the Records of the Royal Estates in 
this City, and district, tu William Warre, 
Consul of the British Nation, of the 
English Factory House, and its appur- 
tenances Situated in the New Street of 
Saint Nicholas, in this City; subject to 
the annual quit-rent of three thousand reis, 
payable to his Royal Highness the Prince 
Regent, and with the Dominion of one in 

Ix THE of God, Amex. Kxow 
AEE Men, to whom this Public Instrument 
of Perpetual Lease, may come. Greeting ; 
or as it may or shall have more value and 
force by Law ; that in the year of our Lord, 
One thousand eight hundred and six, on the 
sixth day of December, in this city of 
Oport(j, and at the house of Sebasti;io 
Cfjrrea de Sa, Gentleman of the Royal 
Household, Judge of the Records of the 
Royal Estates, and Judge Commissioner of 
Leases in the same Records, etc"' where I, 



Philip Jose de Souza, Clerk of the Exchequer 
came for the purpose of extending the 
Lease, and the Contracting parties being 
there present, to wit : — On the one part, 
the said Judge of the Records, and Mancjel 
da Cruz Maya, Knight of the Order of 
Christ, Solicitor of the Ci'own Lands, and 
of the said Records of the Crown in this 
City; and on the other part, JoaX) 
Rodrigues Barboza, one of the Solicitors 
of the Supreme Court of Judicature and 
Attorney (as proved hy the Power of 
Attorney he produced, and which remains 
in my possession) of William Warrc, 
Consul of the British Nation, whom I 
recognise as well as the said Attorne)', and 
the other contracting Parties, and to whom 
I give all faith, and the said Attorney Joiu) 
Rodrigues Barboza said in my presence, 
and in that of the hereinafter signed wit- 
nesses, that his said Constituent, for him- 
self and as Consul of the British Nation, 
were Holders and Possessors of a large and 
Noble Building which they had built in the 
new street of Saint Nicholas, and entitled 
the Factory House, erected on the sites of 
other demolished Premises, which they had 
bought of various Proprietors ; and of 
which House they had been in quiet and 
peaceable possession, as they were of the 
former Premises now demolished. This 
Noble Property consists of a Palace con- 
taining three stories, with a stone Arcade, 
and iron gratings, fronting the New Street 
of Saint Nicholas, and with various flagged 
entrances and stone stairs; which land, 
v\'ith the demolished premises, on which 
the abo\'e Palace was built, is tributary to 
the Crown of Poi'tugal with the ^Annual 
OLiit-Rent of two thousand three hundred 
and elcNcn reis, paid to the Receixer 
Ceneral oi' the King's l\'e\enue, and with 
the "Dominion" of one in Portj', which 
()Liit-Rent was the aggregate amount 
paid in respect of the former demolished 
Premises, and is now chai'gcd to the newl}' 
ei'ected Palace, which, on the east, faces 

the new street of Saint John ; on the 
west, the house of Jose Basto Pereira, 
and the Garden belonging to the house of 
Manoel da Cunha Valle ; on the north, the 
same garden, and the garden belonging to 
the Factory House, which garden is not 
Crown land ; and on the south, the new 
street of Saint Nicholas. Of all this 
property they preserve no title deed, it 
having been mislaid, except that which 
appears from a Certificate that they pre- 
sented for the acknowledgement as theirs 
of the said Property, and in order that it 
might be registered in the Records, where 
it was presented according to the Oath 
taken by the Procurator in the deed of 
acknowledgement that was made of the 
said Property, in which is found the Deed 
of Survey of the following tenor, to wit; — 
" Deed of Inspection and Survey of 
the English Factory House." On the 
thirteenth day of August, in the Year of 
Our Lord One Thousand Eight hundred 
and four, in this City of Oporto, in the 
new Street of Saint Nicholas, and at the 
English House of the Factory, -where 
Sebastiab Correa de Sa, Gentleman of the 
Royal Household, and Judge of the 
Records of the Royal Estates, went for 
the pLu-pose of inspecting and surveying 
the said Pi-operty, together with the 
Solieitoi- to the Royal Estates Rui Dlas de 
Souza e Castro, and their appraisers, 
belonging to the same Recordership, 
Antonio AK'cs. master mason ; Luiz Pereira 
da Concei(;a~o, master Carpenter; and also 
Manoel Aloreira, Carpenter, of the Parish 
of \'alladares, the appraiser named by the 
acknowledged Attoi-iiey of William \\'arre, 
Consul of the British Nation. And, there- 
upon, the said appraisers SLM-\'eying the 
said projiert)', found; that it consisted of a 
Palace of three Stories, with a stone 
Arcade, and iron gratings fronting the new- 
Street of Saint Nicholas, ai-id with stone 
HaggcLl entrance and Stone-Staircase. The 
first Story contains a i-oom, with seven 



sash windows ; the second, a large hall- 
room with three balcony windows, and on 
each side of the said room is a room with 
two balcony windows in each, opening into 
the street of Saint Nicholas, and the room 
on the east side, facing the street of Saint 
John, has four balcony windows. There 
is likewise, on the same side and floor 
another room, with four balcony windows. 
On the third floor, are various rooms con- 
taining seven sash-windows, facing the 
new Street of Saint Nicholas, and eight 
sash-\\-indows, facing the New Street of 
Saint John ; and it has, facing the same 
side or street, eight doonvays and an arch. 
This House is supplied with water in the 
interior from the fountain of Saint 
Domingos; and, on the other side of the 
same street of Saint John, it has a piece 
of garden. On the east it faces the New 
Street of Saint John ; On the west, the 
house of Jose Basto Maia Pereira ; and 
the garden belonging to the house of 
Manuel da Cunha Yalle ; on the north, the 
same garden, and the garden belonging to 
the Factory House (which garden is not 
Crown Land), and on the south, the New 
Street of Saint Nicholas. Its length, from 
North to South, on the side of the new 
street of Saint John, including the thick- 
ness of the walls, is one hundred and 
thirty six spans (palmos) ; and from East 
to West, on the side of the New Street of 
Saint Nicholas, it measures, including 
the thickness of the wall, one hundred and 
seven spans ; and measuring on the North 
side, from East to West, round the 
Angles of the said House, one hundred and 
sixteen spans ; adjoining each Story, and 
for the use of the said House, is a Sink, 
the gi-ound of which is not Crown Land, 
and which measures, on one side twenty- 
three spans, and, on the other, fourteen 
spans, and on the third side, which f(jrms 
an obtuse angle, twelve spans, and the 
whole forms a triangle with the said 
Factory House. There being nothing 

more to sur\ey, the appraisers completed 
and closed their survey to which I Philip 
Jose de Souza testify, and make this 
Deed, which was signed by the Judge of 
the Records, and by the Procurator of the 
Same, and the Appraisers. And the said 
Procurator applied for disco\'ei'y of the 
deed of ack'nijwledgement and Sur\'ey, for 
his own guidance ; which the Judge 
granted, and Ordei'cd the Deed of all the 
proceedings to be drawn up, which he 
signed, and I Philip Jose de Souza, Clerk 
of the Exchequer, «'rote and signed it. — 
Sebastiab Correa de Sa — Philip Jose de 
Souza — Rui Dias de Souza e Castro — 
Antonio Ahes — .Manoel Moreira da Silva 
— Luiz Pereira da Conceicaci, his mark, a 

The said Deed of Survey contained 
nothing more than extending the pro- 
ceedings by the Procurat(jr of the 
Records, who appeai-ed with his answer, 
to wit, I do not object that sentence should 
be passed respecting the conditions of 
acknowledgement and deed of Sur\"ey, 
provided that the applicants, not being in 
possession of a Lease, undertake to accept 
one, with SLich additional Quit-Rent as 
may be justly imposed ; but they shall 
obtain from the Council of the Exchequer, 
within the space of thirty days, the neces- 
sary charter of confirmatiijn, under pain 
of its being rendered null and void. But 
as the Royal Decree of the twenty-se\-enth 
of August One thousand eight hundred 
and two, ordains that such Leases shall 
be granted on li\'es, it appears that it 
cannot in this instance be obseiwed, 
because the property in question is 
Administered by an Assembly over which 
the Consul of the Nation presides, and 
being thus a collective body there are no 
Indi\iduals qualified to appear in the said 
Lease as Lessees for life. It appears, 
therefore, in this instance that, for the 
better security of the Royal Estates, the 
Lease should be granted in perpetuity, as 



I petition : Manoel da Cruz Maia, Tlie 
Procurator and Agent of tiie Records. I 
make the following order, pursuant to the 
Contents of the answer, and the documents 
annexed to it. I order the recognition and 
as tributary to the Crown the survej'ed 
Property according to its limits stated in 
the Deed of Survey, of which a proper 
title shall be drawn up, according to the 
Royal Orders, \vith the additional Quit- 
Rent which may be justly fixed by the 
appraisers They requisitioning, within 
the space of thirty days, a confirmation of 
the same from the Court of Exchequer, 
under pain of forfeiture, and the Lease 
shall be in perpetuity, because the Pro- 
perty, being held by a Community, is not 
of the nature of a Lease tor li\-es ; these 
deeds must be attached to those of the 
Record, together with the said Confirma- 
tion. Porto, the tenth of August, One 
thoLisand eight hundred and six — Sebastialj 
Correa de Sa." 

The said Order of the Court contained 
nothing more, after which the British 
Consul was cited, to appoint an Appraiser, 
who, with those of the Record Office, 
should determine the additional Quit- 
Rent, which the surveyed propeity ought 
to pay. The said appraiser being appoin- 
ted, they proceeded with the Deed of 
Arbitration, to wit. Deed of Survey and 
Arbitration of the additional Quit-Rent 
agreed upon by the Appraisers appointed 
to inquire as to \\hat increase there 
should be paid in respect of the groLuid- 
rent of the Factory HoLise. In the 
Year of our Lord, One thousand eight 
hundred and six, on the xx Sixth of 
December of the same year, at the house 
of the English Factor^-, in the new Street 
of Saint Nicholas, in this City of Opurtu, 
where SebastiaTi Correa de Sa, judge of 
the K'eeords of the Royal hllstates, came, 
together with me, the undersigned Clerk, 
and the Solicitor of the Cro\\ n Lands, 
Manoel da Cruz Alaia, who all belom" to 

the said Recordership, and his Constable 
Severino Lourenco Maia, and also the 
Appraisers of the said Recordership, 
Antonio Alves, Stone-Mason, Luiz Pereira 
da Conceicao, Master Carpenter, and 
Manoel Moreira da Silva, Carpenter, the 
appraiser appointed by the British Consul. 
The said Judge charged the aforesaid 
Persons, that on their sacred oath which 
had been administered to them, they 
should determine the additional sum, which 
the said property ought to pay, over and 
above the Quit-Rent which it already paid, 
of two thousand three hundred and eleven 
rcis, in order, that the new Lease, which 
had been granted, might be drawn up : 
And, the said Appraiser's, declared on oath, 
that they fixed the additional Quit-Rent at 
the sum of Six hundred and eighty-nine 
reis, making the total sum to be paid, 
three thousand reis, and that this ^^■as 
their true and conscientious conclusion, to 
^^■hich I the tmdersigned Clerk testify, and 
I made this Deed, which the said Judge 
signed, together with the Solicitor of the 
Crown Lands, the Constable, and 
Appraisers, and I Philip Jose wrote and 
signed it. — Sebastiaci Correa de Sa. — 
Philip Jose de Souza. — i\lanoel da Cruz 
Maia. — Antonio Alves, Alanoel Moreira 
da Silva, the Appraisers. — Luiz Pereira da 
C()nceiea"o, a Cross.- Severino Lourenco 

The above deed of appraisement con- 
tained nothing moi-e. The tenor of the 
deercc for gi-anting and renewing the said 
Lease is as follows : — 

I, DOM JOHN, by the Grace of God, 
Prince Regent of Portugal and of Algarves, 
make known to You the Judge of the 
Records of the Ci'own, in the district 
and City of Oporto : that, having seen 
in my Coin't of Hxcliequer, your letter 
of the twenty third of ,lune of the present 
year, in which You state that having 
occasion to make use of certain title-deeds, 
which are in the said Exchequer, and they 



being written in the Gothic character, it 
was necessary to incur the expense of 
copying and transcribing them into a 
legible character, which Yon could not do 
without my sanction ; and, that the 
expense should be paid, as well as of the 
books, edicts, orders, etc'' and also the 
Salaries of the Procurator, Clerk, and 
Surveyor. And, moreover, that, the Royal 
Patrimony in the City of Oporto, being 
comprised of Leases in Perpetuity, and 
Leases for Lives, which pay a Quit-Rent to 
the Receiver General of the Revenue, 
without the proprietors having any other 
Title than the Deeds of Purchase or 
Letters of Auction ; and, there being many 
proprietors, ^\•ithout any title b)- which 
their tenure may be known ; it \\-ould be 
more advantageous to the Crown to grant 
leases of those properties for three lives; 
I am pleased to Order, that you will cause 
the said Gothic titles to be transcribed into 
a legible and modern character ; and that 
accoLints be kept of this expense as well as 
of the books, publications, orders, and 
other indispensable expenses commonly 
called " petty expenses " which You \\-ill 
regularly send every three or four months 
(the Account of the first three months to 
contain all expenses pre\'iously incurred) to 
the Court of Exchequer, in order that after 
being aLidited and approved there, they 
may be paid out of the Re\enue of the 
Receiver General of the said City. It 
being well understood that such expenses 
as may be incurred on properties belonging 
to the Lords of the Manor, shall be paid 
by them. That Your emoluments, and 
those of the respective Officers, shall be 
paid b)' the Receiver General, according to 
the law of the Seventh JanLiarj- One 
thousand seven hundred and flftj", com- 
mencing fn^m the day on which those 
in\'estigations began. And, as there exists, 
respecting those Royal Domains termed 
" Reguengos " either an Original Bye-Law 
or some other Law, which revokes the 

primitive Rent, You will proceed with these 
titles of Lease, tenures etc'' according to 
ciixumstances, leaving to the Parties con- 
cerned and to their respective Solicitor, 
free and needful means of i-edress in those 
Cases, where they may find themseh'es 
aggrieved : And, where they require new 
provisions and alterations, which may not 
be within Your pro\'ince or jurisdiction and 
finall)-, of those pi'operties whose holders 
may not present titles. You ma3' grant new 
Leases, on three Li\es, with the just and 
lawful increase of Rent which the case may 
justify, they being obliged (under pain of 
their being rendered null and void) to require 
with their respectl\-e writings, within the 
space of thirty days, from the Court of 
Exchequer, their Letter of confirmation : 
" And this You will understand, and fLilfil. 
Olu- I^iji-d the Prince oi'dered this through 
the Minister of his Court of Exchequer. 
Written by Jose Joaquim de Sequeira, 
Lisbon, the twenty-se\-enth August, One 
thousand eight hundred and two. Belchior 
Felix Rebello — Sebastiao Xavier de \'as- 
concellos Coutinho — Constantino Antonio 
Alves do \'alle — Dispatched by an Order 
of the Exchequer, the twelfth of August, 
One thousand eight hundred and two. Let 
it be noted and registered : Correa de Sa. 
Registered in the Book of Records, page 
Twenty-Seven. Porto, the twenty-seventh 
of September, One thousand eight hundred 
and two — Philip Jose de Souza." 

The written Decree contained nothing 
more. And forth\\-ith the Attorney Joiw 
Rodrigues Barboza, in the name of his 
said Constituents, then required of the 
Judge of the Records that he should in 
\irtue of the Sentence and Decree afore- 
said, grant him a new Lease in Perpetuity. 
The Judge replied, that using the power 
granted him in the Decree, for the benefit 
and impr(jvenient of the Royal Estates he 
did lease, as in fact he had leased, to the 
said Consul of the British Nation, and his 
Corporation, and their Successors, under 



the title of Perpetual Lease, from this day, 
and for ever, the said House and Palace 
here survej'ed and measured, with its 
appurtenanees, entries and outlets, and all 
other Conveniences, old and new, and all 
and whatsoever ou.i^ht in right and 
title to belong to it, to the effect 
that he, as well as his said successors 
shall ha\'e, hold and enjoy the whole ; 
which said House and Palace, with all its 
appurtenances, he leased to him, without 
prejudice to any claims which may here- 
after arise on the part of the Crrj\\-n, or of 
any other Person; with the following Con- 
ditions and Obligations: — That they the 
said Lessees be obliged to have this Lease 
confirmed by the Court of Exchequer 
within the space of thirty days from the 
date of this according to the afcjresaid 
decree ; and, afterwards, cause it to be 
registered in the Records, and all other 
Books of this Exchequer, under penalty of 
its being null and \-oid. That the said 
Tenants and their sLiecessors shall gi\'e, 
and pa)', every year, on the day of Saint 
Michael, the Quit-Rent of Three Thousand 
Reis, in the current Money of this Realm, 
for the use of the Royal Estates of Our 
Lord the Prince Regent, whom God pre- 
serve, etc. The said Ouit-Rent to be paid, 
at the risk and expense of the said tenants, 
into the hands of the Receiver General of 
the Royal Revenue, or to whatsoever 
Person who may be charged to recei\e the 
said Revenue. That the said tenants shall 
inhabit the said House, either by them- 
selves, or by some other Person with bis 
famil}', and the said tenants shall com- 
mence paying the Ouit-I^ent fi-om the Day 
of Saint Michael of the next ensuing yeai- ; 
and, thencel'orwai'd, on the same day for 
e\er, withoLit any statement or tliscount 
whatsoe\'er ; under pain, that, shoLild the 
said day pass without the tenants or their 
successors paying the said OLiit-Rcnt, 
they shall pay to the Person appointcti 
to recei\'e the same the stipLilatcd 

fine of Two hundred Reis for each 
day, which days shall be reckoned from 
that on which they may be called on 
to pay, until the Exchequer shall be fully 
satisfied and paid, not only the Rent but 
all and whatsoever Costs that may be 
incurred. That the Tenants, and their 
successors, shall be obedient to the Royal 
Exchequer as good and Loyal tenants. 
That the said Tenants, and their suc- 
cessors, may be distrained for the said 
Quit-Rent with only one Petition and 
answer, against which they have no right 
to appeal, and should they do so, it \\'\\\ be 
of no effect, but, on the contrary, they \\\\\ 
suffer the forfeiture of this Lease to the 
Royal Crown, or to whomsoever His Royal 
Highness may please to name. That 
should it happen, which God forbid, that 
the said House and Palace be wholly, or 
in part, destroyed, either by water, fire, 
age, or by any sudden and unforeseen 
casualty, they the said tenants shall 
rebuild and restore them to their Original 
State, and they shall not be allowed to 
remain in a ruined state more than two 
years, the Quit-Rent t(.) be always paid as 
if the Property were in its original and 
habitable state ; that, the said tenants, or 
their SLiecessors, shall not gi\e, make over, 
sell, endow, or divide, or make any or 
whatsoever transfer of the said Houses 
and their appurtenances, without the 
Consent and Authorit)' of the Crown. In 
case they wish to sell them, thev shall 
first inform His Royal Highness, through 
the Coiu't of Exchequer, in Order to ascer- 
tain if he \\\\\ pm-chase them, either for 
himself, or for his Household, Ministers, 
and Oflicers, gi\-lng him the pi'eference : 
but, he not wishing to pui-chasc them, they 
may with bis Permission, or that of the 
Auditor of the Exchequei- sell them to the 
Person \\ho will gi\e the most, always 
liroxided that the pinchaser be under no 
Legal disability, or of higher rank than 
the Tenants themscUes, and only to such 



as are able to comply with all the Obliga- 
tions and Conditions of this Lease, and such 
as can pay the Quit-Rent according to above 
mentioned stipulations ; and out of the 
amount f(jr which the said House may be 
sold or alienated, the " Dominion " accord- 
ing to Law, of One in Forty shall be paid 
to the Royal Crown as true Lord of the 
Manor. That all Persons, who by the 
above title may succeed to the Property, 
shall inf(jrm the Receiver General of the 
Revenue or whoever may be employed to 
receive it, in order that he may know from 
whom he may demand the said Quit-Rent, 
first asking Auth(M-ity fi'om the Auditors of 
the Exchequer ; and this they shall do 
under pain of forfeiture, within the space 
of thirty days from the date of the said 
Succession or Alienation. That the said 
tenants and their successors shall not make 
over the said House, or any part of it, to 
any Chapel, Church, Monastery, or to any 
holy or religious person ; and on no 
account to allow the said house to be used 
for the saying of .Masses, Church Services, 
etc ' . under pain of the whole becoming 
null and void, and the said tenants for 
any such contravention shall forfeit the 
Property to the Crown. They shall not 
acknowledge any other Lord of the .Manor 
of the said Houses herein leased or pay 
him any Quit-Rent that may be owing, or 
enter into Consignative or Reservative 
Charge either with a Monaster}', Church 
or Community, or even with any Laymen, 
they recognising the Royal Crown, akjne, 
as true Lord of the Manor, which Crown 
shall not be obstructed in receiving any 
Rents, that, up to the present day, ma)' be 
due to it, of which, at present, they may 
not be aware : tor the said tenants and 
their successors will be allowed those 
Rents only, for which the}' can produce 
Legal receipts. That the said Tenants, 
or their Successors, not fulfilling either 
part or the whole, or every one of the 
conditions, Clauses and Obligations of this 

Lease, or resisting them, they shall forfeit 
the use of it, the said House I'emaining 
forfeited as if not leased, and they holding 
the Property, as tenants in fee simple of 
the Crown ; the Tenants thei'eby losing all 
useful Dominion \\'hich the\' possess in 
them, nor «'ill any judgment declaratory of 
the above ftjrfeiture be necessai'y before the 
Cro\\n can take possession of and lease 
them to \\-homsoe\'er it pleases, without 
the tenants being able to consider them- 
selves defrauded or have recourse to Law. 
The Attorney Joab Rodrigues Barboza, in 
the name of his Constituents and their 
Successors, immediately said that he 
accepted this Lease with all its obligations, 
conditions, clauses and penalties therein 
stated ; and he gave up the right of plead- 
ing in their own Court, and to this intent 
they renounced all the privileges, immu- 
nities, and liberties granted in their favour, 
and bound themselves to be accoLintable 
to the Auditor of the Exchequer in this 
City ; and, as Securitj- for the whole, he 
bound the persons, as well as the present 
and future property, both real and personal, 
of his Constituents ; and, as a real and 
special Security, the houses herein leased, 
and all useful Dominion, ^^■hich they now, 
or at any future period, may possess in 
them. The Judge, and the Proeiu-ator of 
the Records, then said, that in the name 
of the Exchequer they bound them- 
selves to make this Lease good, firm and 
peaceable against all Coniers ; that they 
acknowledged themselves as the Promoters 
and Advocates of the whole, to show that 
the Houses were Crown-Land ; and, that, 
as such they had thus leased them, and in 
the name of the said Tribunal they gave 
as Secui'it}' the Re\'enue of the Exchec|uer, 
and more especially the .\Lanorial rights of 
the Houses herein leased, which Lease 
being confirmed b)' the Court of Exchequer 
the said Tenants shall be able to take 
possession of the said Houses; and, in as 
much as they have not taken real and 



bodily possession, they, the Judge and 
Procurator by this Seal and Clause give 
and grant it ; the said Tenants shall as 
soon as they have obtained the said Con- 
firmation, present it, in Order that it may 
be copied and registered in this Court ; 
and, to show that they have fulfilled this 
Condition, or, otherwise, they shall be 
proceeded against ; and this they shall do 
within the space of thirty days from 
the date of this. And in Witness of this 
truth and faith, they covenanted, both on 
the one part and the other and accepted 
this Lease ; and, finally ordered this 
Instrument of the Lease to be drawn up in 
my Book of Leases, and granted the 
necessary copies all of the same tenour 
being one for the confirmation of the same 
and one to remain in the Office of the 
Exchequer. And I, the Clerk, in Virtue 
of my Office, as their Public Acceptor and 
Contractor, Contracted and Accepted it, 
in the name of all parties, absent or 
present, and of all whom it may concern : 
Then being present the Witnesses, Bento 
de Oliveira Queiroz, Constable of the 
Exchequer, Jeronimo Josel^eitab, Corpoi-al 
of the Second Regiment of Oporto, and 
writer in this my Office, who here signed 
with me Philip Jose de Souza, Clerk of 
the Exchequer — Sebastiab Correa de Sa — 
Philip J(jse de Scniza — Manoel da Cruz 
Maia — Joa"(3 Rodrigues Barboza — Antonio 
Alves — Manoel Moreira da Silva -Luiz 
Pereira da Concei^ito. 

Witnesses to last signature — Bento dc 
Oliveira Queiroz — Jeronimo Jose Leitao- - 
Severino Lourencjo Marc^ues Which Deed 
of Lease contained nothing else, and 1 the 
said Clerk of the Records do lici'cby 
certify the preceding to be a true and 
faithful copy, ha\ing collated the same 
jointly with another Oflicer hercLmder 
signed, referring to the Original Register 
from which it was extracted Gi\'en under 
our hands in Oporto this Sixth day of 
December One thousand Eight hLuulred 

and twenty four. Examined, collated 
and signed by me BENTO d'OLIVEIRA 

I, John Ferrari, Sworn Interpreter of 
this City, do hereby certify that the fore- 
going is a true anci faithful translation 
from the original Portuguese being an 
Official Copy of the Lease of the Factory 
House as extracted from the Public 
Records of this City, to «-hich Copy I 
refer and with this I deliver the same to 
the actual Treasurer of the Contribution 
Fund at whose request I translated the 
same. Porto this the twelfth day of 
March, One thousand eight hundred and 
t\\'enty five. 


I certify that the above signature is that 
of John Ferrari, Sworn Interpreter of the 
Custom House of this City Porto 5 of 
May 1825. 


We the undersigned Public .Merchants 
residing in this City of Oporto do hereby 
certify that the accompanying signature 
is in the proper handwriting of Jose 
Joaquim de Oliveira, Notary Public to 
whose Acts all faith is given in Judicature 
and without. 





10//; .V,n', 1S25. 
To His Majesty's Principal 

Secretary of State for 
Foreign Affairs, London. 

\\'e the undersigned British Merchants 
had the honom- to address Yoli on the bth 
July last, most respectfully acknowledging 
the gracinus protection of His Majesty's 
Cjoveniment in confirming the right gi\en 
by Law to all resident British Merchants, 
to be convened to General Meetings for 



the iManagement of the Contribution 

At the same time, we took the liberty 
to submit t(j You the outhne of a grievance 
arising out of the former iUegal mode of 
administering that Fund ; namel)-, our 
exciusion fr(jm the great Xaticjnal Building, 
called the " Factory House " And nien- 
ticjned, that we were engaged in the pro- 
curing of Evidence, and the preparation of 
a Statement, with a view to sulimit the 
same to Your consideration, and to 
enable His Majesty's Government, to 
decide upon the merits of the case. 

We now, therefore, respectfully beg 
to lay before You, tlie accompanying 
Memorial, with Evidence, in proof of its 
allegations ; and humbly solicit Your inter- 
ference, to procure the redress of an 
aggrievance, affecting at once, our interests 
as Merchants, and our happiness as 

We, also, feel called upon to submit to 
You, copies of a Correspondence with the 
Consul, originating in Our application to 
him for that relief, to which we humbly 
submit we are entitled, and which it was 
in his power to grant, from the contnjul 
vested in his Office by the terms of the 
Original Lease, a controul that would have 
been secured to him by the co-operation of 
the Public Authorities here, had he thought 
proper to claim it. And thereby pre\'ented 
the necessity of encroaching again upon 
Your time. 

Feeling the strongest desire to show all 
possible respect to the Consular character, 
it is with the utmost regret that we offer 
any complaint with respect to the Indi- 
vidual under whose presidency we reside, 
An assertion that we trust will be fully 
justified by the promptitude with which 
we have accorded to the Consul Our public 
approbation whenever his conduct 
appeared calculated to advance the in- 
terests of His Majesty's subjects in this 

And we shall limit our comment to the 
request of the honour of ^'our attention to 
the Correspondence with him, as a proof 
that the lamentable division of the British 
Community in this place, owes its origin 
in part, and its continuance wholly, tii a line 
of conduct (whether collusive or supine) 
on the part of the Consul, which has been 
wholly fa\'oiu'ahle to the unjust pi'cten- 
sions of the Individuals with whom he 
formerly acted Lmder an illegal and i)ff'ensi\-e 
System. It is painful to observe that the 
Consul, after affecting to invite us to eluci- 
date the question of the Factor)- House, 
cari'ied his partiality so far, as to refuse 
his Evidence on questions connected with 
the proceedings instituted for the inform- 
ation of His Majesty's Government. 

We have, notwithstanding, the honour 
to submit to your consideration a .Memorial 
of our grievances, with a legal Justifica- 
tion and an Official Copy of the Lease of 
the Factory House ; and we confidently 
await Your decision thereon, assured that 
the interests, happiness, and just preten- 
sions of so many individuals, will not he 
considered unworthy of Your further inter- 
ference and protection. 

It is with the greatest respect that we 
have the honour to be 
Your most obedient and \-ery humble 
T. L SMITH, Treasurer of the 
Contribution Fund, JA.MES HEB- 



Oporto, iMay 10, 1825. To Show that the work (construction) 

Oporto Mercliants. was under the direction of John White- 

Foi-U' enclosures. head liecause he then was and continued 

Reed. Maj- 26th 25. to be until his death. Consul of the British 

Referred to Advocates May 30/25. Nation. 

Question. — Whether the Factory House 

at Oporto is for the exclusive use of a 
limited number of British Merchants or 
for that of the whole community of British 

The Merchants complain of the con- 
duct of Mr. Consul Crispin. 


To Show that the said Consul caused to 
be sculptured the British Arms which are 
to be seen in the vast Edifice proclaiming 
its Xationalit)'. 

Prtition for Proof of Rights made by 


Theophilus Isles Smffh and others, as T(j Show that the said Edifice is built on 

follows : — land held on a Lease from the Crown of 

In the Year of the Birth of our Lord, Portugal as all the other Buildings are in 
One Thousand eight hundred and twenty the said Street called — of the English, all 
five, on the 21st day of February of the the holdings in that Street being tem- 
said Year, in tliis City of Oporto, in my porary ; and for three ll\-es that of the 
Record Office, was handed to me the English Factory which, however, in the 
Petition and following order of the Court State Record Office was granted in per- 
which I duly placed before Joaquim Jose petuity after the Edifice was completed, 
Vaz, Scrivener of tlie Conser\-ator of seeing tliat it is the property of a Corpora- 
British Privileges. tion (Moral Body) and to last for ever, by 
which it was recognised tliat the Factory 

Theophilus Isles Smith, Treasurer of the House belonged to tlie Consul and British 

Fund called the Contributory Fund and Community which might reside in this 

other British Merchants establislied in this City, and that the said Community was 

City cliarged witli the Administration of bound by the terms of tlie grant and ncjt 

the said Fund request, for their Guidance, by any grant to any pri\-ate indi\'idual. 

and not for litigious purposes, Proof of 

Rights, in the followint; matters: — 

,-, ^ 

J To Show that in fact tlie Englisli Factory 

T ei -ti t ii T^ IT ■ House is not the pr(.)pert\' of Shai-elioliliTc: 

lo Sliow that the Factorv Holsi-; m * m ^^ ■■.*>" onaj cuoicki s, 

iu; n:<- ■ 1 , r I T T^ t-n i because there are no Shares, and bt\"'ins,^ 

this City IS a large and noble Edifice, and i^'^.-^, an^i ulcuusl 

that it was constructed by means of a Con- '^ " ""^ s^'^^'q^tible of disposal (no power 

tribution,w^hichtheConsul and the British "' ^-'"i^-^T-"!^-^') ^^'id there ,s no private 

I, , t I r I ( • ii ■ ,^-i I , respnnsibilit\' attaeliiny to it. 

merchants estabhshed in this Cit)', placed ■ '^ 

on all Commercial Articles which, to the 

United Kingdom of Great llritain ha\e '^ 

been exported from this City, the Consul To Show that the functions of the British 

not allowing any Eni^hsh Vessels to be Consulate have been for many years cxer- 

cleared unless the said Contribution had eised in the said Building, and continue to 

been paid. this day without paying rent to anyone. 



To Show that the object and aim of this 
National Building were to serve as a 
meeting house for the English Merchants 
whei-e they might transact their public 
and private affairs, and specially for the 
administrati(jn of the Treasury called the 
Contribution ; for the assembling for the 
Elections of Judge Conservator, Treasurer, 
Chaplain and Doctor, and generally to 
carry out the provisions of the Act of the 
British Parliament which authorises the 
said tax or contribution. 

To Show that the British Individuals 
who were charged with the TreasLiry of 
the Contribution were invariably in posses- 
sion of the Factory House. 


Senhor Joao Luiz de La Rocjue. 

Senhor Pedro Jose Alvcs Souto. 

Senhor Joao Alves. 

Senhor Manoel Moreira. 

Senhor Antonio Pedro Goncah'cs. 

Senhor Joao Ouillinan. 

Senhor Diogo Franc^uelin. 
JUSTIFICATION of the Petitioners 
Theophilus Isles Smith and others. 

On the twenty-second day of February 
of the Year One Thousand Eight hundred 
and twenty-five in this City of Oporto and 
in the Rua da Bandeirinha and in the 
house of James Francklin where I, 
Scrivener, came in virtue of the petition 
and Sanction aforesaid, with the Judicial 
Inquisitor Domingos R(jdrigues Xa\ier to 
ask and enc]uire of the same as a witness 
in the petition of rights reqLiested by the 
Petitioners, etc. 

James Francklin, Merchant, at one time of 
the British Nation, resident and domiciled 
at Gestaco, in the district (concclho) 
of Bayao and presently living in this 
Street of Bandeirinha, of the age of fifty- 
two years, more or less, deposed on Oath 
as follows : — 

Asked as to the contents set forth in the 
Petition presented by Theophilus Isles 
Smith and others, as to the first intei'- 
rogatory, he said that being the son of a 
man of similar name who was a Merchant 
and Member of the English Factory in 
this Cit)-, he knows, ha\'ing seen it, that 
the English Factory HoLise built in the 
Rua Nova dos Inglezes was constructed at 
the expense of a tax or contribution levied 
by the English Consul and Merchants of 
the said Nation on the exportation of 
Wine and other pnjduce of the Kingdom 
and of Bi"azil, on board English vessels, a 
tax ^\J^ich he, witness, \'ei'y often had paid 
in accordance \\\t\\ the established rules, 
when he was with the firm of Joaquim 
Ferreira Sampaio, where, in his presence, 
he often heard this Gentleman as well as 
Jose Monteiro d'Almeida complain of the 
hardness of the payment of this said con- 
tribution, because they neither got any- 
thing from it nor from the House as they 
were Portuguese ; one of the regulations 
being the prohibiting any \'essel lea\"ing 
the Port, the papers of which the Consul 
retained until the Agents of the \'essels 
declared that the tax in respect of the 
Cargo had been paid to the respective 

To the second and thii-d interrogatories 
he said that he knows that John White- 
head, the English Consul, was the Director 
of the C(;nstruction of the said House, 
and that over the entrance to the 
principal i-o(jm (great salimn) he caused to 
be placed the British Arms, which clearl)- 
sh(jws the Nationality. 

To the fifth question he replied that as 
the English Factory House was not con- 
strLicted at the expense of any private 
individual, but in the way deposed to by 
him, the witness, it is e\ident that it can 
never be called private property ; because 
there never were any Shares or Share- 
holders, so much so that on the invasion 
of the Kingdom by the French and for a 



short time after, the Building was turned 
into a Hosteh-y with an eating-house for 
aU traveUers of the Nation, and there was 
also a pLiblie Coffee-Room at the entrance 
to the Building managed by a man of the 
name of Oueiroz, \\'here every and any 
person might be provided with drinlis, also 
free admissi(jn to English Captains and 
Clerks to go there and read the public 
papers in the room set aside for that pur- 
pose ; and it is also within the memory' of 
the witness that sales by public auction 
were held in the said house under the 
Arches at the entrance \\'here the English 
merchants desired to establish them in- 
stead of in the Street as was the custom ; 
bLLt they were not able to carry out their 
wish as the Portuguese merchants would 
not join them, seeing that the Building 
was English and not National. 

And to the sixth question he answered 
that the Ofhce of the English ConsLil has 
been for many j-ears established in the 
said Building, where it still is. 

And to the se\'enth interrogatury he 
said that the object and aim of the said 
House was to ser\-e as a place of Meeting 
for the English Merchants to confer about 
business in General, as the Election of 
their Judge Conservator, their Chaplain, 
Doctor and Treasurer, the Consul pre- 
siding o\er these conferences as well as 
over ever)-thing else. 

Signed and Sealed &e. 



The next witness examined by the same 
Scri\ener and on the same day was 
Antonio Pedro GongaKes, Che\alier of the 
Order of Christ, Oflicial in the Secretary 
of State Ii)epartmcnt lor Home Alfaii-s, 
etc'- residing in the Rua dc Cedofcira, in 
the City of Oporto. He was lilty six 
ycai's (Jd at the time he deposed to the 
following : 

That he knew that the Consul antl 
English jMerchants resident here ha\ing 

possessed a House in the Rua Nova dos 
Eiglezes but of the nature of the tenure of 
which he is ignorant, it was pulled down 
about 1786, according to his memory, and 
on the same land they commenced to 
erect a noble House, known by the name 
of Eactory House, which was built under 
the supervision of John Whitehead, who 
was the Consul appointed by His Britannic 
J\lajesty. The cost was defrayed by a 
contribution which the said Consul and 
Merchants of his Nation had imposed and 
which they paid on the exportation of 
Wine at the rate of three hundred reis per 
pipe ; four hundred reis per pipe of Oil ; 
one hundred reis per bag of Wool ; sixty 
reis per box of fruit ; twenty-five reis per 
quintal of Corkwood ; sixtj' reis per bai-rcl 
of Tartar ; the cost of the construction of 
the said House was defrayed from the 
Fund of this Contribution as also was that 
of the English Cemeter)', also payments 
granted as pensions to Englishmen and 
Englishwomen who were in needy circum- 
stances. This Contribution was distinct 
fi-om the one le\-icd by an Act of Parlia- 
ment on the Freight earned by English 
Vessels, and which was applied to ship- 
wrecked and in\'alid Sailors and for the 
maintenance of the Consul and Chaplain 
of the English i-csidents, but both the 
contributions were recei\'cd and adminis- 
tered by the Consul and his Merchants 
through a Treasurer annually appointed 
by them. All of which the said ^^'itness 
knows, as at one time he was I^ook-kecper 
in the firm where John Croft was partner 
and who was Treasurer during the time 
when the said Factory House was in 
course of Construction, the payments 
ha\ing been made in that year through 
him. the Witness, who also rccei\cd the 
Contributions and kept the accounts of 
same as may be seen by the l->ooks which 
should be in the possession of the Consul ; 
it is, therefore evident that the said 
Factory House cannot be called the 



private property of anyone Individual, inas- 
mucli as even the Portuguese Merchants 
and those of other Nations contrihuted 
towards the tax in proportion to the Goods 
shipped by them in Enghsh Vessels, and 
also because it was not built at the expense 
of any private person in the capacity of 

On the twenty-second day of Februaiy, 
1825, in the City of Oporto, in the Rua de 
Massarellos, John Luiz de la Roque was 
examined as to the foregoing petition : — 

Joao Luiz de la Roque, Merchant of this 
Place, residing in Rua de iMassarellos, a 
suburb of this City, sixty-seven years of 
age, deposed on oath, as follows : — 

Asked if he knew anything respecting 
the contents of the petition, he, the 
witness, made answer that, respecting the 
second interrogatory, the construction of 
the Building known as the Elnglish Factory, 
was conducted under the supervision of 
Consul John Whitehead. And as to the 
other questions he said nothing, excepting 
that the Foreign, as well as the Native, 
Shippers, used to pay to the Captains of 
English Vessels, under the classification of 
Contribution towards the Factory H(juse, 
three hundred reis for each pipe of wine 
they shipped. 

Signed, Sealed and Deli\'ered, 



On the twenty -fifth daj' of Februai-y, 
1825, in this place of Igreja, district of 
Valadares, Manoel Moreira da Silva was 
interrogated : — 

Manoel Moreira da Silva, late Master- 
Carpenter, residing in the locality of 
Igreja, district of Valadares, ninety years 
of age, more or less, deposed on oath, as 
follows : — 

Asked as to the contents of the prece- 
ding Petition, he said that he has a perfect 
knowledge of the Factory House, situated 
and built in the Rua Nova dos Inglezes, 
which is a noble edifice, constructed by 

him, the witness, in the capacity of Master 
Carpenter, and for that reason he also 
k'nows that the cost was defrayed fi'om the 
Funds of the Contribution which the 
British Consul and Merchants placed 
(imposed) on Commeixial articles exported 
from this City to the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain, \\'hich Contribution was 
also applied to the relief of needy Widows 
and Merchants of the said British Nation 
^\•hen prosperity no kjnger smiled on them, 
and the said Building was administered by 
John Whitehead who at that time occupied 
the position of Consul of the above-men- 
tioned Nation, and it was he ^^■ho caused 
to be placed the British Arms in the said 
Edifice; and it Is true (certain) that the 
lease Is I-'ortuguese property, htit he does 
not know if it belongs to the Crown, or 
any other private person, and he knows 
that the Administration of the Factoiy 
pays some S(jrt of rent (foro) but he cannot 
say how much it amounts to or its nature ; 
it being also a fact that the said House or 
Edifice of the Factory has the appropriate 
accommodation for the assembling of the 
r^ritish Consul and Merchants for the 
holding of their meetings and elections ; 
also that the Captains of X'essels met there 
t(j read the public papers, the former t(j dis- 
cuss their public and pri\-ate affairs; and 
moreover it is a fact that the I'cferred-to 
House was always In the possession of e\-ery 
memberofthe British Nationandofnoonein 
particular; In the same manner that the 
Edifice in the Cemetery has been, «-here 
the said British Nation in this City 
celebrates or holds its funeral and Religious 
rites, according to their dcjgmas, which land 
was treated for by and bought by him (the 
witness), and paid for with money ^^■hlch 
the Consul gave him for that purpose, 
taken from the aforesaid Contributory 
Fund, •\\-hich purchase was effected by the 
amortisation (Mortmain) of three L(jrd- 
shlps (Lords of the Manor) and it thus 
became free of all rent or incumbrance 



either public or private of the Portuguese 
Nation. And this witness deposed to no 
more and did not affix his signature owing 
to his great age and infirmities. 

On the third day of May, 1825, in this 
City of Oporto, and in the Rua da Ferraria 
de Sima, where lives John OuilHnan, of the 
British Nation, wh(j deposed on oath as 
follows : 

John Ouiilinan, Merchant of the British 
Nation residing and a iiouseiiolder in Rua 
da Ferraria de Sima, sixty years old, states 
that respecting the contents of the afore- 
said Petition, he has resided in this Cit}' 
for more than forty-three years, and knows 
that the Factory House is a large and 
Noble Edifice, and that he always 
endeavoured to obtain information from 
the other English people living here, n(jt 
only from those who arrogated to them- 
selves the administration of the said House 
but also from those who attached no 
importance to it, and that he arrived at the 
conclusion that the cost of Con- 
struction and of the completion, was 
defrayed from a Fimd derived from 
Contributicjns to which the English 
Merchants in general voluntarily subjected 
themselves, and to which the Indi\'iduals 
and Firms of any other Nation had no 
remedy but to submit when shipping goods 
on board English Vessels, seeing that the 
English Consul w<juld not clear any \'esscl 
unless a document were presented certify- 
ing that this rule had been carried out, 
and he, the witness, accordingl)' paid, for 
many years, the said tax which then was 
at the rate of three hundred reis for each 
pipe of wine; sixty reis for each box of 
fruit; twenty fi\e reis for each quintal of 
cork-wood ; a testoon and a half per bag 
or bale of wool etc:' and as in those days a 
great cpiantity of wine «'as shipped this 
Tax represented a \'ery considerable sum, 
and if it was not applied to the building of 
this Edifice and its maintenance how could 
this money ha\'e been spent ? Of course 

a part of it was decidedly disbursed on 

And to the second interrogatory he 
stated that he knows it to be a fact from 
(observation and hearsay that the British 
Consul, who in that time was John White- 
head, supervised the construction of the 
House until it was completed, as the repre- 
sentative of the British Nation. 

And In reply to the third ciuestion he 
declared thatitis true that the British Arms 
ai-e displayed in a conspicuous part of the 
building, which thus forcibly denotes its 

And to the fourth question he replied 
that he had seen authenticated copies of 
the title deeds referring to this Edifice, 
which clearly prove, in his opinion, that 
the land is tributary to the Pcirtuguese 
Crown, and that after the construction 
was completed the lease was granted 
in perpetuity as belonging to a l\loral 
body (Corporation) and of perpetual 
existence by which it must be recognized 
that the Factory House belonged to the 
British Consul and Merchants who might 
be in this City, and that this community 
in general is liable for the groimd-rent 
and not any Indi\-idual in particular. 

And to the fifth interrogatory he 
answered that there is no indixidual pro- 
prietorship in the said Building, because 
if there were these would have Shares and 
these would have been dealt in on 'Change 
like any other document of similar nature, 
oi- at least they would have been liable to 
have been made tiver to the creditors in 
case of bankruptcy, but such a transfer 
has ne\er taken place. 

And to the sixth he replied that the 
Office of the Britannic Consul foi' the 
exercise of all his duties has been for 
many years established in the said Build- 
ing and continues there to this tlay and it 
does not appear that any rent has been 
paid for the use of same. 

And to the se^■enth he said that in the 



said Building were always held the 
elections of the constituent .Memhers of 
the British Prixileges such as Judge 
Consei-\-ator, Chaplain, Doctcjr and 
Treasurer, and it was there also wliere 
the Hnglish Merchants assemhled dis- 
cussed the interests of their class and the 
rules for the better Administration of the 
Fund called — Inward Contribution — w hich 
is independent of the Contrilnition to 
which he has already referred, but both 
these Contributions were always adminis- 
tered by one sole Treasure)-, and with the 
exception of one year, more or less, that 
this was not so. 

And to the eighth he answered that the 
Administration charged with the Contribu- 
tions had always been in possession of 
the Factory House, and now to exclude 
those employed in the management of the 
Contribution called Inward, appears to 
him, the witness, an indefensible act (jf 



To The Right Honourable 
GEORGE CANXIXG, His Majesty's 
Principal Secretary of State for Foreign 

The respectfLil Memorial, and humble 
Petition (jf the Undersigned Bi-itish 
Merchants established and residing in the 
City of Oporto, most humbly Shew : 

That Your Memorialists having felt 
aggrieved by the partial and illegal mode 
of conducting the Contribution Fund in 
this Cit)', bj' a few individuals in close 
Meetings, to the exclusion of Your Memo- 
rialists, although from the nature and 
extent of their Trade Your .Memorialists 
are the greatest Contributoi's, and notwith- 
standing the Contribution Act expressly 
directs the Appi^opriation of the Funds 
raised under the Authority of that .Act, 
to be made by the Alajority of British 
xMerchants assembled at General Meetings ; 

And '^'our .Memorialists having freciuently 
claimed from His Majesty's Consul, their 
right to be called to such Meetings, and 
complained to him of the annoyance and 
disparagement they sufl'ered from being 
illegally excluded therefrom, without, how- 
exer obtaining an\' redress ; "S'oin- .Memo- 
rialists had the honour to addi-ess them- 
sehes at length, to You, Sij", whh a state- 
ment of various grie\'ances and incon- 
\'eniences resulting from the aforesaid 
illegal management of the Conti-ihution 

In answer to that address Your Memf)- 
rialists recei\'ed a communication from 
Sir Edward Thornton, His .Majesty's 
^linister at Lisbon, stating that His 
.Majesty had been most graciously pleased 
to issue his commands for the due admis- 
si(jn to ^'our .Memorialists to General 
.Meetings in conftjrmit)- to Law ; thus 
affording a further and gratifying evidence 
of the protection which His Majesty's 
Government is e\'er read)- to extend to 
British Subjects laboui-ing under aggrie- 
vance in any quarter of the World. 

Confiding in the cojitinuance of that 
protection, 'S'our .Memorialists now most 
respectfully beg leave to represent to You, 
Sir, that they still labour luider aggrie- 
\'ance, ansmg out of the abuse of which 
they fiirmerly complained: and to state 
the gr(jund upon which, they humbly 
submit that, they are entitled to relief. 

When His Majest\''s most gracious 
commands directed the admission of the 
British Resident .Merchants, generally to 
the .Meetings for the Administration of 
the Contribution Fund, Your Memorialists 
conceived the just expectation that on the 
establishment of their legal right to par- 
ticipate in that Administration, their no 
less clear and ecjuitable right to participate 
in the .Accommodation and Security of the 
Xational Building called the Factory 
House, would ha^-e been equally extended 
to them. 



Your Memorialists, therefore, addressed 
their Claims to His Majesty's Consid; and, 
in support thereof, handed to him an 
Official Copy of the Lease upon which the 
Factory House Is held, under the Crown 
of PortujJal ; the terms of which most 
expressly proclaim the public character of 
that Building, and reciting the Law which 
directs that all Leases granted by the 
Crown should be for lives only, declares 
that such Law was incapable of observance 
in respect of the Factory House, Inas- 
much that belonging to a body of per- 
petual existence, it was not susceptible of 
a Lease for lives ; and, a grant in per- 
petuity was therefore made of the same, 
to the British Consul, for himself and 
his community, and their Successors for 

In virtue of these declarations, as con- 
tained In the Lease ; and from its being 
notorious that the Funds that defrayed the 
expense of erecting the Factory House, 
were derived from an Impost or charge 
upon all Exports hence In British \'essels 
to Great Britain and Ireland ; Your 
Memorialists claim from His Majesty's 
Consul to be admitted to the Factory 
House, as they formerly claimed from Inim 
to be admitted to the General Meetings, 
in virtue (jf the express Provisions of the 
Contribution Act : But, as in that Case 
the Ccjnsul refused to afford Your Memo- 
rialists relief, So, In the present case, he 
refers them to the decision of His Majesty's 

Thus compelled to Intrude thcmsel\-cs 
again upon your notice, Your Memorialists 
are impressed with a due sense of the 
proprlct)' of showing good and sul'liclcnt 
groimds for claiming ^'our intcrfei'encc. In 
a case the ftdl Importance of which It Is 
dlfficultto con\-ey : liut ^'oLn■ Memorialists, 
so far from praying Your attention to a 
captious recital of Imaginar-y grievances, 
most earnestly entreat you to belle\'c, that 
their Interests no less than their happiness. 

are deeply involved In the question which 
they humbly submit to Your decision. 

The few Individuals who formally 
assumed the exclusive management of the 
Contiibution Fund, having formed into a 
Club under the Style and Title of the 
" British Association " (a designation now 
unauthorized by their numbers) appro- 
priated to themselves the exelusi\'e use of 
the great National Building called the 
" Factory House." Since that period, the 
Treaty of Commerce having extended the 
markets of Portugal for British Manufac- 
tures, the number of British Merchants 
has greatlj' increased, and many of Your 
iMemoriallsts date tlieir Establishments 
from that Treaty ; whilst the British Asso- 
ciation, availing Itself of the possession of 
the Factory House, and converting the 
same Into a means of exclusive convenience 
and Superior consideration, has been slow 
to make any Increase of its Numbers ; the 
few who have been since admitted being 
Wine Merchants, or the Junior Branches 
of the Fish-houses previously established ; 
So that Your Alemorlallsts who are chiefly 
engaged in the Impcjrtatlon of British 
Manufactures ha\e become the objects of 
a marked and most offensi\-e distinction. 

As an immediate consequence of this 
unjust distinction, Your Memorialists suffer 
under the dally mortification of their feel- 
ings, and a deprivation of that considera- 
tion In Society which the respectability of 
their connections and paramount extent of 
their establishments entitle them to : And, 
sLich Is the offensive power, exercised by 
the I-]rltish Association, that it frequently 
attempts to aflix a public stigma upon par- 
ticular Indnlduals of Your Memorialists, 
\^ hose establishments may appear to inter- 
fere with the interests, or Whose conduct 
or Sentiments may happen to excite the 
prl\ate resentment, of any Member of the 
Association; by making such Indblduals 
of Your Memorialists, the marked and 
single exception, to the othcr\\ ise general 



invitation to entertainments at the Factory 
House ; by means of which Bntertain- 
ments, the Association seek to conciliate 
the preferable respect and consideration 
of persons of influence, and of the public 
Authorities : A matter of considerable im- 
portance in a Country where personal 
influence has so much power. 

By an easy and natural bias of the mind, 
the personal influence with a Certain Class, 
so accjuired by the Association, operates 
in Mercantile transactions a preference in 
favour of the Members of that Body ; 
whose Association thus resolves into a 
Combination, against the interests, and 
just pretensions of Your ^Memorialists. 

Although the exclusive possession of the 
Factory House is not founded upon any 
legal right, or moral title. Yet do the 
British Association seek to monopolise the 
advantages they enjoy, by means of certain 
regulations or Bye-Laws, which prevent 
any application for admission on the part 
of Your Memorialists, from the obnoxious 
mode of decision by ballot, whereby, one 
or two black balls afford to the secret hand 
of individual resentment or caprice, the 
power to stigmatise any applicant, by 
partial and unjust exclusion. 

In a small community of rival Traders 
such an Ordeal cannot be submitted to ; 
and Your Memorialists, proceeding to pro\e 
that the exclusive right to the Factory 
House, has no foundation in Law or 
Equity, they humbly submit that such a 
combination as the British Association, 
should no longer be allowed to thwart the 
interests, and affect the happiness of Your 

Unwilling to urge their claims upon any 
light grounds, Your .Memorialists, however 
much convinced by the terms of the Lease 
of the public character of the Factory 
House, have sought to elucidate the origin 
and objects of that National Establish- 
ment; and, in spite of e\ery obstacle that 
could be thrown in their way, Your Memo- 

rialists have succeeded in obtaining a mass 
of Evidence, which they have the honour 
to fonvard herewith, in the form of a legal 
justification, taken by the British .Judge 
Consen-ator Sarmento ; which tcigether 
with the Lease attached thereto, ha\-e been 
by him adjudged to pro\'e and establish in 
the British Conservati\e Court the follo«'- 
Ing allegations : — \'iz. 

The Ex'idence by which these Allegations 
are established, further proves that the 
Factory House, so far from being private 
property, is, not only, not the Property, 
even of Shareholders, there being no 
Shares ; but, also, that it is not capable of 
repartition, nor of becjuest, nor of inheri- 
tance ; Your Memorialists beg further to 
state that the said E\'idence shows the 
property' in the Factoi'\' House to be of so 
public and National a character, as not to 
be liable to the claims of creditors ; a fact 
experienced by some of Your .Memorialists 
as Claimants in Cases of Insolvency, \\hich 
have occurred to some of the Individuals 
who assume an exclusive right to that 

By the Evidence it will also be seen, 
that the Original Intention and Object for 
which the Factory House was erected, 
have been wholly departed from ; Several 
Witnesses proving, that it was formerly 
appropriated to public uses, and National 
objects, (offering the several accommoda- 
tions of an Exchange, a Coffee Room, 
News Rooms, and Noble apartments for 
the entertainment given by the Biitish 
Merchants to the Public Authorities. 
Your Memorialists beg to contrast the 
former liberal and just appropriation of 
the Factor)' House, with its present 

Your .Memorialists having shown that 
the Factory House is a public National 
property, perpetually vested in the Consul, 
and such British .Merchants as now do, or 
may at any time hereafter exist in this 
City of Oporto ; Your .Memorialists humbly 



submit, that its present exclusive occupa- 
tion is both unjust and illegal ; nor can the 
indi\'iduals, assuming such exclusive right 
of occupation, found any claim thereto, in 
respect, either of their former Contribu- 
tions to its erection, or, of their having 
made donations in aid thereof, and 
exclusivel}' borne the expense incident to 
its occupation. 

First, in respect of the Contributions 
formerly paid by a fe\^' of the present 
occupants ; they were such only as were 
generally levied, and exacted from all 
(whether British or Foreign) Exporters to 
Great Britain and Ireland; and thus, 
forming a Charge upon British Commerce, 
constituted the British Public, rather than 
any Individual as the real Proprietors of 
the Factory House. 

And, secondly, in i-espect of private 
donations ; if any were made, they can 
afford no title to exclusive right, in as 
much as they could only have been made 
to accelerate the work, without any 
acquisition of Property therein : And, as 
to the exclusive expense of its occupation, 
Your Memorialists beg most humbly, but 
most pointedly, to state, that the exclusive 
use and enjoyment of the Factory House 
have been co-extensive with such par- 
ticular expense, as in ordinary cases of 
Financy ; and which expense, in the pre- 
sent case, has been voluntarily incur-red 
by the present occupants, with tlie view to 
convert a National Property to prixate 
uses; which if allowed to continue might, 
in progress of time, tend to destroy its 
public charT.cter. 

Yoin- Memorialists having, as they 
humbly conceive, sho\\-n tliat the I'aetor-y 

House is a National Property, that its 
Occupation, by a few, is contrary to the 
object of its erection, prejudicial to the 
interests of Your AlenKjrialists, hurtful to 
their feelings, and derogatory to their 
characters ; Your Memorialists, therefore, 
humbly pray, that you will be pleased to 
direct His Majesty's Consul to open the 
said Factory House to all the resident 
British Merchants, now in charge of the 
Contribution Fund ; and that they, 
assembled at General Meetings, to be 
convened and presided by the Consul, 
majf determine, b}' a Majority of Votes, 
all matters touching the management and 
Appropriation of the said Building ; which 
regulation would effectually secure to the 
British Community that respectability 
which Your Memorialists are most anxious 
to preserve : And Your Memorialists, as 
in duty bound, will ever pray. 

OPORTO, loth May, 1825. 
T. I. SMITH, Treasurer of the Contribution 



The following rcgistci- of the Poi-t house in the pocket of the Resident 

Factory fnjm 171Gis in the possession of Minister. It w ill be obser\cd that in some 

Doctors' Commons. The entries are made cases the children were baptised at their 

in a small book about 10 inches in height own homes owing to some grave illness, 

by 6 inches in witlth. It gives evidence of and on recovery were, according to 

having been carried about from house to this register, admitted into the Church, 



which would convey the idea that we 
had some chapel in Oporto before the 
present one. I have often heard it related 
that a private chapel at Campo Bello, 
where Mr. John Smithes resided for 
many years, was used as a British Place 
of Worship, and these entries lead me to 
believe that such was the case, because of 
the statement of "being admitted into the 

I would also obsen'e that there must 
have been a former register of births, 
marriages and deaths, because long before 
the Rev. Daniel Primrose was appointed 
Chaplain of the Port Factory, there had 
been Chaplains in Oporto as I have had 
occasion to mention ; probably the book or 
books were lost or destroyed. 

I would call the attention of my readers 
to the fact that on November 3rd, 1729, 
the Rev. John Smith, in making an enti-j' 
of the christening of the daughter of Mr. 
John Page, adds to tlie date the initials 
X.S., Xew Stj'le, which is singular, as the 
Gregorian Calendar was not adopted in 
England until 1752, in accordance with an 
Act of Parliament passed the previous 
year, the day after the 2nd of September 
becoming the 14th. In Portugal, however, 
the alteration was introduced in 1577 in 
oliedience to the order of Pope Gregory 
XI 11., so that I am inclined td believe that 
the English Ministers in Oporto adopted 
the New Style, so that the dates should 
correspond with those of the country in 
which they lived. 


IvEGisTEii OF Ye Port Factory. 


Jan. 6. 

March 21. 

Dec. 5. 

April 18. 

May 18. 

Was baptiz'd WILLIAM SWAR- 


and MARY his wife. 
Was baptiz'd JOHN RY'LEY', son of 

BETH his wife. 
Was baptiz'd GABRIEL HERAUT 

(sic) son of JACOB HERAUT and 

KATHERIXE his wife. 
Was baptiz'd ELIZABETH, daughter 


ELIZABETH his wife. 
Was baptiz'd THOMAS HERAULT, 

son of JACOB HERAULT and 

KATHERINE his wife. 
Was baptiz'd MARY HAMMOND, 

daughter of JOHN HAMMOND 

and MARY' his wife. 

April 9. 

June II. 

July 9. 

Jan. 5. 

Was baptiz'd MARY SWARBRECK, 
daughter of AVILLIAM SWAR- 
BRECK and MARY' his wife. 

Was baptiz'd ROBERT DUPUY, 
son of STEPHEN DUPUY and 
GRACE his wife 

Was baptiz'd ELIZABETH HE- 
RAULT, daughter of JACOB 

Was baptiz'd ]\I.\RY, daughter of 
BETH his wife. 

A continuation of the Registry by HENRY' 
PAKENHAM, Minister of Y'e Factory att Oporto, 


MARY OGILVY', daughter of ALEX'- OGILVY 
and MARY his wife, was baptiz'd att nine months 
and a half old on May y- 17, 1723. 



MARY MONTGOMERY, daughter of 
his wife, baptiz'd alt a year and eleven months 
old on May y^ i8th, 1723. 

his wife, baptiz'd att eight months old on May 
y" II. 1723- 

SWARBRECK and MARY his wife, was 
baptized att two years and a half old on May 
y' 27th, 1723. 

HERAULT and KATHERINE his wife, was 
baptized att two years and a half old on the 30th 
May, 1723, 

THOMAS TOONE and SARAH his wife, was 
baptized att 11 months and a half old, on the 
II July, 1723, 

N.B. — The above-named children remained so 
long unbaptized by reason of the want of a 
minister to the Factory dureing the space of 
three years. 

OGILVY and MARY his wife, was baptized on 
Monday the 6th of September, 1723. 

JOSEPH MURAT and ANNE his wife, was 
baptized February gth, 1724. 

of Porto, Merchant, and PIELLENjV his wife, 
baptized July the 25, 1724. 

and GEORGE MARTIN, baptized in I'orto y'' gth 
of August, 1724. 

of Porto, merchant, and MARGARET his wife, 
baptized March y'' i8th, 1725. 

of Porto, merchant, and ANN his wife, baptized 
April y"^ 8tli, 1725. 

ELIZABETH, daughter of Mr. JOHN PAGE 
and ANN his wife, was baptized Nov. 3rd N,S., 
1729, by me, JOHN SMITH, B.D., Chaplain to 
the British Factory at Porto. 

FARMER, April y 20th, N.S., 1730. 

JOHN, sun of JOHN and ANN PAGE, 
November the ninth, N.S., 1730. 

MARGARET, daughter of JOSEPH and ANN 
MURAT, Jan. 17th, 1730, N.S. 

Persons baptized by me, JOHN NICHOLS, M.A,, 
Chaplain to the Factory at O Porto. 

1. JOHN, son of JOHN MORE and SARAH 

his wife, Oct. 17th, 1731- 

2. ANN, daughter of WILLIAM SMITH and 

MARY his wife, March loth, 1732. 


and ELIZABETH his wife, May 16, 


ANN his wife, Nov. 2, 1732. 

5. AMELIA, daughter of JOHN PAGE and 

ANN his wife, Nov. 8, 1732. 

6. MARY, daughter of ROBERT BROWN 

and ANN his wife, Feb>'- 8th, 1733. 


and ELIZABETH his wife, Feb>- gth, 


8. GEORGE, son of JOHN OVERBECK and 

.... his wife. May 12, 1733, 
g. SARAH, daughter of JOFIN MORE and 
ANN his wife, July 5, 1733. 


and his wife ELIZABETFL Oct. 16, 
These are to certify whom it may conecrn that Anna 
Benjamina Daughter of Jolui Page ly his Wife Ann 
-was haptized tJie seventh day of August in tlie year of 
our Lord one thousand seven luindred and tuviitr-ninr 
hy me 

JOSEPH SIMS, Chaplain to the 
British Factory in Lisbon. 
West Lisbon, 
Nov. 31, 1733. 

TJiis is a true cofy of y Ceitiflcate sent by fi'sefh 
Sims taken ly me 


11. RICHARD GILLETT, educated in the 

Sect of the Quakers, but embracing the 
doctrines of the Church of England, was 
bapitized Feb. 14, 1734. 

12. PETER, son of JOSEPH MURATT and 

ANN his wife, April 28, 1734. 

13. SUSANNA, daughter of JOHN COOTH 

and JANE his wife, May 10, 1734. 

14. THOMAS, son of WILLIAM SMITH and 

MARY his wife, Pilay 12, 1734. 

15. WILLIAM, son of FIOOR and 

ELIZABETH his wife, July 31, 1734. 

16. SARAH, daughter of JOHN WYE and 

SARAH his wife, Aug. 29, 1734. 













SAMUEL, son of JOHN PAGE and ANN 38 

his wife, Jan. 6, 1736. 
LAURENCE FOLKES, educited in the 39 

Sect of the Anabaptists, but embracing 

the doctrines of the Church of England, 40, 

was Baptized Feb. 28, 1736. 
ELIZABETH, daughter of ROBERT 41 

JACKSON, EsyuiRE, Consul, and 

ELIZABETH his wife, June 12, 1736. 42 


BEARSLEY and MARY his wife, June 43 

13, 1736. 
JOHN, son of JOHN WYE and SARAH 44. 

his wife, Jan., 1737. 
STEPHEN, son of JOHN P.\GE and ANN 

his wife, Jan. 16, 1737. 45' 

JOHN, a Black, servant to Mr. Smith, 

Jan. 22, 1737. 40- 


and MARY' his wife, Nov. 24, 1737. 

PAGE and ANN his wife, Feb. 13, 

JOHN, son of JOHN HITCHCOCK and 48. 

HENRIETTA his wife, April 13, 

HENRIETTA KATHERINE, daughter of 49. 


his wife, Sept. 9, 1738. 
MARY, daughter ot CHARLES BEARS- 50. 

LEY and MARY his wife, Sept. 12, 

SUSANNA, daughter of JOHN WYE and 51. 

SARAH his wife, Jan. 19, 1739. 

his wife, April 20, 1739. 5-- 

COCK and HENRIETTA his wife, 53. 

Nov. 8, 1739. 
MARY, daughter of JOHN PALMER and 54. 

ELIZABETH his wife, Jan. 10, 1740, at 


PAGE and ANN his wife, March 13, 

1740. 56- 


and MARY his wife, May 16, 1740. 
PETRONELLA, daughter of FRANCIS 57. 

PITT and PETRONELLA his wife, 

May 24, 1740. 
ELIZABETH, daughter of JOHN 58. 


wife, July 6, 1740. 
MARTHA, daughter of JOHN CAULET 59. 

and SUS.\NNA his wife, December 10, 



his wife, Dec. 13, 1740. 
LUCY, daughter of STEPHEN CROFT 
and HENRIETTA his wife. May 3. I74'- 

HENRIETTA his wife, July 16, 1741. 

his wife, July 17, 1741. 

and MARY his wife, Aug. 23, 1741. 

MARY his wife, Aug. 23, 1741. 
REZELIN his wife, Nov. 9, 1741. 

ANN his wife, Feb. 3, 1742 
SON and ELIZABETH his wife, April 
10, 1742. 
ELIZAIiET 1 1, daughterof JOHN PALMER 
and ELIZABETH his wife, June 21. 
and HENRIETTA his wife, Aug. 6, 

BUNTING and his wife. Aug. 11, 

and ELIZABETH his wife, Sept. 24, 
and KATHERINE his wife, Dec. 13, 
WTLLIA^I, son of JOPIN WADE and 

SARAH his wife, Jan. 14, 1743. 

PETRONELLA his wife, Jan. 23, 1743, 
FRANCES, daughter of STEPHEN 
CROFT and HENRIETTA his wife, 
Feb. 15, 1743- 

and JANE his wife, Feb. 6, 1743- 
DOROTHY, daughter of JOHN HITCH- 
COCK and HENRIETTA his wife, Aug. 

19, 1743- 

JOHN WADE and SARAH his wife, 

Dec. 2, 1743. 

PALMER and ELIZABETH his wife, 

Dec. 10, 1743- 

daughter of JOHN GOTLIEB REZEL, 

and his wife, Dec. 28, 1743. 





KATHERINK his wife, Dec. 30, 1743. 

and JANE his wife, Jan. 15, 1744. 
HAIn^RIOT dau,yhter of JOHN THOMP- 
SON and ELIZABETH his wife, 

Marcii 2 [, 1744. 
ELIZAIiETH, daughter of WILLIAM 


wife, April 13, 1744. 
PETER, son of JUHN PAGE and ANN 

his wife, May 28, 1744. 

and HENRIETTA his wife, June 14, 

1 744' 

and HENRIETTA his wife, Sept. 20, 


and AIARIA EMILIA his wife, Feb. 

2. 1745- 
MARGARET, daughter of CHARLES 

BEARSLEY and MARY his wife, Feb, 

12, ■745- 

BEARSLEY and JANE his wife, March 

T 1745- 
M.VRY, daughter of WILLIAM BEARS- 
LEY and ELIZABETH his wife, March 

9. 1745- 
HENRY, son of JOHN THOilPSON and 

ELIZAPETPI his wife, March 25, 1745. 
MARIA GULIELMINA, daughter of 

JOHN GOTLIEB BEZEL and his wife, 

April 12, 1745 
KATHERINE, daughter of ADAJI ST.AN- 

DERT and K,\THERINE his wife, July 

22, 1745. 

EITZALTiTH his wife, Sept. 12, 1745. 
COCK and HENRIETTA his wife, Oct. 

12, 1745. 
ANN, daughter of JOHN WOODS and 

SARAH his wife, Oct, 14, 1745, 


BF/IH his wife, Aug. 5, 1746. 

CKOl'T and IlliNRIETTA his wife, 

Aug. 5, 1746, 

and ELIZABETH his wife, Auf 

1 746. 

his wife, Sept. 2, 174O. 














81. ANNA MARIA FRANCISCA, daughter of 

wife, Nov. 22, 1746. 


BEARSLEY and MARY his wife, Jan. 

17. 1747- 
S3. PRANCES, daughter of JOHN HITCH- 
COCK and HENRIETTA his wife, Feb. 

15. 1747- 

84. ANN, daughter of FRANCIS PITT and 

PETRONELLA his wife, Feb. 28, 1747. 


and JANE his wife, April, 1747, 


and ANN his wife, April 17, 1.747. 

87. PRISCILLA, daughter of JOPIN PAGE 

and ANN his wife, June 22, 1747. 

88. SAMUEL BA'SCH, educated in the sect of 

the Anabaptists, but. embracing the 
doctrines of the Church of England, was 
baptiz'd July the 29th, 1747. 

89. ANN, daughter of NICHOLAS WEBBER 

and MARY his wife, Sept. 13, 1747. 

The Two following Baptiz'd by ilr. I'.VRKER, 
Chaplain to the Lisbon Factory. 

90. JOHN, son of WILLIAM WARRE and 

ELIZABETH his wife, Nov. 21, 1747. 

91. JOHN, son of JOHN WADE and SARAH 

his w'ife, Nov. 24, 1747. 


PALMER and ELIZ.ABETH his w-ife, 
March i, 174S, 

93. FRANK, son of FRANCIS PITT and 

PETRONELLA his wife, April 9, 174S. 


and MARY BURBRIDGE his wife, 
April 12, 174S. 


and MARY his wife, .Vpril 13, 1749. 

96. MARY, daughter of JAMES STEWART 

and REBECC.V his wife, .\pril 14, 1740. 


and ELIZABETH his wife, .April 15, 1749. 

98. MARGARET, daughter of FRANCIS 

BEARSLEY and J.VNE his wife, April 

iS, 1749. 

and M.VRY his wife, April 2<i, 174.1. 
100, CH AKLOTTA JIARIA, daughter of JOHN 

r.\GE and ANN his wife, Sept. 18, 1749. 

GOTLIEP. REZEL and his wife, Oct. 

23, 1749. 
102. HENRY, son of JOHN PALMER and 

ELIZABETH his wife, Nov. 26, 1749. 






his wife, Feb. 18, 








BENJAMIN, son of 


WARRE and ELIZABETH his wife, 

April 19, 1750. 
SARAH, daughter of JOHN AVADE and 

SARAH his wife, May 12, 1750. 
ANN, daughter of JOHN CALLET and 

ELIZABETH his wife, July 23, 1750. 

and MARY' his wife, Nov. 16, 1750, 
JAMES, son of JOHN PALMER and 

ELIZABETH his wife, Jan. 31, 1751. 

BEARSLEY and JANE his wife, March 

10, 1751. 

and KATHERINE his wife, April 18, 


NANCY his wife, July i, 1751. 
ELIZABETH, daughter of JOHN 

CAULET and ELIZABETH his wife, 

July 16, 175T. 
JAMES, son of JAMES WOOD and 

FRANCES his wife, Nov. 30, 1751. 

KATHERINE his wife, 1751. 

and HENRIETTA his wife, Jan. 17, 1752. 
ELEANOR, a black, from Carolina, Feb. 

13. 1752 

and ELIZABETH his wife, March 21, 

HENRY, a black, from Carolina, April 10, 

KATHERINE PHILLIS, a black, from 

Carolina, April 13, 1752. 
JOHN, son of THOMAS CROFT and 

LUCY his wife, y-Vpril 24, 1752. 


July 9, 1752. 
CHARLES, a black, Nov. 9, 1752. 

FRANCES his wife, Nov. 12, 1752. 

BEARSLEY and JANE his wife, Dec. 

21, 1752- 

and KATHERINE his wife, Feb. 13, 1753. 

and ELIZABETH his wife, June 21, 


his wife, 















and MARY his wife, at Coimbra, Aug. 12, 

ELIZABETH, daughter of ROBERT 
PERRETT and ELIZABETH his wife, 

AiJg- 25, 1753- 
JOHN, son of JOHN WADE and S.ARAH 

his wife, Sept. 4, 1753. 

WEBBER and MARY his wife, Oct. 24, 


and AMELIA his wife, Nov. 8, 1753. 

ELIZABETH his wife, Oct. 18, 1753. 

and KATHERINE his wife, Nov. 22, 

and HENRIETTA his 

wife, L'ec. 24, 


his wife, Feb. 7, 1754. 

MAN and MARA' his wife, April 5, 


ARABELLA, daughter of WILLIAM 
wife, April 7, 1754. 

REBECCA his wife, Oct. 2, 1754. 

THOMAS, son of JAMES WOOD and 
FRANCES his wife, Oct. 7, 1754. 

WELL and MAGDALENA his wife, 
Oct. 20, 1754. 

BUCK and ELIZABETH his wife, 
Nov. 5, 1754. 

BUCK and SARAH his wife, Nov. 14, 

DOROTHEA, daughter of QUARLES 
HARRIS and DOROTHY his wife, Dec. 

I. I754' 

and AMELIA his wife, Dec. 26, 1754. 

and ELIZ.VBETH his wife, March 20, 

and ELIZ.VBETH his wife, March 23, 

and his wife, July 2, 1755. 



148. JOHN PARSON, son of JOHN PAGE, 

jun., and SARAH his wife, Sept. 4 1755. 


and MAGDALENA his wife, Nov. 26, 


150. SUSANNA, daughter of QUARLES 

HARPilS and DOROTHY his wife, Jan. 
4, 1756. 


daughter of JOHN GARI-ilEL 
his wife, Feb. 4, 1756. 

152. JAMES, son of WILLIAM WARRE and 

ELIZABETH his wife. May 11, 1756. 

Persons baptized by me, HENRY AVOOD, A.M., 
Chaplain to the Factory at Oporto. 

1. WALLINGER, daughter of JOHN HITCH- 

COCK and HENRIETTA his wife, Jan. 

30. 1757- 

2. SARAH, daughter of JOHN PAGE, jun,, 

and SARAH his wife, Feb. 14, 1757. 

3. ELIZABETH, daughter of DANIEL 

SHEPHEARD and SARAH his wife, 
at Coiinbra, Feb. 28, 1757. 

4. ELIZABETH, daughter of ROBERT 

PORRETT and ELIZABETH his wife, 
March 10, 1757. 

5. ANN, daughter of THO:\IAS TROLLOPE 

and AilELIA his wife, March 17 1757. 

6. ELIZABETH, daughter of JOHN OLIVE 

and ELIZABETH his wife, May 2, 


7. CHARLOTTA MARIA, daugh er of 

wife. May 8, 1757. 

8. KATHERINE, daughter of JOHN WADE 

and SARAH his wife, July 12, 1757. 

9. FANNY, daughter of JAMES WOOLI and 

FRANCES his wife. August 7, 1757. 


and ELIZABETH his wife, Sept. 4, 


11. ELIZABETH, daughter of PETER 

WICHERS and HANNAH his wife, 
Jan. I, 1758. 

12. THOMAS, son of THOMAS CROFT and 

HARRIOT his wife. May 25, 1758. 

13. ELIZABETH daughter of RICHAKD 

wife, July 19, 1758. 

14. ItLIZABETH, daughter of W]LLL\M 

WARRE and ELIZABETH his wife, 
July 24, 175S. 

15. EA'I niCKlXi:, dau.glUer of JOHN OLIVE 

and ELIZABiriT-I his wife, Nov. 4, 175H. 

16. HANNAH, daughter of HENRY PETER 

WICHERS and HANNAH his wife, 
.■\pril 6, 1759. 

17. HARRIOT, daughter of THOMAS CROFT 

and HARRIOT his wife, June 5, 1759. 

18. JOHN, son of IT£TER MURATT and 

JANE his wife, June 13, 1759. 


and ELIZABETH his wife, Aug. i, 


20. .VNN, daughter of BENJAMIN EVANS 

and SUSANNA his wife, Feb. i, 1760. 

21. ANN, daughter of PETER MURATT and 

JjVNE his wife, Aug. 26, 1760. 


and ELIZABETH his wife, Sept. i^, 

23. SUS.VNNA, daughter of RICHARD 

wife, July 29, 1761. 

24. MARY, daughter of THOMAS STAFFORD 

and i\IARY his wife Nov. 30, 1761. 
(No number.) THOMAS, son of OLIVER 
BECKETT and DOROTHY his wife, 
July 25, 1761. 


and KATHERINE his wife, Oct. 12, 

26. CATHERINE, daughter of WILLIAM 

CAMPION and KATHERINE his wife, 
June 22, 1763. 

27. HENRY, son of S.V^IUEL PAAVSON and 

JANE his wife, July 19, 1763. 


and MARY his wife, Julv 30, 1763. 

29. ELIZABETH LUCY, daughter of 

his wife, Sept. 13, 1763. 

30. ELIZABETH, daughter of HENRY 

WOOD and ELIZABETH his wife, 
Jan. 17, 1764. 


and FRANCES his wife, Aug. 14, 1764. 

32. WILLIAM, son of PETER :\H'RATT and 

J.VNT-: his wife, Dec. S, 1764. 
3i. HliSTER, daughter of FRANCIS YOUNG 
and SUSANNA his wife, Dec. 12, 1764. 

34. DOROTHY, daughter of OLI\'ER 

P.IiCKETT and DOROTHY his wile, 
March 1 1, 1765. 

35. LAURA, daughter of HENRY WOOD and 

lUTZABETH his wife (no date). 
35. MARY, daughter of SAMUEL ASKWUTT 

and MARY his wife, No\-. 2, 1765. 

and ANASTACIA his wife, Dec. 12, 176V 




and MARY his wife, Dec. 22, 1765. 

39. ROBERT, son of WILLIAM FISH and 

ANN his wife, Dec. 24, 1765. 


and ANN his wife, Marcli 27, 1767. 

41. WILLIAM, son of PHILIP BiaN and 

ELIZABETH his wife, March 20, 1768. 

42. WILLIAM, son of WILLIAM FISH and 

ANN his wife, June 23, 1768, being then 
eight months and eleven days old. 


and DOROTHY his wife, July 29, 176S. 

Persons baptiz'd by me, WILLIAM EMM.-VNUEL 
PAGE, M.A., Chaplain to the Factory at Oporto. 

1. RICHARD, son of JOHN CLARK and 

PFIUDENCE his wife, Jan. 19, 1769. 

2. JOITN, son of GEORGE WYE and 

CHARLOTTA MARIA his wife, July 
1 1, 1769. 

3. STEPHEN, son of JOHN CLARK and 

PRUDENCE his wife, Feb. 14, 1770. 

4. MARY, daughter of WILLIAM FISH and 

.ANN his wife, Aug. 12, 1770. 

5. CHARLOTTA MARIA, daughter of 

MARIA his wife, Nov. 11, 1770. 

6. AUGUSTA ERNEST, daughter of 

wife, ilarch 16, 1771. 

7. ELIZABETH, daughter of JOHN KING- 

STON and K.VTHERINE his wife, Oct. 
26, 1771. 

8. JOHN, son of OLIVER BECKET and 

DOROTHY his wife, Nov. 21, 1771. 

9. PRISCILLA, daughter of GEORGE WYE 

and CHARLOTTA M.VRI.'. his wife, 

Feb. 23, 1772. 
10. MARY, daughter of JOHN FARRIER and 

FRANCES his wife, Dec. 7, 1772. 

WEAVER and ilARY his wife, Jan. i, 

MER and FRANCES his wife, April 
4. 1774. 
PENNELL and JANE his wife, June 8, 



July 5, 1774. 

BAYLY and MARY his wife, July 30, 





16. EMILY, daughter of JOHN CLARK and 

ELIZABETH his wife, Sept. 6, 1774. 

17. GEORGE, son of GEORGE WYE and 

CHARLOTTA MARIA his wife, Octo- 
ber 5, 1774, 

18. JOHN, son of JAMES .VLVEY and 

SAR.AH his wife, No\ember 17, 1774. 


and MARY MASON his wife, December 

I. 1774- 

20. JOHN, son of CHARLES PAGE and 

ISABEL his wife, July 3, 1775. 


and JANE his wife, July 27, 1775. 


WEAVER and M.ARY his wife, August 

31. 1775- 

23. HARRIET, daughter of THOMAS NEW- 

MAN and SARAH his wife, Oct. 30, 


24. WILLIAM, son of JOHN FARMER and 

FTi;.\NCES his wife, Nov. 21, 1775. 

25. ANNA LOUISA, daughter of JOHN 

CLARK and ELIZ.VBETFI his wife, 
Dec. 15, 1775. 


wife, F~eb. 3, 1776. 

27. JOHN, son of JOHN GABE and FR.ANCES 

his wife, ^March 31, 1776. 

28. JULI.VN.V, daughter of EDWARD 

his wife, June 19th, 1776. 

Persons baptized by me, HERBERT HILL, M..\., 
Chaplain to the Factory at Oporto. 

1. ^\■ILLIAM, son of WILLIA^I BABING- 

TON, and ELIZAliETH his wife, 
February 25th, 177S. 

2. PETER, son of JOHN G.\BE and 

FRANCES his wife, ilarch 3rd, 1778. 

3. JA^iIES, son of J.\MES BFLETT and 

MARGARET his wife, March 9th, 1778. 

4. ELIZABETH, daughter of EDWARD 

his wife, iMarch 13th, 1778. 

5. JOHN, son of JOFIX CROFT and 

HENRIETTA JIARIA his w-ife, April 
i6lh, 177S. 


NEWMAN and SARAH his wife, born 
August i8th, 1776, was baptized April 
2ist, 1778. 


and SARAH his wife, born August 23rd, 
1777, was baptized April 21, 177S. 













and JANE his wife, born October gth, 

1776, was baptized May 6, 1778. 

JANE his wife, was baptized May 6, 


and ISABEL his wife, born on Feby. 

20, 1777, was baptized June g, 177S. 

ISABEL his wife, was baptized June g, 



wife, born July 20, 1776, was baptized 

June II, 177S. 

CHARLOTTE MARIA his wife, was 

baptized June 11, 1778. 
CHARLOTTE, daughter of THOMAS 

SNOAV and :\IARGARETTA his wife, 

July 7, 177S. 

CAMPION and PRISCILLA his wife, 

October 14, 1778. 
ELIZABETH SARAH, daughter of 


his wife, January 8, 1779. 

LOTTE MARIA his wife, February 24, 


ISABEL his wife, July 26, 1779. 


wife, August 17, 1779. 

and CHARLOTTE MARIA his wife, 

Deer. 21, 1770. 
SOl'HIA, daughter of JOHN CHRISTM.AS 


wife, March 26, 1780. 

and J.VNE his wife, INIarch 2g, 17S0. 
M.VRIAN, daughter of JAMES BRETT 

and MARGARI'^T his wife, IMarch 30, 



wife, April 17, 17S0. 

MAHGAklCT'TA his wife. May 4, 1780. 

and liLlZABETH his wife. Deer. 13, 















MASON his wife, Feby. 7, 17S1. 
MARY, daughter of SAMUEL WEAVER 

and MARA' his wife, .April 16, 178 1. 
CAROLINE, daughter of THOMAS 

NEWMAN and SARAH his wife. May 

8, 1781. 
HARRIET, daughter of BENJAMIN 

WEBBER and SUSANNA his wife, 

May 17, 1781. 
CAROLINE, daughter of CHARLES 

PAGE and ISABEL his wife, June 26, 



wife, Aug. 5, 17S1. 

and ELIZ.ABETH his wife, Sept 2O, 1781. 
NELL and J.VNE his wife, Nov. 4, 17S1. 
HARRY, son of JAMES BUTT and 

M.ARG.ARET his wife, Dec. 5. 1781. 
SOPHIA, daughter of THOMAS SNOW 

and MARGARETTA his wife, Dec. 12, 


and HENRIETTA MARIA his wife, 

Feb. 3, 1782. 

Persons Baptized by me, JOHN BELL, B.A , 
Chaplain to the Factory at Oporto. 

1. AMELIA ELIZ.ABETH, daughter of 

wife, jNIarch 17, 17S3. 

2. SUS.ANNA, daughter of JOHN CHRIST- 

MARLA his wife, JNIarch 20, 17S3. 

3. SOPHIA ELIZ.ABETFI, daughter of 

WILLIAM BABINGTON (was born loth 
October, 17S2, baptized) and ELIZ.A- 
BETH his wife, March 25, 17S3. 


SLESSON and Il.VRRlin" MARIA his 
wife. .Vpril 26, 1783. 


and JANE his wife June 8, 17S3. 

6. EMM.V, daughter of CHARLES PAGE 

and IS.-VP.EL his wife, born ]ulv 15th, 
1783, was privately baptized July 2Sth, 
1783, received into the Church .Vpril 
28th, 1784. 

7. JULI.ANA, daughter of TFIOMAS SNOW, 

and MARGARETTA his wife, was 
privately baptized October 4, 17S3, 
recei\ed into the Church Jan. 8, 1784. 









SON and JANE his wife, was privately 
baptized March 29, 1784, received into 
the Church May 2, 1784. 

ELEANOR his wife, was baptized May 

9. 17S4 

CHARLOTTE, daughter of THOMAS 
NEWMAN and SARAH his wile, May 
12, 1784. 

TORRIANO his wife, was privately 
baptized May 19, 17S4. died before he 
was received into the Church. 

and JANE his wife, was privately 
baptized August 29, 1784, died before he 
was received into the Church. 

BRETT and MARGARET his wife, was 
privately baptized ^lay 7, 1785, died 
before he was received into the Church. 

was privately baptized June 16, 1785, 
died before she was received into the 

WEBBER and SUSANNA his wife, was 
privately baptized June 22, 17S5, received 
into the Church Deer. 6, 1785. 

HARRIET ELIZA, daughter of WM. 
wife, was pri\ately baptized June 27, 
1785, recei\ed into the Church Nov. 24, 

and S.ARAH his wife, was baptized July 

7. 1785- 

and MARGARETT.A his wife, was pri- 
vately baptized .Aug. 16, 1785, received 
into the Church Dec. 26, 17S5. 

and J.VNE his wife, was privately baptized 
Sept, II, 1785, received into the Church 
Jan. 4, 1786. 

BROOKS and ELIZABETH his wife, 
was baptized Feb 8, 1781'!. 

THOM.VS, son of JAMES WARRE and 
ELE.VNOR his wife, Nov. 29, 17S6. 

WE.VA'ER and M.VRY his wife, was pri- 

vately baptized (by the Chaplain) Jan. 30, 
1782, received into the Church Jan. 8, 


wife, March 15, 1787. 

24. LOUISA, daughter of THOMAS NEW- 

^iI.VN and SARAH his wife, March 29, 

25. HARRIET, daughter of LOVELL 

PENNELL and JANE his wife. May 6, 

26. MARI.VN, daughter of THOAIAS SNOW 

and MARG-ARETT.V his wife, was pri- 
vately baptized June 3, 1787, received 
into the Church April 11, 1788. 

27. ELIZABETH, daughter of ROBERT 

wife: \s"as born June 27, I7'^0, pri\atel}- 
baptized -Aug 20, 17S7, recei\ed into the 
Church April 11, 1788. 


WEBBER and SUSANNA his wife, was 
privately baptized Nov. 24, 1787, died 
before he w-as received into the Church, 

Marriages by DL. PRHIROSE, Minister. 

Were married att .Vveyro, JOHN 
I-L\MMUND, of I'ort, merchant, 
and MARY" SKINNER, daughter of 
W. SKINNER, merchant, of 

Dec, 29 

June 12. 

Feb. 29. 

July 24. 

Feb. 17. 

A\'ere married att O Porto, PETER 
TURNER, of Lyme Regis in 
Dorsetshire, mariner, and ?\IAR- 
G-ARET B-AYLY' widow, of South- 

Were married att O Porto, S-\MUEL 
FOSTER, merchant and M.ARY' 
LEE, widow of JOHN LEE, late 
consul of O Porto. 

AVere married att O Porto, STEPHEN 

Were married att O Porto, Mr. 

Marriages by HENRY PAKENHAM, Minister. 
1723. May y= 8th. Mr. JOSEPH 

MUR.VTT, of Porto, merchant, 
and Mrs. .VNN SERGEANT, w^ere 
married att Porto, 1723. 







July y<= 4th, 1723. JOSEPH 
LING were married att Oporto. 

September y« 15th, 1723. Mr. SAM- 
SON STERT, of Porto, merchant, 
and iSlRS. ANN MASKALL were 
married att Sra de Hora. 

October y 15th. THOMAS HAND- 
were married att Porto. 

November .y^ 22nd. Mr. GEORGE 
BUEEY'MORE, of Porto, merchant, 
daughter of Mr. NEHEMIAH 
TOWSON, were married att 

February y= 2nd. Mr. JOHN LUND, 
of Porto, merchant, and Mrs. 
married att Porto. 

October, Monday, y^ gth. THOMAS 
were married in Porto, 1724. 

Marriages by JOHN SMITH, B.D., Chaplain. 
M;VRY WHE.VTLEY were married 
Sept. 29th, N.S., 1729. 

Nov. 27, 1730. 

Persons married by me, JOHN NICOLS, M .\., 
Chaplain to the Factory of Oporto. 
I. R01:!EKT BROWN, widower, and ANN 
HALL, spinster, Sept , 1731. 

RICHARD WRIGHT, batchellor, and 
April 20. 1732. 

JOHN WYi:, batchellor, and SARAH 
PA(;E, spinster, Oct. 4, 1733. 

MALCOLM ERASER, batchellor, and 
MARY GOUGER, widow, Feb. 21, 1734. 

5. ROBERT JACKSON, Esq., Consul, 
batchellor, and ELIZABETH LUND, 
widow, May 30, 1734. 

0, CHAkLICS |-!I':AKSLEY, batchellor, 'and 

July 19. 173.5- 

7. SAMUEL MEAD, batchellor, and ANN 
CODD, spinster, .\pril 2S, 1737. 







JOHN HITCHCOCK, batchellor, and 


May 17, 1737. 
JOHN THOMPSON, batchellor, and 

ELIZABETH CROFT, spinster, Oct. 

23. 1737- 

PETER HEDDERWICK, batchellor, and 
:\IARY WHEATLY, spinster, Nov. 2, 

MICHAEL LONG, batchellor, and ANN 
FROST, spinster, Nov. 9, 173.S. 

and SARAH NEWELL, widow, Jan. 4, 

JOHN PALMER, batchellor, and ELIZA- 
BETH BREWER, spinster, Jan. 25, 
1739 at Coimbra. 

WILLIAM CHARD, widower, and ELIZA- 
BETH BULLOCK, spinster, Aug. 25, 

JOSEPH PLUMMER, batchellor, and 
MARY SMITH, spinster, Nov. 26, 1739. 

ADAM STANDERT, batchellor, and 
June 20, 1740. 

FRANCIS BE.VRSLEY, batchellor, and 
JANE MEJANDIE, spinster, April 10, 

JOHN WADE, batchellor, and SARAH 
COLES, spinster, Jan. 7, 1742. 

JOHN SWARBRECK, batchellor, and 
April 6, 1743. 

HARRY THOMl'SON, batchellor, and 
June 3, 1743. 

JOHN BENNETT, batchellor, and 
22, 1743. 

L.VURENCE FOLKES, of the City of 
Lisbon, merchant, batchellor, and 
H.VNNAH CODD, spinster, Sept. 7, 

GABRIEL HERAULT, batchellor, and 
Feb. 13, 1744. 

RICHARD TIDSWELL, batchellor, and 
MARY ANNIE MOODY, spinster, Jan. 
3U 1745- 



26. WILLIAM WARRE, batchellor, and 

Sept. 29, 1745. 

27. CHRISTIAN SMITH, batchellor, and 

MARY MURATT, spinster, Oct. 29, 

28. JAMES STEWART, batchellor, and 

REBECCA DAVIES, spinster, July 29, 

29. WILLIAM MOORE, batchellor, and 

MARY TUCKER, spinster, Dec. 31, 

30. HENRY TYNMORE, widower, and MARY 

SANDYS, April 24, 1749. 

31. JOHN CAULET, widower, and ELIZA- 

BETH PAGE, spinster, April 29, 1749. 

32. THOMAS PLUMMER, batchellor, and 

MARY THOMPSON, spinster, Jan. 15, 

33. THOMAS TROLLOPE, batchellor and 
AMELIA PAGE, spinster, March 30, 

34. JAMES WOOD, batchellor, and FRANCES 

HITCHCOCK, spinster, Nov. 22, 1750. 

35. JOHN MOTHE, widower, and SARAH 

PIUNTER, spinster, June 21, 1751. 

3G. TYNN NASH, batchellor, and MARY 
TROLLOPE, spinster, Juh- 31, 1751. 

37. ROBERT PERRETT, batchellor, and 

ELIZABETH JACKSON, spinster, Dec. 
25. i75i^' 

38. RICHARD TIDSWELL, widower, and 

MAGDALEN POTTER, spinster, April 
10, 1752. 

39. No entry. 

40. yUARLES HARRIS, batchellor, and 

DOROTHY DAWSON, spinster, Dec. 
28, 1753. 

41. JOHN ROWE, batchellor, and KATHE- 

RINE BROWN, spinster, Jan. 17, 1754. 

42. Porto, August 26th, 1754. 

Marriage was soleraniz'd 

_, , I J. PAGE, junr., batchelor. 

Between us -' ■" 

t SARAH WYE, spinster. 


In the presence of us, 



43. Porto, Nov. 16, 1754. 

^Marriage was solemniz'd 

,, , ( JAMES FR.VNCKLIN, batchelor. 

between us ^ 



In the presence of us, 



44. Porto, h'eb. 6th, 1755. 

Marriage was solemniz'd 

„ , ( lAMES BELL, batchelor. 

fjctween us ■ ^ 



In the presence of us, 



45. Porto, April 2, 1755. 

Marriage \\as solemniz'd 

„ , I JOHN FARMER, batchelor. 

Between us -" 



In the presence of us, 

W. M. ADAM. 


46. Coimbra, April 17, t755. 

Marriage was solemniz'd 

„ , ( D.VNL. SHEPHE.-VRD, batchelor. 

Between us 

' S.VRAH TROLLOPE, spinster. 


In the presence of us, 



47. <.Juinta of Enchimill, June 14, 1756. 

Marriage was solemniz'd 

„ , i JOITN OLIVE, batchelor. 

between us ■> 

I ELIZ. CUTLER, spinster. 

By me, HENRY WOOD, M.A., and Clerk. 

In the presence of 



48. Porto, Nov. 30, 1755. 

Marriage was solemniz'd 

Between us ' batchelor. 

( HANN.VH FLETCHER, spinster. 
In the presence of us, 




Persons married by me, HENRY WOOD, A.M. 

Chaplain to the Factory of Oporto. 

Porto, Jan. 20th, 1757. 

Marriage was solemniz'd 


Between us ! ^ 



In the presence of 



Porto, May tlie 26th, 1757. 
Marriage was solemniz'd 

In the presence of us 


Porto, Jany. 6tli, 1758. 
Marriage was solemniz'd 
Between us { THOMAS PE.VRCE. 

I ELIZ. PEARSE, spinster. 
In the presence of 


Bet^veen us 

Porto, July the 20th, 1758. 
Marriage was solemniz'd 
Betw-een us (JO™ SAMPSON, 

( RUTH EVANS, spinster. 
In the presence of us, 


Porto, Eeby. the 12th, 1760. 
Marriage was solemniz'd 
Between us ( J '^■^'■^J^SH.-VLL, 

In the presence of 



May 13th, 1761. 

Marriage was solemniz'd 

lietween lis batchelor, 

' JANIC ATK'INSON, spinster. 
J!y me, Ill-.NKY WOOD, 

Chaplain to the Factory, 
In the presence of 


Between us 

Quinta of Enchimill, Porto, July 2, 1761. 
Marriage was solemniz'd 

Between us batchelor, 

' ELIZ. OLIVE, spinster. 
In the presence of us, 



Porto, Jany. 31st, 1762. 
Marriage was solemniz'd 

I batchelor. 

In the presence of us, 


Porto, Jany. the 2nd, 1764. 
Marriage was solemniz'd 

, STEI'HEN ADYE, batchelor. 
' spinster. 

By me, HENI^Y WOOD. 
In the presence of us, 


I'orto, Jany. the 2Sth, 1764. 
Marriage was solemniz'd 

In the pircsence of 


Porto, Sept. the 2yth, 1765. 
iMarriage was solemniz'd 

I'.y me, HENRY WOOD. 
In the presence of 

W. W. WAKKI-;. 


Between us 

Between us ' 

Porto, Jany. the 17th, 1765. 

Marriage was solemniz'd 


1 'Ctween us ' 

' ANN HAYCOCKS, spinster. 
I'.y me, 1II<:NKY WOOD. 
In the presence of us, 




Between us - 

Porto, December the 23rd, 1765. 

Marriage was solemniz'd 


Between us - ^ 

I ANN BAILDON, spinster. 


In the presence of 



Porto, Jany. the 12th, 1766. was solemniz'd 

PAUL WHITE, batchelor, 
•-FRANCES TAYLOR, spinster. 
By me, HENRY WOOL). 
In the presence of us, 


Laborim, July 15th, 176G. 
Marriage was solemniz'd 

, GEORGE WYE, batchelor. 

In the presence of us, 


Porto, March gth, 1767. 
Marriage was solemniz'd 

( JOHN CL.ARK, batchelor. 

In the presence of us, 



I. Porto, Novr. gth, 1768. 

Marriage was solemniz'd 

Between us FR.\NCIS (:■■) VALLETTE, 

( spinster. 

By me, W. E. P.VGE. 
In the presence of us, 


2 Porto, July 15th, 1760. 

Marriage was solemniz'd 

/ H. W. SANDFORD, batchelor, 

( spinster. 

By me, W. E. PAGE. 
In the presence of us 


3. Porto, .\pril 16, 1770. 

Marriage was solemniz'd 

( SAMUEL WE.VVER, widower, 
Between us , ^j_^j^y CRONK, spinster. 
By me, W. E. PAGE. 
In the presence of 


4. Porto, Jny. the ist, 1771. 

Marriage was solemniz'd 

/J. KINGSTON, batchelor, 

By me, AV. E. PAGE. 
In the presence of us, 


5. I'orto, Novr. i6th, 1771. 

Marriage was solemniz'd 

( Xthe mark of MARY SQUIRE. 
By me, W. E. PAGE. 
In the presence of us, 


Between us 

0. Porto, Sept. the Gth, 1772. 

}ilarriage was solemniz'd 

(BENJAMIN EVANS, widower. 
Between us ^ . . 

' ANN BR.AMPrON, spmster. 

By me, W. E. PAGE. 



7. Porto, June the 23rd, 1773. 
^larriage was solemniz'd 

f JOHN B.VYLEY', batchelor. 
Between us , ^^^^^^^^ STEWART, spinster. 

By me, W. E. PAGE. 
In the presence of us 


8. Porto. July the loth, 1773. 
JIarriage was solemniz'd 

LOVELL PENNELL, batchelor. 

I spinster. 

By me, W. E. PAGE. 



g. Porto, August 25th, 1774. 

Marriage wassolemniz'd 
Between us I CHARLES PAGE, batchelor. 
( ISABEL WARD, spinster. 
By me, \N. E. PAGE. 
In the presence of us, 


10. Porto, Sept. 5th, 1774. 

Marriage was solemniz'd 
Between us i WILLIAM CAMPION, widower. 
I PRISCILLA PAGE, spinster. 
By me, W. E. PAGE. 
In tlie presence of us, 


11. S. Joao da Foz, Oct. 6th, 1774. 

Marriage was solemniz'd 
Between us | BENJAMIN PEARSE, batchelor. 
' ANN FISH, widow. 
By me, W. E. PAGE. 
In the presence of us, 


12. Porto, Oct. 30th, 1774. 

Marriage was solemniz'd 
Between us * THOM.AS NEWAIAN, batchelor. 
' SARAH PAGE, spinster. 
By me, W. E PAGE, 
In the presence of us, 



13. Porto. February 7th, 1774. 
Marriage was solemniz'd 

JEAN MOUNIER, batchelor. 

By me, W. II. PAGE. 
In the presence of us, 


14. Masarellos, near Porto, ,AIay 13th, 1775. 
Marriage was solemniz'd 

/JOHN (;.\BE, batchelor. 

' spinster. 

By me, W. !■. I 'AGE. 
In the presence of us, 


Bet\veen us 

15. Masarellos, near Porto, June 6th, 1775. 

Marriage was solemniz'd 



By me, W. E. PAGE. 
In the presence of 


16. Espirito Santo, near Porto, June 14th, 1775. 

Marriage was solemniz'd 

, JOHN Cr<OFT, batchelor. 
' STALL, spinster. 

By me, W. E. P.-VGE. 
In the presence of us, 


17. Porto, April 7th, 1776. 
Marriage was solemniz'd 


Between us ' batchelor. 


By me, W. E. PAGE. 
In the presence of us, 


No. I. Alasarellos, near Porto, February 24th, 1776. 
Marriage was solemniz'd 


Between us 


I C H A R L T T E M A R I A 
BEARSLEY, sp.inster. 
In the presence of us, 


Between us 

No. 2. INIasarellos, near Porto, Feby, 26, 177S. 
Marriage was solemniz'd 

I EDWARD LLOYD, batchelor. 
( ELIZABETH PENNY, spinster. 
In the presence of us, 




Xo. 3. Monchique, near Porto, April 19th, 177S. 
Marriage was solemnized 

Between us 

( CARL WHITE, widower. 

' SUSANNA EVANS, spinster. 
In the presence of us, 


Marriage was solemnized 

• 4- 
Between us 

(RICHARD D.VVIS, widower. 
' I-:LIZABETH BRIN, spinster. 

In the presence of 


No. 5. Massarellos, April 5th, 1779. 
Marriage was solemnized 

Between us batcr. 

' MARY HITCHCOCK, spinster. 
In the presence of 


No. 6. Salgueiros, near I'rjrto, No\-r. r^th, 1770. 
.Marriage was solemnized 

, BI-:XJx. WEBBICK, batchelor. 
Between us ' SrSAXX.\ TI US WELL, 
\ sptinster. 

In the presence ot 

W.M. BRfiOKS. 

Xo. 7. MaQarellos, March 28th, 1780 

Marriage was solemnized 

I L. ^lORGAX, batchelor. 
Between us 

I FAXXY WOOL), spinster. 


In the presence of 



No. I. Masarellos, .\pril nth, 17SJ. 
Marriage was solemnized 

By me, JOHN !!ELL. 
In the presence of 


Between us 

No. 2. Porto, .\pril 24th, 1783, 
Marriage was solemnized 


Between us 

By me, JOH>J BELL, 

In the presence of 


Xo. 3. Cedofeita, July 23, 1783. 
Marriage was solemnized 

( BULL. 

Between us 


By me, JOHX BELL. 
In the presence of 


Xo 4. Salgueiros. neir Porto, Febw 7th, 1783. 
Marriage was solemnized 

Between us ' ^^ -^' BROOKS, batchelor, 
]-!)■ me, JOHX BELL. 
In the presence of 


.X.J. 5. Porto, Xo\r. 20, 1786. 
.Marriage was solemnized 

■ JOHX HESKETH, batchelor. 

Between us , LOUISA AXX BEETl-:, 

By me, JOHX BELL. 
In the presence of 



Xo. G St. John's, Septr. 26th, 1787. 
INIarriage was solemnized 

Between us ' batchelor. 


By m.e, JOHX BELL. 
In the piresence of 





Bet\\'een us 

Nn. 7. St. John's, Septr. iRth, 17SS. 
?\Iarriage \\'as solemnized 

I Wn.LIAM KAAISAY, batchelor, 
' JANE SHARLL, spinster. 
By me, JOHN BRLL. 
lit the p)resence of 

ROBt. laNGSTON. , 

17S.S. Septr. iXtli. 

Between us 

No, 8. ^Marriage was solemnized 


T, , liatcholor, 

E'etween us - 

J.VNE RELLEAV, spinster, 

', + her marl;. 

By me, JOHN Blil.L. 

In the presence of 


F.I">\\'ii. ECi.VN. 

No. 0- Porto, June 5th, 1795. 
Marriage was solemnized 

I hatchclor, 

Between us - p, ,roTHY MoNNIRR, 

{ widow. 

B)-nu;, JOHN B.El.L. 
In the presence ot 


No. 10. ?.Iai;arellos, April 23rd, 1794. 
Marriage was solemnized 

Between us ' batchelrjr, 

' S.VR.-VH SIRi.)N'i;. spinster 
By me, JOHN BELL. 
In the presence <jf 

JAMES butlim;. 

No. It. Porto, [uly 2Sth, 1794. 
Marriage was solemnized 

Between us lialchelor, 

' |ANE RAMS.W, uid.nx. 
By me, JOHN P.ICLL. 
In the presence of 


No. 12. Porto, June ist, 1797. 
Marriage ^vas solemnized 

I Wm. ROCHER, batchelor, 
(No iMinister's signature.) 
In the presence of 





Aug. 5. 
Sept. 13, 

A larch 
Aug. ,S. 

Jan 15. 

I'eb. 24. 

.April 20. 
July 9 
Sept. 13. 

March i 

AVas buried John Lee, Consul <i{ 

O Porto 
AVas buried Jacob E.\ton Cooper 
AVas buried AVill. Gary Cooper 
AA^as buried James Brailsford, son of 

George & Anne Brailsford. 
Was buried a seaman yt liy'd 

AA'as buried Mr. Will Skinner of 

AA'as buried Savage, wife to John 

AA'as buried a Seaman of C. Jenkin- 

son's Ship. Iiroun'd by .Accident. 
AA'as buried Jfr. Robert Stuckey, 

AA'as buried .Andrew I'orbes a Seaman 

of St. John's AA'apping, belonging to 

the I'nion, AA'm Scot, Commander. 
AA'as buried Sarah jMontgomery, wife 

of Air. AA'" Montgomery. 
AA'as buried ilrs. Mary Hammond, wife 

of Mr. John Hammond. 
AA'as buried Samuel AA'alford Cooper. 
AVas buried Joseph. a Seaman 

belonging to ^ Margaret, Benjamin 

Clark, Commander. 

1 AA'as buried Strut. 


Kec- 30, 17S4. A\as buried Air. John AA'\c, 

Alcrchant of this place. 
June I, 17S5. AA'as buried Aliss Caroline Beete, 

a young Lady from Englaml 
June 17. 17S5. AAas buried Airs. AA'eaxer, wife 

ot Air. AA'eaxer, a merchant of 

this place. 
June 20, 1785. AA'as buried Alaster Brett, son of 

Air. Brett, a Alerchant of this 

I 'lace. 
Jnl\ 22, 1785, AA'as buried Airs. Bearsley, \xife 

of Afr. f'rancis Bearsley, a 

Alerchant of this Place. 



Sept'- 27, 1785. Was buried Mr. Brooks, a Mer- 
chant of this Place. 
Nov. 8,1785. Was buried ?ilr. AVilliam I Jearsley, 

a Merchant of this Place. 
Dec'- 14,1786. Was buried Mr. Simsen, a Russian. 
Febi'- 10, 1787. Was buried ?vliss Mary Friend, 

sister to Mr. Friend, a ^Merchant 

of this I 'lace. 
Sepf- 14, 17S7. Was buried Master Warre, son of 

i\Ir. James Warre, a Merchant 

of this place. 
Oct'' 21, 17S7. Was buried Master Wj'e, son of 

Mr. Wye, a ilerchant of this 

XoV- 27, 1787. Was buried ^faster Webber, son 

of Mr. Webber, a Merchant of 

this Place. 

Aug'- J iS, 1728. Mr. Gilbert Nagle, Merchant 
of \'iana was buried. 

September J; 5. Was buried ^Irs. Clark, a 
Taylor's wife. 

John ITarelshy, }\Iaster of the Ship called the Plea- 
sant drownded, being Lunatick, was buried 
September-^ 12, 1723. 

Mr. William Swarbreck, father of William Swar- 
breck, \^ice-Consul, \sas buried No\'ember ' 
II, 1723. 

j\Iary Ogilvy, a child, daughter of .\le.\d'- < 'giU-y 
and Mary, his \vife, w-as buried Jan. " 
15. 17^4- 

Mr. Abraham Aldridge, wine cooper, was buried 
May = 8, 1724. 

July '-■ 21, 1724. J\lr. .Vnthony Banbe)-, Book- 
keeper, was Ijuried. 

August '-, 14. 1724. Mrs. Ann A\'right was 

August ' 22, 1724, James Taylor, of the Cock 
Pitt, was buried. 

October <^ 24. Mr. Thomas Dunster, of Porto, 
Jlerchant, was buried 1724. 

October '^ 22. ^Mr. William Stubbins, Book- 
keeper, was buried 1724, 
(Other handwriting). 
March " 13. John Moody " Gardiner, was 
buried 1725. 

May "^ 28. Neale Campbell was buried 1725. 

The I'ollowino list c()iitainin<4 the names 
of Consuls and Wine .Mercliants in ()p(jrto 
^\"as plaeed at \v,y disposal h\' .Messrs. 
Offley, Forrester .."v- Co. W'jth the exeep- 
tion of Consul William Wai'i-e, who is 
mentioned as ha\in^ held that offiee m 
180.S, the latest date is 1775, whieh makes 
me think that the doetnnent was prepai^ed 
in this year, and was copied in 1805. 

Walter Alaynard .. .. .. 1J59 

l-;dward r^Iurcott .. .. .. 1G7S 

pjhn I^ee . . . . . . . . iG'jo 

Da\id Jackson .. .. .. 1716 

Robert Jackson .. .. .. 1720 

lohn Whitehead .. .. .. '75^1 

William Warre .. .. .. 1-^05 

Consul Robert Jackson married a widow- 
lady, Mrs. Elizabeth Lund, in 1734, and 
Constd William Wtirre was, I belie\e. the 
son of .Mr. M'illiam Warre, wIkj mari'ied, 
in 1745, Elizabeth, datii^hter of John 
Whitehead, who became Constil in 17.36. 
I hii\c arri\'ed at the conclusion that after 
Consuls Maynard and -Murcott, all the 
Cithers had been residing; in Oporto as 
merchants, and were selected as Consuls h\- 
the Factoi'y. In stipport of this aIcw- I ha\"e 
it on record that the Jacksons wei'C Consuls 
and wine shippers at the same time. 
The hrst firm mentioned is — 
Peter L»o\\'ker .. .. .. I'Kji 

I>owker(^ .Stuke\-.. .. .. i'^"J4 

l.iowker, Stuke)- l\: Peak.. .. 1701 

Dowker & Stukey . . .. .. 1702 

Dowker, Stukey & Stert.. .. 171 1 

Stert, Hayman S: Co . . . . 17-4 

Stert & Hayman .. .. .. 1729 

Sampson & Richard Stert .. 1731 

Stert & Lambert .. .. .. 1740 

Edward Lambert .. .. 174-; 

I.,ambert, Croft & Lamljert .. 1745 

Edward & Thomas Lambert . . 1759 

Thomas Lambert. . .. .. 1765 

Swarbreck & Lambert .. .. 17G7 

Thomas Lambert. . .. .. 1773 

Olucr Beckett & Co. .. .. 17O4 

Lambert, Kingston & Co. . . 1772 

.Mr. John Swarbreck went out to Oporto 
abotit 1740, and three A'cars later was 
married to .Miss Elizabeth A'inicomhe, but 



lont:; before this Mr. John Page was 
married to the ciau_t;liter of Mr. Peter 

The next firm mentioned is — 
I'hayre & Bradleys .. .. I'jQy 

Phayre & Bradley .. .. 1709 

Phayre, Bradley & Tilden .. 170'j 

Tilden, Thompson & Stafford .. 1713 

Tilden & Thompson . . . . 17-3 

Tilden, Thompson X Croft .. 173(1 

Thompson, Croft & Mitchell .. 1742 

Croft, Stewart & Croft .. .. 175') 

Thompson, Croft & Co... .. 1767 

Richard Thompson .. .. 1734 

Richard Thompson & Co. .. 1747 

Thompson l^: Bell .. .. 175.5 

Thompson & Seward .. .. 1701 

fiichard & Stephen Thtmipson.. I7''0 

Thompson, Croft & Co... .. 1773 

In 174v'-i .Mr. Harry Thompson married 
.Miss .Maria Emilia Stert, daughter of Mr. 
Stert of the firm whieli e\entuallv became 
Lambert, Kingston & Co. In 1747 Mr. 
James Stewart man-ied .Miss Rebecca 
Da\ies. In 1757 Mr. Thomas Croft 
married .Miss Harriot Dawson, and in 
(Dporto was born Sir John Croft, Bart. 

The next firm mentioned is that of 
David and Robert Jackson, these gentle- 
men ha\-ing joined the Factor}- in 17KS. 
That til is house was fnr a centui-y one of 
the most important among the Oporto 
wine shippers is as ex'ident as that we ha\c 
lost all trace of its ci}neluding history. 
Robert Jackson, as I before said, married 
the widow of John Ltrnd," merchant of 
(Oporto, and her maiden name was 
Elizabeth Robinson. .Another partner, 
Richard Tidswell, married twice in Oporto 
— first, .Mary Ann Moody, in 174,5, and, 
after her decease, lie married Magdalen 

David & Robert Jackson . . 171 5 

Robert Jackson .. .. .. 1720 

Jackson & Porrett .. .. 1745 

Jackson, Porrett & Readshaw .. i75''i 

Porrett, Readshaw & Co. .. 17^7 

Readshaw. Bell & Wnoilmass .. 175,) 

* I believe that, owing to the antiquated cali- 
graphy, the surname Lunrl is Land, connected 
with the Teage family. 

Bell & Woodmass .. .. 17C1 

Clies, Babington & Co. .. .. 1763 

Bell, Woodmass & Babington . . 1775 

Babington, Tidswell & Co, . . 1788 

The next firm is : — 

John Clark 1718 

Clark & Thornton . . . . 17-3 

Clark, Thornton & Warre .. 1729 

Clark, Warre & Newby. . .. 1734 

A\'arre, Xewhy & Bowman . . 1743 

Warre, Lesueur & TroUope . . 1749 

Warre, Lesueur, Trollope & Co. 1755 

W'arre, Lesueur & Calvert .. 1759 

\Varre & Calvert.. .. .. 1762 

Warre & Calverts . . . . 1 7^5 

Warres & Cal verts .. .. 17' '9 

A\'arre c^ Sons .. .. .. '777 

William \\'arre married Elizabeth 
\\'hltehead In Oport(j in 1745; Thomas 
Trollope married Amelia Page in 1750; 
Tynn .\ash, of the firm of Burmester, 
Xasli c^- Co. (now Butler, Nephew & Co.), 
married Mary Trollope in 1751 ; John 
Clai-k married Prudence Burgoyne ; 
Daniel Lesueur also lived In Oporto, and 
so did James Bowman, \\Jio In 1749 jr)ined 
James Francklln in partnership under the 
style of B(jwman, Francklln c^ Co. The 
Cah'crts I'csided In Opoi'to for manyycai-s. 

Bearsle)' tt Co. .. .. .. J 720 

Bearsley & Brackley .. .. 1723 

Bearsley, Brackley iV' Bearsle) . . 1732 

Peter Bearsley & Co. .. .. 1730 

Peter & Charles Bearsley .. 1730 

Peter, Bartholomew tV Francis 

Bearsle}' . . . . . . 1 742 

Peter iv Francis Bearslc)" .. 1747 

Francis Bearsley . . . . . . 1749 

Bearsle}S L^ Co. .. ,. .. 1758 

Bearsle)- iV Webb . . . . 1 "66 

Bearsley, Webb & Sandford .. 1700 

.Mr. Charles Bearsley married the widow 
ot George BuUymore, of Oporto; her 
maiden name was Towson, and she bc- 
i(.)nged to Figueira. Francis Bearslev 
married Jane Mejandie : H. W. Sandford 
married his partner's sister, Margaret 
Bearsley; and Edward Wbltakcr Gray 
also married his partner's sister, HJizabeth 



Byrnes .. . . . . . . 1720 

Byrnes & Co. .. .. .. 1723 

Byrnes & Hosey .. .. .. 1729 

Byrne & Talbot .. .. .. r747 

Henry Byrne .. .. .. 1756 

Stephenson & Searle .. .. i77r 

William Wharton, manager of the firm 
of Offley & Co., married Frances Stephen- 
son, and James Van dam Searle, the last 
of the family, lies buried in the church- 
yard at Oporto. 

Harris, 1 'age & Pratt .. .. r723 

Page&Pralt .. .. .. 1729 

John Page.. .. .. .. r73o 

John Page & Son .. .. r754 

John and Charles Page & Co. .. 17G0 

Page, Campion & Co. .. .. 1761 

Charles Page .. .. .. r77r 

This branch of the Harris family is 
nearly allied to the Roopes of Devonshire, 
Air. Cabel Roope, grandfather of the 
present gentleman of that name, having 
joined Air. Harris in partnership in Oporto. 
The Pages, the Bearsleys and the Dowkers 
emigrated to Oporto long before the 
" Register f)f ye Port Factory" commenced. 

Gideon Caulet .. .. .. 1723 

Caulet, Clarmont & Co .. .. 1729 

John Caulet & Co. .. .. 1730 

Caulet, Clarmont & Co.. . .. i73r 

Caulet, Clarmont t'c Linwoi^d . . r732 

Caulet, Clarmont & Testas .. 1738 

Caulet, ^'incent & Co. .. .. 1750 

Caulet, Clarmont & Vincent . . 1753 

Caulet, Vincent & Harris .. r76o 

Vincent, Harris & Tevvson . . 1766 

Harris, Tewson & Co. .. .. 1771 

Plarris & Archdeacon . . . . — 

Curtis & Wettenhall .. .. r726 

Townsend Wettenhall .. .. r732 

Allen & Wettenhall .. .. 1744 

Townsend Wettenhall . . . . — 

Townsend Wettenhall married in 1739, 
at Oporto, the widow of a Mr. Newell ; 
and Mr. Renatus Curtis married Mary 
Wheatley, in Oporto, in 1729. 

Henry Gee 
Henry Gee & Co. 


John Swarbreck . . . . . . 1748 

Prust & Swarbreck .. .. 175'^ 

John Swarbreck .. .. .. 1766 

Swarbreck & Lambert .. .. I7C'7 

Swarbreck & Hesketh . . , . — 

The next name is that of 

William Bearsley .. .. 1738 

Then we have the firm of 

John Wye . . . . . . . . I74r 

John & George Wye & Co. . . 1763 

John Wye . . . . . . . . I7^7 

From this point 1 regret to say the 
dates have been torn out for a few lines, 
but the names are — 

Chalies, Testas & Haughton . . — 

H. Haughton & Co. 

lirett, Pearce & Co. .. .. — 

And this firm in the cotirse of years 
became Morgan Brothers. 

The ne.xt in rotation are — 
Bowman, Francklin & Co. .. — 

Wells & Co. — 

Again we came across the name 
Tidswell — 

Tidswell, I'ryer & Helmes .. — 

Tidswell & Co. . . . . . . — 

Tids\vell, senr. and j tin. .. .. — 

Following these wc ha\c the firm of — 
Thomas L)awson. 
Uawson & Harris. 
Thomas L)awson & Co. 
Dawson, Stafford & Co. 
Dawson, Staftbrd, Cooper iK: Champaine. 
Stafford, Cooper & Champaine. 
Stafford, Cooper & Smith. 

Holdsworth & Olive .. .. r755 

Holdsworths, (Jlive & Newman. 

John Olive married Aliss Elizabeth 
Cutler, at Oporto, in 1736, and Arthur 
Holdsworth married Aliss Elizabeth 01i\'e, 
in 1761. Thomas Newman married Miss 
Sarah Page, in 1774. 

Etty, Offley & Co . . . . I76t 

Etty, Offley, Campion & Co. 
And then the names of the managers of 
the firm in Oporto are given — 
1766. Francis Young. 
1770. William Wharton. 
1775. Samuel Weaver. 





iHE P(irtLi!^iicse DoLiro 
' bci;ins at Barca d'AKa, 
lint its source is traced 
to a small lake near the 
lici_L;hts of Urbian be- 
longing to the mountain 
range on the borders of 
Soi'ia, in Old Castile. 
From Barca d'Alva to 
S. Joa~j da Foz the 
240 miles in length. AUun- 
ke to imagine that it is 

gecjgraphers this ri\'er ser^■ed as the fron- 
tier between Calhctia and Lusitania dining 
the reign of the Emperor AugListiis. It 
may be said of this beatitiful stream that, 
throLighoLit all its extent, the banks on 
either side are more or less de\'oted to 
\ iticultLire, and, in gi\"ing a ciescription of 
some of the Ouiiitas and the names of the 
proprietors, I will commence by the 
(jLiinta do Silho, which was laid out and 
planted by Senhor MigLiel .Antonio 
l-erreira. This Om'nta is 1555 metres m 

Urduad -..cdU of ,/ ,l/.i/> .-/ Ilu Kr, 

lioiiw. hi llu- /,,;, B; 


called the Doui'o because gold has been extent and faces the ri\"ci'. The area of 

found in its bed, and, therefore, it is the this property Is about 1 2(1 hectares, extend- 

rio (Tiinro. Imagination is cheap and they ing from the river slopes o\er the brow of 

may go as far as the)- like in this direction. the hills. It is not entirely under \ines, for 

It was knou'ii to the Romans as Duriiis, it also contains oli\e trees, almond trees. 

and in Spain it is to this day called Duero. orchards, pasture land and gardens. The 

According to the ancient Roman a\erage produce used to be 100 pipes of 


wine, 10 pipes of oil, 80 cwt. of almonds, possible to \\ii\\ the property, at your ease, 

some rye, barley, potatoes, fruit, &c. in a carriage. Among the \arious roads 1 

In this district, however, so very near will mention the " Estrada Americana," 

to the Spanish frontier, the principal vine- " Estrada do Rio," and " Estrada dos 

yard is that of the \'alle do Meao (the Cabecos." 

property of her Excellency the Countess Beyond the I'csidential houses, \\hich 
of A/.ambuja), not far from Villa Nova de comprise a mansion, outhouse and chapel, 
Foscoa, and is situate on the left bank of &^c., there are the \\\nc stores and presses, 
the river Douro, which girts it on the which were built little by little, acc(jrding 
Eastern, Northern and Western sides, to annual increase in the production' of the 
thus gi\'ing the Ouinta the appearance of Ouinta, until they ha\"e attained c.xtra- 
a Peninsula. The entrance to it is, there- oi-dinarily lai-ge dimensions, such as the 
fore, on the South side. The principal " Armazems da Barca Veiha," and 
part of the property, which gi'adually rises "Armazems No\'os," btiilt of solid masonry, 
from the river up to the top of the hills, and of elegant constriicticjn. In \arious 
which form part of it, is exposed to the parts of the Ouinta there are also dwelling- 
East, and for this reason it was here that h(juses and cottages for the labourers. 
the planting of the \ines was commenced, Although the region of the Alto Douro 
which, notwithstanding the great develop- is not rich in potable water, the Ouinta of 
ment attending this operation, onlyco\er Valle do Aleao has, eomparati\ely speaking, 
at present about half of the pnjperty. an abundance of it, and quite recently a 

All the territory belonging to the Ouinta large reservoir was made capable of con- 

(through which the Roman armies must taining between 2,000 and 3,000 pipes, for 

have passed, as numerous coins of those the purpose of ii-rigation. The \arious 

days have been unearthed «-hen the plant- springs at present disco\'ei-ed afford almost 

ing of the \ines took place) belonged to sufficient water for what is actually i-e- 

the mayoi-alty of Villa Nova de F(jscoa, quired, and which is laid on in pipes to 

and was common land in all that depart- all the houses. 

ment. As, h(jwever, these lands were It was in 1888 that the late Donna 

offered b}' public auction in small holdings, Antonia Adelaide Fcri-eira was ad\ised 

by order of the Go\'ernment, Senhor Joze by her steward and managei-, Senhoi- 

da Silva Torres, Peer of the Realm, bcjught Antonio Jose Claro da Fonseca, to com- 

those lots which form this Ouinta, and they mence planting \ineson this \ast property, 

were inherited by his widow Donna Antonia starting at the east, and extending 

Adelaide Ferreira, whose second husband towards the north of the property, close to 

he was. When this lady died and her the principal entrance. 

property was di\'ided, the Ouinta was Since then, gradually and incessantly, 

allotted to the Countess of Azambuja. the woi^k of construction has been carried 

Although a survey of the property has on, employing a \ast niunber of labourers 

not been made, I reckon that the extreme at a great outlay of money. The part 

length is about eight kilometres, with a already under cultivation is covered by 

circumference of over twenty kilometres. over 900,000 vines, and thus it is possible 

The Ouinta is traversed by a public in an average year to produce about 2,000 

road, and throughout its length is walled pipes of good wine, owing to the excellent 

on both sides. All the land which is culti- quality of the soil and its favourable 

vated is intersected by roads which are position. There are, furthermore, about 

maintained in good repair, so that it is 15,000 olive trees of fine quality. The 



property also produces some delicious 
fruit and vegetables, and on the west side 
there are many cork trees and firs and 
almond trees. 

The next Quinta worthy of special notice 
is the \'csiivio, formerly called the Qn'mta 
(las T'iniicii'ds. It is the property of Senhor 
Antonio Bernardo Ferreira, the only son 
of the richest landed proprietor of the 
DoLiro, the late Donna Antonia Adelaide 
Ferreu-a aho\'e mentioned, who, dui'lng a 

being protected from the road by a lofty 
iron railing and gate, and in the centre 
there ai'e a few luxuriant palms; the build- 
ing is constructed of granite, and beyond 
some capacious and lofty reception rooms 
there are numerous bedrooms hot and 
cold water and douche baths. This man- 
sion, with the outhouses, co\ers about an 
acre of groimd. In fr(jnt is the orange 
gro\e, separated by a public road. So 
great •\\-as the droLight this year(1898) that 

long life, de\'otcd her time and her \"ast a few bullock-carts were employed to 

fortune to the impi-o\-ement of her many con\e\- water in pipes from the ri\"er, and 

\'ineyards and to the perfecting of the a i;ang of harmonioLisly disposed wenches 

making of port wine. 1 maginc, if j'oli can, disti'lbuted the much needed liquid at the 

a vineyard containing within its walls, root of each tree. This w as the first time 

seven hills and thirty \alleys ! Such is 1 had seen orange trees watered in 

the Ouinta do N'esLivio, situate on the Portugal. 

ri\'er Dolm'o, and close to the I'ailway I was rccei\cd in a princely way, only as 

station of the same name. The residence the I'Ich pi-opi-ietors of the Douro know 

requires describing ; it forms thr-ee sides of how to welcome their guests. Mutual 

a scjuare, the space between the two wings mtroductions ha\ ing been cerenioniouslv 



carried out, we made our way to the house, 
where a magnificent breakfast awaited us, 
and, need 1 say, we thoroughly enjrjyed it. 
There had been great slaughter among the 
chickens and ducks, and e\en the pigstye 
■had contributed a suckling to the morn- 
ing's repast. The table groaned under a 
hea\-y load of dainty food, iiKjst pei-fectlj- 
cooked. Of wine, e\ery quality and vin- 
tage were represented ; even the toothsome 
Scotch was not forgotten, not e\-en 

told me he had been fifty years in the 
ser\ice of the famil\-. Fi-om the dining- 
/■(jom windows we looked across the river 
on to the property of Mr. George W'arre, 
the Ouinta de Xossa Senhora da Ribeira, 
and on the ferry boats belonging to the 
\'esu\'io propert)'. 

The Ouinta do \'esu\-io begins at the 
ri\ersideand extends for a very considerable 
distance, embracing the Teja, which, when 
I saw it, was tiuitc di'y — the huge boulders 

Ouinta do Vcsiivio. 

Schweppe. The river had been called 
upon to pay tribute to the guests thus 
honoured by their host. We had carriages 
and riding horses at our disposal ; in fact, we 
had more than we could possibly require. 
But hospitality is a tradition with all the 
Douro people, and e\'erywhere we were 
done right royally. We had a first-rate 
butler, who had gone purposely from the 
Ouinta das Nogueiras to superintend the 
establishment during our stay. I think he 

showing up grimly some 300 ft. below us. 
From the terrace where we stood you 
obtain one of the grandest views in the 
D(juro ; it is superbly wild, magnificently 
great. At the back of us was the largest 
olive plantation in the kingdom, the dark 
green of the foliage showing in the 
brighter tint of the surrounding vines. 
Fi-om the opposite bank a complete view 
of the splendid oUval, concave in form and 
co\ering many acres of land, is enjcjyed. 




The Viscount de Villa Mayor, in his 
work on the Douro, says : — " Le grandiose 
aspect de cette magnifique propriete, ses 
innombrables plantations, et I'immense 
etendue de terrain qu'elle occupe, ainsi 
que le luxe et le nombre de ses construc- 
tions attirent irresistibiement I'attention, et 
exige un minutieux examen. On pent dire 
de cette Ouinta qu'elle est une gracieuse 
image du Douro ou plutot le prototype du 
pays des vignobles. Ouand on I'a vue et 
etudiee dans son ensemble, dans sa nature, 
dans son climat, dans ses cultures et dans 
ses produits, on comprend facilement ce 
qu'est ce pays priviiegie du Douro. . . 

" Le premier sentiment que Ton eprouve 
en observant cette grande propriete de 
queique point favorable est celui de I'admi- 
ration. On a peine a croire qu'un homme 
ait pu concevoir et executer avec ses seuls 
capitaux une plantation aussi etendue, 
avec un pareil luxe et une semblable 
solidite, et cela dans d'aussi difficiles con- 

" La superficie cultivee de la Quinta est 
pent etre superieure a 300 hectares. De 
la base du mont de Espinho au ruisseau 
de Teja, en longeant le fleuve, elle mesure 
3,000 metres ; du fleuve au sommet du 
mont Olival elle a une largeur maximum 
de 2,500 metres; le perimetre de la pro- 
priete est estime a 12,000 metres." 

Descending and following the left margin 
of the Douro we ai-rive at the small village 
of Arnozello where is the Ouinta of the 
same name. Further down is the Ouinta 
das Vargelas belonging to Messrs. Taylor, 
Fladgate & Yeatman. Then comes the 
Ouinta da Gallega, which used to be the 
property of the well known and highly 
esteemed Oporto Merchant, the late 
Senhor Antonio B. de Brito e Cunha. A 
little further on, nearer Pesqueii-a, is the 
Quinta Nova do Cachab, which was started 
by the late Baron do Seixo, and is capable 
of producing about 70 pipes of wine. On 
the same side are the Ouintas d'Alegria de 

Baixoand Alegria de Cima, or " Happiness 
Below" and " Happiness Above." On the 
opposite bank and on the slopes rising to 
the high lands of Anciaes are to be seen, 
among others, the Ouintas do Pelao, do 
Castellinho, da Azenha do Vao, etc. Lower 
down are the Quintas de S. Martinho and 
Acyprestes, the latter belonging to Senhor 
Antonio Bernado Ferreira. 

I must not forget to mention the Cachao 
da Valleira, a fearful cataract which, until 
the year 1792, rendered this part of the 
Douro impracticable of navigation. In the 
time of Dom Joao III., attempts had been 
made to destroy the huge mass of project- 
ing rocks, but it was only in the reign of 
Donna Maria I. that this great enterprise 
wasattempted. Strange tosay, this stupen- 
dous work was entrusted to a priest, 
Antonio Manoel Pesqueira, but he was 
unable to finish it owing to want of engi- 
neering auxiliaries, so the Italian engineer 
Yola was called to assist him, and on the 
2nd October, 1789, a boat was able to 
ascend and descend the celebrated Cachao. 
On the 12th May, 1861, the ever lamented 
Baron de Forrester was drowned at this 
spot. Even now, the men of strongest 
nerve are appalled when passing through 
this gorge, the whole of which bristles 
with horrid crags. On either side perpen- 
dicular walls of granite yawn on the 
passenger below, who can but just catch a 
faint glimpse of the blue sky above. 

On the side opposite to the Ouinta dos 
Acyprestes are those do Zimbro, da 
Chousa and Tua. The first was bought by 
Mr. George Warre (partner in the firm of 
Messrs. Silva and Cosens) from the family 
of Barros, of Sabroza. It is beautifully 
situated, and contains a good house and 
outbuildings. The Ouinta da Chousa 
belongs to the noble family of Ervedosa. 

The next property of importance is the 
Ouinta de Malvedos, belonging to Messrs. 
\V.& J. Graham & Co. Continuing our 
progress along the river side, we arrive at 



the Quinta do Merou90, once the property 
of the well-known farmer, Bento de 
Queiroz, while on the opposite side of 
the river is the famous Quinta de Roriz, 
about 70 hectares in extent, and belonging 
to Senhor Christiano Van Zeller. This 
Quinta was originally the property of Mr. 
Robert Archibald, a Scotchman, who built 
a shooting box there and hunted the wolves 
and boars to his heart's content. 

and surrendered his share to his brothei" 
Nicolau, father of Christiano Kopke, Baron 
de Villar. The surrounding land belonged 
to the Commandery of Tres iMinas of the 
Order of Christ, which succeeded that of 
the Templars on the suppression of the 
latter by Clement V. These properties 
were acquired by Mr. Archibald in perpe- 
tuity at a nominal yearly rental, somewhat 
after our peppercorn system. 

Quinta de Roriz. 

Mr. Archibald left his native country 
with a letter of credit on the firm of 
Messrs. C. N. Kopke & Co., on whom, it 
would seem, he drew considerably in excess 
of his credit, so that at his death the 
Quinta was put up to auction and bought 
by Nicolau and Joaquim Kopke, who were 
the first to plant vines on the property, 
but after a time Joaquim got tired of it 

The Quinta de Roriz is about 70 hectares 
in extent. The grounds rise from the 
river bank to the height of about 475 ft. 
Originally, the Quinta was outside the 
zone allowed by law for fine ports intended 
for export, and the wine could only be 
used for home consumption; but Nicolau 
Kopke, who acted in the North of Portugal 
for the celebrated Marquess of Pombal in 



respect of his manorial i-ij;hts, obtained 
a speeial license to export the wines of the 
Ouinta de Roriz. The above fact shows 
that Robert Ai-ehihald must have arri\ed 
in the Douro somewhere before the middle 
of last century, because he held possession 
of the Ouinta for some considerable time, 
and after his death the great Marcjuess of 
Pombal, who died in disgrace in 1777, was 
at the height of his power when the 

The wines produced are of very excellent 
quality, and the property is capable of 
yielding 100 pipes. It is in Roncalj that 
some of the finest wines are obtained. 
The district begins close to the rapid of 
Carrapata, and extends throughout the 
valley of Ronca7j. Among other Ouintas 
in this district I will mention Malheiros 
and Esmenia. 

The Ouinta dos Reis, or do Abbade, is 

f-f. i! 'Si^'"- ,/ 

l>u::ild ,1,1 l;,n',(,i. 

Kopkes bought it. Like all other Oumtas also worthv of notice, but the Ronianclra, 

it has sLiffered from the ravages of the close b\. is far more celebrated. It is 

oi'dium and phylloxera, hut it has all been comprised m the parish of Ciitas. In good 

replanted with the American vines. years it \ ields aboLit 70 pipes of wine of 

In one of the slopes may be seen the first qualitw remarkable for bodw mellow- 

Ouinta da Car\'alhcira, belonging to the ness, and bouquet. I belicxc this magni- 

family of Pimcntel. This is one of the Hcent (Juinta is the propert\- of the Jorda"o 

oldest OLiintas in the Douro, and was familw to whom the Ouint.i do Sibio also 

started by one of the family, Scnlioi' belongs. Ancither \ine\ard of great 

Alanoel Horj^es d'Abreu Castello Branco. repute is the Ouinta de Donna Rosa, and 



ahi) worthy of mention are the Ouintas do 
Victorino, Serodio and Liceiras. 

Just at an angle of the river is the well- 
known Ouinta da Rocda, now the property 
of Messrs. Croft & Co. The fine house 
and the stores can be seen from the river. 
On the opposite bank are the Ouintas das 
Carvalhas and das Baratas, and further 
inland the Ouinta do Bom Retiro. At 
PinhaT) we seem to be even on moi-e 
familiar ground, for on following tine tor- 
tuous course of this small river we see the 
Ouinta do Noval, now the property of 
Senhor Antonio Jose da Silva, jun. This 
is a magnificent vineyard, which belonged 
to the Viscount de ViUar d' Allen. It is 
surrounded by the Val de Mendiz, S. 
Christovab, Casal 
de Loi\-os, and 
V i 1 1 a r i n h o d e 

Cotas. Further / -. \ 

up, but on the 
left bank, is the 
Quinta de Celei- 
ros, belonging to 
Senhor Arnaldo 
de Souza. All 
round Casal de 
Loivos there 

, ,. Si'iilior A. 7, da Stlva, Stiii-. 

are numbers or 
OLiintas, among others the Ouinta Amarella. 
Respecting the Ouinta do Noval, the 
Viscount of Villa Maior says : " Wh<jever 
follows the road from Regoa to Pesqueira 
will see, before reaching the River Torto, 
a pile of \\'hite buildings standing to the 
left of the village of Casal de Loi\os. These 
buildings occupy an eminence which rises 
among the numerous knolls and hillocks 
which form and command the tortuous 
valley through which the Pinh;io flows. 
This large block of buildings recalls the 
numerous monasteries erected by the 
monks, and still to be met with throughout 
the country. These buildings belong to 
the Ouinta do Noval, one of the finest in 
the DoLu-o. The area of Xoval is about 

100 hectares, sloping from Villarinho de 
Cotas, and overkxjking, between Casal de 
Loivos and \'alle de Mendiz, the River 
Pinhifb. . . . The panoi"ama enjoyed from 
the windows of the mansion of No\'al is 
one of the grandest in the diversified 
regions of the Douro. In the fore- 
gi'ound are the \ ineyards of Xoval, forming 
steep amphitheatrical terraces. To the 
right, on the opposite side of Pinh.vj, and 
midwa}' up the slopes, we see, embowered 
in vines and shady gro\'es, the small town 
of S. Christovab, and looming in the dis- 
tance are a few houses situated in 
Goi\inhos. To the left, on an eminence 
abo\'e the mouth of the Pinhab, stands 
Casal de Loivos, with its snow-white 
cottages peep- 
ing froni among 
chestnut woods 
and vineyards. 
Through the in- 
tervening open- 
ing between the 
mountains may 
be described the 
River D o u r o 
passing 'neath 
tlie lofty crags of 

funr. ^ 

Casaes as tar as 
Bateiras, at the mouth of the River Torto. 
On the slopes forming the first stages of 
the cultivated and vine-clad hills, we see 
the white buildings of the Ouinta do Sei.xo, 
and the \illage of X'alenca, commanding the 
course of the river Torto. In the back- 
ground the sky-line is formed by the 
mountain tops of Taboaco. Towards the 
north we see Celeiros, Villarinho de S. 
Rom;uj and Sabroza." 

Referring once again to the celebrated 
Quinta do Noval, which belongs to my good 
friend Senhor Antonio Jose da Sih'a, 
photograph of whom is here reproduced, 
I would observe that it suffered terribly 
under the phyllo.xeric scourge, but has 
been nearly all replanted at a very great 

I J fi -^a 



cost, and is now one of the most productive 
in the whole of the Douro. My friend 
makes a residence of it, and the house is 
beautifully furnished after the English 
style. A good road places it in easy 
communication with Pinhac) railway 

The Ouinta de Celeiros belongs to 
Senhor Arnaldo de Souza, son of the 
Conde do Bolhab ; the position it occu- 
pies is majestic owing to the elevation and 

Oporto Wine Company ; but the house is 
\ery much modernized, and, as far as I 
know, may not have been built in the 
Pombalina era. The furnishing is in the 
most approved style of the French school. 
Cleanliness, comfort, and correct taste are 
everywhere in evidence ; and hospitality is 
the order of the day. To find so grand a 
house in so wild a part of the country 
comes as a pleasant surprise to the weary 
traveller. Add, then, to these solatia the 

Quiiita da 

formation of the hills, but there is little 
that could be described as pastoral as we 
shoukl understand the term in Engkmd. 
It is a long and tedious ride from the rail- 
way station to this grand property, in fact 
one of the most slippery roads in the whole 
Douro. The house or mansion of Celeiros 
partakes of that architecture which was 
adopted by those gentlemen who, about the 
middle of the last century, had the good 
luck to form part of the directorate of the 

acquisition of a butler thoroughly up to his 
duties ; a cellar replete with bottles of 
wine representing the most famous vin- 
tages of the Dour'o, of France, of Spain, 
and of Germany, while the culinary 
arrangements are of that nature to satisfy 
a Cardinal, or pleasure a Prince. 

Returning again to the river Douro, just 
opposite the Pinhal), we ha\e the Quintas 
das Carvalhas, Baratas, and Seixo, 
belonging to Senhor Miguel de Souza 



Guedes, a gentleman who, by his strict 
integrity, has earned for himself on the 
Rua Nova a most enviable reputation. He 
is a man of culture and of a very consider- 
able amount of common sense. 

Almost opposite the Quinta do Seixo 
is the famous Boa Vista, the property of 
Messrs. Offlej', Cramp & Forresters, of 
Oporto and London. It is situate on the 
right (or northern) bank of the river, con- 
tains nearly 300 acres of ground, which, 

Douro under a fine bridge connecting the 
marginal road. From this spot may he 
seen the buildings of the Quinta do 
Espinho. From the Tavora to Folgoza 
the following are some of the Ouintas : — 
Do Peg(j, Lobata, Tedo, Alegria, \'al 
Moreira, Penha and Renda. The village 
of Folgosa is beautifully situated on a hill 
overlooking the River Douro. In former 
days there was a sort of monastic retreat 
there, which, on the suppression of monas- 

Quinta ciiTS Carvalhas. 

by its formation, is exceptionally favour- 
able to the growing of very fine wine. In 
this property the replanting of the vines 
has had the attention of the proprietors, 
who have devoted a very considerable 
amount of time and money to benefiting 
this celebrated Quinta. The accompany- 
ing view will give an idea of the beautiful 
position of Boa Vista. 

On the left bank, close to the Quinta do 
Sei.xo, the ri\er Tavora flows into the 

teries, was acquired by the Baron da 
Folgosa. Opposite Folgosa is situated 
the village of Covellinhas, at the entrance 
to the valley, through which meanders the 
Ceira. This valley is hemmed in by lofty 
hills covered by vineyards. The family of 
Silveira Pinto possesses the Quinta das 
iMurcas, located in this parish. The next 
points worthy of notice are the narrow 
gorge of Pedra Caldeira and the \'al da 
Figueira. On the left bank are the Quintas 



dos Frades, do Portello, do Ferrador, and 
Foz de iMil Lobos. 

After passing the gorge of Pedra Caldeira 
we see in the distance the heights of the 
Serra do iNlaraT), and, as we proceed to 
Pezo da Regoa, the following Ouintas 
deserve mention : — On the left bank, the 
house of the Alamhiques belonging to 
Messrs. TayUjr, Fladgate & Yeatman ; the 
Ouintas of Bagauste, da Bouca, da Torre, 
dos Marrocos de S. Barbara, da Gracia 

that it received its charter from Dom 
iManoel, who held Court at Evora, in the 
South of Portugal. It may be considered 
the capital of the Alto Douro. The popu- 
lati(Mi is about 5,000, occupying some 750 
houses. It was at Regoa that, in the old 
times, the separation of the wines took 
place under the super\ision of a company, 
whose charter \\as, fortunately for the port 
•wine trade, cancelled in 1833. It was, 
however, reconstructed with more modified 

Qitiula ltd Kt\i \'ixUi 

and do Ter:u). On the right bank ai-e the powers, which were abolished in 1853, 

Ouintas do Hnxogreiro, do Zambugal, do much to the satisfaction of the farmers 

Canal, de Valbom, da Yelha, dos Curraes, and shippers. 

da Devesa, da Vaccaria, and do N'allado, In close proximity to Regoa, on its 

the property of Senhor Antonio Bernardo western side, is the beautiful \alley of 

Ferreira. I obser\e that AUu-ray calls Jugeiros, famous for the splendid fruits 

Regoa a modern town, but there are many with \\liich it stocks the Oporto market, 

authorities who maintain that it was In this hamlet is situate the Ouinta das 

founded at the commencement of the NogLieiras, where the late Donna .'Xntonia 

thirteenth century, in the reign of I). Adelaide Ferreira breathed her last : it is 

Sancho I., although it was only in 1519 now the property of hei" onlj- son. 


On the opposite side is the fertile plain of 
Touraes, with its Ouintas, lovely proves and 
picturesque mansions. In the neighboLu- 
ing parish of Godim are the Ouinta do 
Neto, owned by Senhor Champliniaud and 
the Santinho, the property of the abo\e- 
mentioned Senhor A. B. Ferreira. 

We all know what an English village is 
like. As places of beautj' I prefer them 
on canvas, but this is a matter of choice. 
Our people are decidedly gregarious, and 

a few miles, but I dare not attempt 
to describe the cane-brake JList half way 
up the hill, and the oli\e trees, and the 
almond trees, and the fig trees, and the 
snow white cottages between the vine- 
yards. If it were on a Saturday after- 
noon, when the village drums and bagpipes 
are announcing a festi\al to be held next 
day around the Church, 1 might attempt 
the task. But what coLild 1 tell of interest 
t(j my readers respecting that solitary cot- 

(hiinta das Xogiicil-'is. 

one \illage is \ery much like another. The 
thatching may be different, and the fields 
more or less suited to hard riding; but 
our villages are very compact as compared 
with those on the Continent. Our old 
Gothic or Xorman churches generally 
occupy the central position, and the 
public house comes next. This is not the 
case with our Douro Aldcias. The 
church is the centre of a number 
of cottages and mansions scattered over 

tage, white and clean looking without, but 
the \'ery opposite within, which confronts 
us? Those blue pigs, almost naked 
children, and long-legged fowls disporting 
themselves in the dust, represent a picture 
Luilike anything we ha\e in England. 1 
know that about a mile beyond, after you 
have crossed the summit of the hill, the 
crossing of which must not be reckoned in 
the mile, there is the Tavern without any 
sign board, and without any floor. Right 



down in the valley below is the next house 
with its many windows and white-washed 
walls, and the yard behind it with a side 
door leadinis into it. It contains but one 
story to which you ascend up a flii^ht of 
stone steps with a stone balustrade on 
which the yellow, red and j^reen pumpkins 
are placed. Under the eases, the swallows 
have built their nests, and in no way inter- 
fere with the bunches of luscious grapes 
hanginjj from the nvinuhi o\er the yard. 
But to describe this, the furious stream 
below, the jJolden banks, the huge rocks 
and the e\er olorious sky, demands 
the skill of a word painter — one who 
could picture the fire-fly anci the jjIow- 
worm at night, the ceaseless but harmo- 
nious song of the nightingale, the dim light 
from the cottage windows on the opposite 
bank, the tinkling of the bells on the necks 
of the mules, and the weird noises of the 
cart wheels. This, of course, I am able to 
recollect, because once seen and heard it 
can never be forgotten. If it were not for 
that bai-e-legged girl with hei' pitcher full 
of water and a cabbage leaf on the top to 
prevent spilling, I would leax'e the picture 
alone, liLit she is one of the principal 
features in it. The peasantry is not the 
least beautiful of Nature's gifts. It is not 
a road, nor a street, nor a lane which she 
tra\erses ; generations haxe worn out the 
path through the gorse, and although the 
slag and the pebbles are treacherous to the 
feet, she never touches the pitcher wiHi 
her hands t(j balance it. 

In these Portuguese straggling \illages, 
whose whitewashed houses break the 
monotony of the vine-ckul hills, the barber's 
shop, the chemist's, and the ta\ern are the 
principal places of gossip. Hut there is 
an oi-iginality ahoLit a Lusian barber which 
entitles him to being preferred over all the 
other inhabitants of a \illage. He is the 
newsman of the place, and knows what is 
going on at the neighbouring Ouintas, and 
a great ileal more than some of the Nillagcrs 

desire to be known. The ceiling of his 
shop is festooned with many-coloured fly- 
papers, from which hang by one leg the 
dead iimsciis of many summers. He is a 
man of steady- hand, who can raise 
his pint jug brim-full to the lips, without 
spilling a drop, ex-cepting down his 
throat, and just at the back of his shop, 
where his gLiitar, quarter-staff, and big 
blue umbrella are suspended he has a pipe 
of the Kdscaiitc which he retails at a Id. 
the pint. He also deals in leeches, cleans 
teeth and dispenses good luck, but I ha\e 
also found him very useful in giving 
correct information respecting the prices 
ruling for wines, what is worth tasting, 
and what had better be left alone. 

Once more 1 must refer to the Cachafj 
da \'alleira. The Ripansa rapids ha\e 
been left behlncf and oiu" boat has got well 
into the cm-rent which attains greater 
speed as we approach those hills of granite 
through which nature and the skill of man 
prepared a passage for the rixer. There is 
something terribly grand in this pass or 
cataract ; on each side of you the pre- 
cipitous rocks offer no footing should the 
man at the helm make the slightest 
mistake. In such a seething, i-ushing, 
mass of water, the best swimmer coLild do 
nothing. But as we are about to enter 
this narrow gorge the boatmen Luicover, 
for high aboxe them is erected a church 
dedicated to the Sa\ioLu-of the World, to 
whom their fervent praxers arise. Before 
1780 this goi'ge was far more teiM'ible than 
now, lor just half way down some rocks 
still disptited with the river the right of 
way. Like others, centui-ies before, the\' 
wotdd ha\e had to yield to the irresistible 
work of tune, but so long as they were there 
naxigation was impossible. But even when 
these obstacles had been removed by gun- 
powder, it was many years before any pilot 
bad the courage to descend this pass. On 
the right bank the natm-al wall of granite 
rises to an elevation of '2,700 ft., and on 



the left to about 2,400 ft. above the le\el 
of the sea. 

The Cach.f?) da \'alleira separates the 
Higher from the\er Douro, but as far 
as soil and climate are concerned there is 
n(j difference at all. The di\isional line 
is purely con\entional. 

AUich has been written about the I'uins 
of Caliabria, situate about a league from 
Castello-Melhor and within the district 
of Riba-Coa. 
Some say that 
here was the 
See of a Bishop 
in the time of 
the Goths, and 
that its prelates 
figured in the 
Councils o f 
Tcjicdo from 
621 to 693. On 
the invasion of 
the Arabs the 
Bishops had to 
quit, and, ac- 
cording to the 
archives of the 
Cathedral of 
C i LI d a d R o d - 
rigo, there is no 
doubt that the 
place was of 
some inipor 
tance. The walls 
are still to be 
seen ; they are 
m the form of 

a circle, but w ith(JLit moat or battlements, 
and remind me very much of the sort of 
fort guerillas throw up. Many years ago 
three tombs were unearthed, and the 
skeletons were apparently of persons 
measuring between 6 and 7 feet. 

The episcopal city of Lamego desei-\es 
a short notice. In ancient days it was 
called Mamxcoini ; during the Moorish 
occupation the kings held court here until 

Cachao da \'aUdia, by Ro'ai.and Tkagk, Etq 

it was taken from them by Uom I'ernando 
the Great, of Castile, in 1038. About one 
hundred years later it again became famous 
ow ing to its ha\ ing been chosen as the seat 
of the Cortes which was summoned by 
Affonso Heni'ic|ues, the first king of Ror- 
tugal. The cathedral is worth)- of a \ isit, 
cspecialh' the western side, w hich is the 
most ancient part of the building. The 
city also possesses an old castle, and a 

iiKjsqLie ;\hich 
has been trans- 
formed inti; a 
bLiilding for 
Christian wor- 
s h i p, w h 1 1 e 
opposite to this 
c h u r c h is a 
shop, which 
ma\- possibly 
interest the 
I tra\ellers more 
than the Alma- 
ca\e, as it is 
the place where 
you can get the 
excellent ijitu- 
jilos, or ci"eani 
cheese. The 
sides of the 
m o u n t a i n s , 
not far from 
Lamego, are 
cohered with 
i n n LI m e r a b I e 
flocks of sheep. 
This city is 
described by some as being \ery dirt)-, 
but in this respect it has in-ipro\ed 
considerabl)-, and, from an historical 
point of view, is worth visiting. It can he 
easily reached from Regoa on horseback or 
in a carriage, hut what there is to be seen 
will not occup)- more than a day. The 
following advice is not to be despised- 
remember to take something to eat with 
)-oLi, as, beyond the qnojitus and a few 



sweetmeats, there is not mueh to be had 
-and on an empt\' stomach who can enjoy 
looking at old churches and castles ? 

It was at Lamego that I witnessed outside 
a chiu'ch a sale by auction conducted by a 
clown. The proceeds revert to the 
church, less a small percentage which 
is the remLineration of the auctioneer. 
Among the articles e\p<jsed for sale were 
boucjuets of artificial and natural flowers, 
small tumblers containing w'tne protected 

coat of strange CLit ; on his head he wore 
a cocked hat made of pink, white, and 
yello\\ paper, but his pantaloons were the 
con\entional black with the addition of a 
broad gold stripe. His feet were as 
innocent of boots, shoes, or socks as his 
face and hands were of soap. Notwith- 
standing all these disadxantages he made 
a very good and amusing auctioneer. His 
imxiiis opcraiiili was to take hold of one of 
the articles, sa)' a "secret" in a cardboard 

A Dnuro II. ml undn- Sail. 

from the encroachments of the Hies by box; this he dcclai-cd to be an ofl'erin,!; frorni 

havingasmallcakeplaeedoverthem;models a most devout and beautiful young lady, 

of ships, at least we took them to be meant whose name he need not mention. The 

tor ships; cardboard boxes, containing bidding commenced at one "babao,"and 

either a lizard, i-at, toatl, or frog, each box i^radually rose to ten " babaos," at which 

being labelled ■' secret "; wooden clogs, etc. price it was knocked down to a \oung 

The bidding was by " Babaos," hut the farmer, who carefully opened the box. 

derixation <if this word 1 know not ; in w hen out leapt a large rat, much to the 

Portuguese church auctioneering, howcNcr, dismay of the peasant girls who jumped 

It represents ,S n /,s, or a farthinj;. The ;\bout eager to get out of the way of the 

clown was airayeil m a multi-coloured climbing piopensities of the creature. 

U PORTO, OLD A.\l) XEW. ]09 

Then was offered a glass of wine and a black puddlnjt, salt cod fish, and plenty of 

cake, for which some bid, on the condition wine. The Christmas-tree forms no part 

that the auctioneer should drink it ; and, of their national festivities; Old Father 

as a rule, he had to drink all the wine, so Christmas and Santa Claus, the lucky 

that by the time all the articles had been stockin}>, plum pLiddin;^, &c., are ec|ually 

sold he was liacchi phuits. miknown, but their »//,s,';(( Aiifrt/Zo fcockcrow 

At these Church auctions are sometimes niassj heralds in a day fruitful of the 

seen beautifully got up boxes containinji most happy, t^lorious and peaceful 

dried fruit, preserved and prepared by events resulting from the birth of 

young ladies who are placed in the con- the /;/((//;/<) yfs»s (the child .Jesus). With 

vents until they come of age. In Portugal these Latin races it is a day more of 

there are no nuns in the con\ents; those thanksgiving than of carousals; for, 

ladies who desire to devote themselves more whereas on the festivals of SS. Anthony 

especially to the service of God, may do so and John they celebrate the occasion by 

in their own houses or in foreign countries, the firing of rockets and other congenial 

hut in Portugal the notion, and the correct amusements, the anni\ersary of the birth 

one, of liberty, will not admit of legalised of the Redeemer bekjngs more to the 

self-immolation. The handiwork of the sanctuary than to the public places. 

nuns in former times is, howe\er, not neg- In the province of Traz-os-.M(jntes, this 

lected in these days of greater light; all festi\e season is one in which the cd'^ntc^ 

that was Liseful is retained, and the pre- and the Ikhuciii cstnlur, and other uncanny 

paring of dried fruit foi- exportation to spirits arc supposed to be most troLihle- 

England and other countries is a consider- some. On Christmas H\e, as on S. John's 

able source of re\enue to many of the H\e, many are the mn-acles wrought by 

religious establishments in PortLigal. 1 enchantment, or rather by some old woman 

suppose that the Bnglish wine meixhants who is sLipposed to possess the power of 

are the best customers these dark-eyed (.h'lxing out bends from the bodies of chil- 

yoLing damsels ha\e for their nuich admired drcn, ciu-ing \ arioiis infirmities, or restoring 

and highly pr-ized confectioncr\ . a lost lo\ci- to some broken-hearted maiden. 

At Christmas time these boxes, called in When the moon has risen over the brow 

P(jrtuguese ifCd/a.s, are much in requisition, of the hill and the ri\er fog is just lifting, 

but New Year's Day and Twelfth Da\- are, some fine old oak ti'ce is ri\en asunder by 

I venture to think, more popidar among the axe of a stalwart forester, and the 

the Portuguese than the Gi'eatAnni\'ersar\-. new-born infant possessed of the evil eye 

The)' ha\e their carol-singers, who come to or suffering from a rupture is passed 

dar tis bans fi'stds (to <yi\e you h'dppy street- through the cleft in the tree while the 

ings), some plaj'ing on the triangle, others wise woman muttei's some spell, and after- 

on consumptive bagpipes, the drum, and wards practically attends t(j the disease, 

the rest singing. The first instrLunent they impediment or grievance. But the spell 

strike close to the door is the triangle, and wcjrks the miracle, in the opinicjn of the 

then they all shout vii'/i. vivii. riva, some- people, not the binding, nor the washing, 

what after the fashion of our in-chin cai'ol nor the rubbing of the aft'ected part. Hven 

minstrels in England. But the singing of so do some people in North America still 

the former is bearable, and more in bar- belie\e in hrcrc rabbit, caught by the left 

mony with the festi\e occasion. The hind leg, by the dark of the moon in a 

household is regaled with niliniKiflas churchyard, as being the greatest preven- 

(toasted bread steeped in honej" and wine), tati\e against misfortune. 


These creatures of the imagination, hlie 
the wolf-ehiid, are beheved in by the lower 
classes inhabiting all eonntries. \\'hci-e 
is there a land, for instance, richer in this 
sort of folk-lore than the Rheingau ? And 
e\en among the higher and more educated 
classes, how often do the fumes of the 
wine, as they stealthily creep to the brain, 
awaken from their nebLilous dominions 
these gnomes to which next day is 
attributed the heAdache ! 

embers. The bells from the neighbouring 
churches announce the hour for refresh- 
ment; off go all the red or blue woollen 
caps, a short prayer is muttered, and then 
this meagre meal is as mLich enjoyed by 
these sons of toil as many a more expensive 
one is in the higher social circles. On the 
shore the same preparations have been in 
progress bv some other boat's crew ; in a 
few cases, however, the meal is still more 
meagre, as the sardines are wanting, and 

One ot the prettiest sights on the ri\ei- 
Douro is the wine boat, some of which 
carry 70 pipes. We will imagine one of 
these craft nKjored close to Regoa. Mid- 
day is approaching, and the boy, generally 
termed the rudder-monkey or Jiincmo da 
leiiic, is attending to the broth warmini^ 
o\er a fire made of pine-wood placed on 
the bow. To gi\e the cahhi a pleasant 

the broth and maize bi-ead constitute the 
dinner. Htit the broth, although made of 
nothini; \ery substantial, is so palatable 
that it wciuld seem as if these primitive 
cooks essayed to disprove the old adage, 
(/(■ III liil II nihil fit. 

1-or their dessert they have grapes of 
\ai-ioLis sizes and coIolu's at hand, peaches, 
nectarines, and hgs ; they have but to pick 

flavour he pLits in some ctmiin seed ; close them. The following is a list of the most 
by a few salt sardines ai'e being roasted on esteemed qualities of I^olu-o grapes:- 



]\'liitc ]Viiu' Grapes : Abelhal, Agudelho, 
Alvaraca, Arinto, Donzelinho, Folf»ozio, 
Gouveio, .Malvazia, Mourisco, Muscatel, 
Rabo de 0\elha, PromissaT;. 

For table use the follow inj^ w bite j^rapes 
are recommended: — Dedo de dama, .Mus- 
catel de Jesus, and Ferral branco. 

Red or Blaek IViiie Grapes : Alicante, 
Mal\-azia vermelha, Muscatel roxo fthe 
above three are also suitable for table pur- 
poses), Alvarilhab, Aragonez, Bastardo 
(the sweetest), Bocca de Mina (the most 
delicious\ Camarate, Ccjrnifesto, Coucelra, 
Donzellinhf) do Castello, Gallego, Fei-ral, 
Mourisco preto, Muscatel preto, Pegudo, 
Rabo de 0\elha, Smizaij (the deepest 
coloured), Tinta amarella, Tinta bastar- 
deira, Tinta de Carvalho, Tinta de Castello, 
Tinta espadeira, Tinta de Franca, Tinta da 
lameira, Tinta \ianeza, Tinta c;k), Touriga 
(the finest) and Trimadeira. 

The above list is from Baron de 
Forrester's well-known work on the capa- 
bilities of the Douro. The soil of this 
district is of metamorphic and plutonic 
formation, according to the abo\e-named 
authority, and is, therefore, most favoLu- 
able for the cultivation of the \ine. The 
schistous strata blended with argill pro- 
duce \ines full of coloLii', life, spirit, and 
perfume, possessing a particular and 
delicious flavour. The climate of the 
Douro is very cold in winter, and exces- 
sively hot in summer. In certain pai-ts, 
spring water is very scarce, and, owing to 
the dense fogs arising from the river aiid 
its tributaries during hot weather, the in- 
habitants suffer greati}' from ague. Wild 
boars and wolves may still be met w ith 
occasi(jnally, and the \ulture and gi'ey 
eagle hold dominion on the snow capped 
Serra do .Marab. 

I have accompanied my readers from 
the commencement of the Portuguese 
Douro as far as Regoa, and I would advise 
those who are \isiting that grand wine 
country, for the first time, not to avail 

themselves of the railway communication 
with Oporto, but to hire a river boat, as 
they will be fully repaid foi- any slight 
inconvenience they othei-w ise ha\e to 
Luidergo. Gradually as they approach 
Oporto, the scenerj- altei's from the terrifi- 
cally bold to the superbly pastoral, and, 
as the journey does not occupy a very 
long time, the rude navigation of the 
river, the \\eird songs of the boatmen, the 
golden sandbanks on each side relieved by 
fields of emerald green and darker tinted 
pine trees behind, must necessarily be of 
\ei"y great interest to all w ho ha\'e never 
gone beyond the lo\el)' Thames oi' the 
frolicking and bubbling streams of 
Scotland. The Ouintas are no longej- 
\'ast properties covered by \mes; numbei- 
less camellia trees, formosas, ccieti, fields 
of ripening Indian maize or wa\ing wheat, 
tire the eye with a succession of e\er 
\arying colouring and magnificence. Many 
of these properties are owned by the 
PortugLiese upper classes residing in 
Oporto, and among them 1 will mention 
the Ouintas da Srjuza, and the ever 
memorable d'OVreeira, which latter at one 
time was in the occupation of the sick 
members of a religious community with its 
headquarters in Oporto. We pass undei" 
the lofty and magnificent bridge, bLiilt by 
Biffel, named Pontc 1). Marin Pia. which 
connects the Southern and X(;rthern 
railway stations, and a few hundred yards 
below the double bridge D. Luis L Oporto 
with its numerous white hoLises and lofty 
church towers on the North side, and 
\'illa Xo\"a on the South, with long and 
low lodges containing thousands of pipes 
of the grand \intages, remind us that we 
are once more in the commercial world, 
but we skim along the placid and pleasant 
waters of the classical ri\ei' until we 
ai'rive at its mouth at S. Joao da Foz, 
(^f which I reproduce a copy from an 
ancient engraving in the possession of 
.Messrs. Offley. Cramp & Forresters. 




■~-i" i 






^ \ 






\ .-^- i 



The Oporto Wine Firms. 



XE of the best \\"orl<s on 
the Douro district, IVom 
which I have Inad to 
obtain s(jme information 
respecting the abo\e 
named Company, has 
the following sample of 
English, " as she is 
wrote" : — " Far between 
were not long ago, the 
travellers who dared to 
cross in all its length, 
&c." It is to be regretted that so 
valuable an addition to our knowledge 
of the Douro, as that contributed bj' 
the Viscount de Villa Mayor, should not 
have been rendered, in translation, into a 
language more approaching the Anglo- 
Saxon. But this has nothing to do with 
the case; it matters not if His Most 
Faithful Majesty "damned or condemned" 
a project ; those who can read Portuguese 
will find in this grand volume, not only the 
" Douro Illustrated," but also the beauties 
of the language of Camoens. I ha^•e now 
to deal with a monopoly in the wine trade, 
to which I have already referred. Fortu- 
nately for the Oporto wine trade it no 
longer exists, and the old institution which 
was started in 1756 is now favourably 
known in England as the " Oporto Wine 

Company." The X'iscount de \'illa Mayor 
is quite as bitter against the ancient Ccjm- 
panj- as was Baron de Forrester, or any 
other Englishman. He says: "It would 
he not only tedious but irrelevant to 
describe the organisation of this Company 
and mention all its powei's and means of 
action. . . . by the influence of the 
Company, and through the authority 
of its own .Magistrates \A'ine grcnvers and 
C(jmmon sense were subjected to the most 
arbitrary usages ; prodLice was checked, 
the mode of cultivation and wine making 
determined, and finally the rightful free- 
dom of the planters in the privileged 
district was at the mercy of the monopo- 
lising Company." Baron de Forrester 
gives the old Company the f<jllowing 
advertisement : — " The exclusive privileges 
conceded to the Company are so many 
fetters on the liberty of commerce." The 
history of this huge concern, which 
wrought so much evil in the Dmn'o, is 
typical of many Portuguese of to-day. 
Of course there are some notable excep- 
tions, but if the majority could intei-fere 
with British interests they \\Tjuld gladiv 
do so. 

I cannot do better than quote fr(jm a 
document published in 1791 by the Ro}-al 
Academy of Sciences, of Lisbon, respect- 




ing the trade and agi'ieulture of the Alto 
Douro from 1681 to 1756: — 

" In the 5'ear iGSi, viticulture was not un such 
an extensive scale as now, as the English taste was 
for sweet wines the farmers were obliged to rear 
vines in appropriate situations, viz., on the banlts 
of the streams more exposed to the sun, and these 
were of very limited area. 

" In those days the large yuintas of to-day 
were unknown ; the lagaies (receptacles where the 
grapes are trodden or pressed) did not contain 
more than from 3 to 5 pipes .... the 
remainder of the land was unculti\ated, and only 
after the lapse of some years was the gorse that 
covered the hills cut down and burnt on the spot. 
Attempts were then made to grow rye, but with 
little success." 

This interesting document goes on to 
relate how they tried to grow sumach and 
cultivate the olive tree. Then we are told 
that such being 

" the state of the Alto Douro in i6Si, the immortal 
Count of Ericeira brought about the establishment 
of manufactories of cloth and flannel at t^ortalegre 
and Covilha. So rapidly did these manufactories 
progress, that they produced sufficient for home 
and colonial consumption." 

Now comes in the aggressive policy of 
the governing men of those days. Having 
seciu-ed their own mar-kets, having proved 
themselves ecjual t(j all home and colonial 
rec]uiremcnts, they, for reasons only known 
to themselves, prohibited the importation 
of all similar manufactures from England. 
E\en so it seems that we managed to import 
goods int(j Portugal to the value of 

Hut this policy \\'as not destined to last 
l(jng. Owing to the Methuen treat)-, " these 
manufactories were totall)' ruined." This 
one-sided treaty was signed between 
England and Portugal in 1703; by it we 
were botmd to take Porttiguese wine in 
payment for otu' goods, but much as this 
treaty was against lis, 1 ha\e no hesitation 
in saying that we would not ha\e given any 
of oiu- agi-icultural prodtice in exchange 
for Porttiguese cloth and flannel. 

But if, dui'ing the pi-ohibitionist ii'^iiiii 
inaugur'ated in Portugal, we managed 

(although I don't know how, for the prohi- 
bition was absolute), to import dry 
goods to the value of ,£400,000, it seems 
that our commercial relations with the 
land of the immortal Count of Ericeira 
did not increase when that prohi- 
bition was done away with. In 1693 
the exportation of port was 13,011 pipes, 
which cjuantity was not exceeded until 
1716, or thirteen years after the Methuen 
treaty took effect, when the exportation 
r(.)se to 13,990 pipes. These figures are 
pregnant with lessons for those who are 
willing to learn. If these Portuguese 
manufactures had been worth anything, 
how heavily would not English goods have 
been handicapped ! 

We are told by the Viscount de Villa 
Mayor that a Spanish merchant, yclept 
Don Bartolome Pancorvo, " rich in 
schemes but short of money " (after the 
style of Spain) " attempted the grand plan 
of restoring the w ine trade by the forma- 
tion of a great Company, but for want of 
capital and, perhaps, through the opposi- 
tion and intrigue of the English wine 
merchants, the scheme failed miserably." 
I much regret to have to add that Don 
Bartolome Pancorvo did not long survi\c 
the disaster, possibly on account of want 
of means. 

It was, as this memoir romantically puts 
it, " on the rtiins of this Merchant that 
the Companhia Gcral da agrieultura dos 
vinhos do Alto Douro (General Company 
of Agi-iculture of the wines of the Alto 
Dotu-o) was fotmded." And this high- 
sotmding Company, founded as it was on 
the ruins of a Spaniard, was supposed to 
ha\e been the means " of restraining the 
unbounded greediness of the English Mer- 

Now, in the face of this doctimentary 
and circumstantial c\ idence, I would like 
to know why the Poi'tugtiese and their 
Spanish fi-icnds did not open up fresh 
markets for their wines. Why should 



they have been cursed by these unpre- 
cedentedly greedy EngHshmen, who, 
according to this histf)rical document, 
were not satisfied with gi\ing every proof 
of being intolerably avaricious, but actually 
" ruined the purity, great reputation, and 
credit the Alto Douro Wine enjoyed in 
England ? That is to say, that our 
ancestors in Portugal were so blind to 
their own interests that they not only did 
their utmost to defeat their own ends, but 
actually did so for the pusillanimous pur- 
pose of annoying the Portuguese. Then 
we are informed that " these English mer- 
chants endeavoured to supply the lack of 
natural goodness (the italics are mine) with 
elder-berry, pepper, sugar, and other 
admixtures which (and this is the most 
curious part of it) caused the ^^•ine, when 
it arri\ed at its destination, to be devoid of 
fasfc, body, cidonr, or goodiicss of any 
kind." This should not be the argument 
employed by a Royal Academy of Sciences; 
it is absurd on the face of it, for how 
could any liquid into «hich so many con- 
diments had been placed, be devoid of 
taste, bad, good, or indifferent ? A judicious 
admixture of sugar and pepper, although 
neutralising each other's natural properties 
t(j a certain extent, would necessarily not 
be de\oid of flavour ; and when we con- 
sider that elder-berry \\-as supposed to be 
used, surely there must have been some 
colour in this wonderful compound pre- 
pared by the British merchants for their 
friends at home. 

All this is charged against our country- 
men in the year 1755 — all this expenditure 
in sugar, pepper, and other condiments, 
these articles being then somewhat in the 
nature of luxuries, when the British mer- 
chant, according to Mr. John Croft's testi- 
mony, could buy the unadulterated produce 
of the Alto-Douro at less than £3 per pipe. 
But rcvenoiis a nos )nouto)is, we have been 
presented with a Spaniard and " his ruins," 
now we are regaled with " a crafty and 

intriguing monk," who, having got an 
insight into the plans conceived hy the 
unfortunate Don for the f^rganisation fjf 
the already referred-to long-named Com- 
pany, obtained the ear, or caught the eye, 
of the Marquess of Pombal — Dom Jose's 
.Minister — and so prevailed on him that far 
greater powers were entrusted to the 
aforesaid Company than even the decaying 
Spaniard had contemplated. It would 
seem that the Portuguese were now hoist 
with their own petard, inasmuch as they 
had more reason to curse the " crafty and 
intriguing monk " than the English mer- 
chants. According to their own confessi<jn 
they had jumped from the frying-pan of 
the English intcj the fire prepared by one 
of their own countrymen. 

It must he e\'ident to e\ery impartial 
student of the history of the port wine 
trade that all these edicts, la\\s and 
charters were prejudicial to the English, 
who were then the only traders of any 
importance in the country. The Douro 
farmers, as a rule, welcomed the advent of 
the British merchants ; they were as 
h(«pitable then as they are notoriously so 
now. They had an eye tf) business, and 
in making the acquaintance of Englishmen 
they were so satisfied with their honesty 
that " gi\'e me the word of an English- 
man " is as much a Portuguese saying as 
any other. 

I need not mention all that the Co)ii- 
paiiliia Geral left undone (for which we 
should be thankful) and the little it did do 
excepting in the way of mischief. It 
threatened to be a stumbling-block in the 
path of the English, but the latter are still 
the beati possidentes ; it was constituted 
in order to supervise the wine district and 
to safeguard the interests of the Douro 
farmers. Let our good fi'iends of the 
Douro say \\-hat they think of these safe- 
guards. It was established with a view to 
monopolize the wine trade with England, 
but the lists of «ine exports from Oporto 



speak for themselves. It was conceived 
on the " ruins " of an impecunious 
Spaniard and "at the instigation of a 
crafty and intriguing moni;," for the pur- 
pose of supplying the city of Oporto \\'ith 
pure wine. But, strange to say, the free 
and independent citizens of Opoi-to re- 
belled against such an imposition on their 
liberties, and, in the words of the Viscount 
de Villa jMayor, "the citizens opposed great 
resistance, and to overcome this justiliable 
resistance and 
implant the mono- 
poly, rivers of 
blood were shed 
and many victims 
were sacrificed on 
the scaffold." 

And, was it, for- 
sootli, because the 
English put pepper 
and s u g a r a n d 
other condiments 
into their wines 
for consumption 
among their 
countrymen, as 
above stated ; was 
it because the 
English merchants 
d e s i ]• e d to in- 
troduce t li e s e 
luxuries into Eng- 
land under the 
guise of wine that 
" ri\-ers of blood 
were shed in the streets of Oporto ? " 

Why should not the whole British 
nation ha\e succLimbed to SLich an 
abominable compound rather than one 
PortLiguese should ha\-e been sacrificed on 
the scaffold because he would not ch-ink 
the pure wine furnished him by the 
Companhia ? Echo answers, Why ? 

A K'o)'al decree of the 18th September, 
1 75(S, confirmed the \'ai-ious ckuises and 
ai'tick-s in the memorandum of association 

J'lu- hlli \'15C0 

of the Company. Clause 10 declares the 
aim of the Company to be the maintenance 
of the reputation of the -wines and the 
cultivation of the vines with a view to 
benefiting the \\ine trade, "for which 
purpose a fair price is to be established 
for the commodity, \\'hich will be of con- 
venience to the farmer and ensure profit 
to those engaged in the trade. Thus will 
be avoided excessive prices which, render- 
ing consumption difficult, ruin the article." 
The argument is 
worthy of the in- 
augurators of the 
Company; of the 
" ruins " of the 
magnanimous but 
i m p o ^' e r i s h e d 
Spaniard ; of the 
" crafty and in- 
triguing " monk, 
and of Dom Jose's 

Now comes in 
the ralsoi! iVitve 
of this Spano- 
m o n k i s h C o m - 
pany. In order 
that it should be 
e f f e c t i \' e the 
following direc- 
torate was appoin- 
ted : — one provcdor 
(su perintendent), 
twcK'e ihpiitaih'S 
(deputv - s u pe r i n- 
tendents), six comdhciros (advisers), one 
■secretary, one (Ic^ciiihari^ailoi- (judge of 
appeal), one fscr'rvCio (notary), and various 
tasters, clerks and servants. There were 
high jinks among these magnates. They 
le\ied blackmail, and, w 1th the proceeds, 
built Hne mansions which are in e\ idence 
to this day. They represented the 
most despotic form of oligarchy which 
Pombal sanctioned, while, at the same 
time, he was busying himself with cxpel- 




ling a not more powerful hierarehical body represented an e\'er-inci'easing sacrifice, 

known as Jesuits. Thus it was generally such a one as no other people would pay 

in Portugal in those days ; it mattered witliout great pressure being exercised, 

not what it was, whether right or wrong, When I think of the peasantry and the 

reasonable or not, atK'antageous or other- other humble classes in Portugal, I am not 

wise, so long as this busy Minister did surprised at the almost superhuman 

something, he was satisfied, and so were doggedness of purpose, at the indefatigable 

his numerous admirers. This misapplied energy \\hich were manifested when the 

energy in political life continued to prevail Portuguese undertook the role of na\'i- 

in Portugal for some time; the grandilo- gators. The spirit of enterprise is 

quent language of the protectionist dormant, not absent ; they only require 
resounded every- 

where ; archaic 
theories on mat- 
ters of political 
economy were 
daily appearing 
under the flimsy 
disguise of flowers 
of rhetoric ; the 
people were 
cajoled into any 
belief, while the 
Ministers revelled 
in a torrent of 
absurdly high- 
flown eloquence. 
One law replaced 
another, and a 
Minister worn out 
by 1 a w - f r a m i n g 
was substituted by 
one whose pro- 
gramme, if pos- 
sible, was still 
more expansive 


J he late Senhor Felix Mcuioel horges Finto. r,nluiniciit.t 
Repi'escntative of the Company. 

a leader to awaken 
them to a sense of 
their own rights 
and of their gi-eat 

The alvavi'i, or 
patent, sanctioning 
the formation of 
the Company 
under review bears 
date 10th Septem- 
ber, 1756. The 
capital was fixed at 
1,800,000 crowns, 
in shares of 400 
crowns. Let it 
be stated frankly, 
there ne\'er was 
a more unholy 
concern than this 
C o r p o ration or 
Company — it was 
one mass of cor- 
ruption. The 
apparent object 

and more expensive than that of his prede- was to protect the chief industry of the 

cessor. But the poorest classes continued country by strict supervision marked 

to plod along ; with them there was no out where port could be made ; but it 

hesitation as to what they should do — was evident to everyone not connected 

they worked. Their pay was ridiculously with the Company, that the sole idea 

small, their food incredibly meagre — but which predominated was not creditable 

they were happy ; they were amongst the to them. First of all a vinous zone was 

most satisfied people in Europe. Fresh determined upon in which only Factory 

taxes were levied — they paid them, while wines could be produced. These wines 

the more favoured by fortune very often were intended for shipment to Great 

forgot to do so. And each additional tax Britain. Outside of this zone all wines 


were to be considered as unfit for the 
English marlcets. But even within this 
demarkation the Company's tasters had 
powers which pro\ed a source of great 
revenue to them. All wine of which they 
approved was called iipprovadi>, and a 
hiUietc or certificate was given to the farmer 
\\hich he had to produce in order to sell 
his wine and have it removed to Oporto for 
shipment. hlere is where the corruption 
came in ; because by condemning large 
parcels as unfit for the English market, 
they, the provadorcs, \\-ere enabled to dispose 
of billictcs at a very high premium. In fact 
there used to be large transactions in these 
infamous certificates. The first man \\ho 
violated the new law was its founder, the 
iVlarquess (jf Pombal, who, by means of 
these billictcs, succeeded in shipping his 
wine from Oeiras (where he had large pro- 
perties) in the south of Portugal as real 
port wine. The wine zone was absurdly 
circumscribed seeing that some of the 
finest properties did not come within its 
limits, and it was not intended that they 

According to the Company's laws these 
wines had to be classified as scpiirndit, and 
were, therefore, supposed to be only fit for 
consumption on the continent, but by a 
judicious use of a few mil reis the inter- 
dicted \\ine got into Oporto under the 
protection of a bilhctc. This system 
proved an insufferable vexation to the 
British merchants who were loud in their 

protestations. Some modifications ensued, 
and, at last, after a reign of 100 years, the 
monopoly was done away with much to 
the regret of the Portuguese bureaucracy. 
Since its abolition many attempts have 
been made to interfere with the accjuired 
interests of British shippers, but without 
much success. The old Oporto Wine 
Company, which is no longer in any sense 
of the word a Government monopoly (in 
fact it has no subsidy or special pri\ilege 
of any sort) is now in a much healthier 
condition than it was under the tutelage 
of Government, and the port wine trade, 
which is almost absolutely in the hands of 
British subjects, is a far more important 
source of re\-enue to the State than it ever 
was before. Before concluding I will gix'e 
the following extract from the Dictionary 
of National Biography, Vol. XX., page 8, 
under the heading of " Forrester " : — 

" III 1844 Forrester published anonymously a 
pamphlet on the wine trade entitled ' A Word or 
Two on Port A\'inc,' of which eight editions were 
rapidly exhausted. This was the first step in his 
endeavours to obtain a reform of the abuses prac- 
tised in Portugal in the making and treatment of 
port wine, and the remodelling of the peculiar 
legislation b)' which the trade was regulated. To 
these abuses and to the restrictions enforced by the 
Pouro Wine Company in right of a monopoly 
created in 1756 he attributed the depression in the 
port wine trade. The taxation on export imposed 
bv this body was exceedingly heavy, while an 
artificial scarcity was created by the arbitrary 
limitation of both the quantity and quality allowed 
to be exported." 




VI NG to the kindness of 
the present par-tners 
in the firms of Messrs. 
Hunt, Roope, Teage and 
Co., of Opoi'to and 
London, and of Messrs. 
Newman, Htrnt & Co., 
of St. John's, New- 
foundland, I am enabled 
to add a few additional 
remarks to those I have already made 
respecting the early fisheries on the 
coasts of Newfoundland, England and 
Portugal, and to which, without doubt, 
is due the introduction of Portuguese 
wines into England — not as a business, 
or trade, of itself at the beginning, but 
on a small scale, and more in the 
way of barter which characterises the 
initiation of our commercial history. 
According to tradition, Newfoundland was 
first visited by some Norwegians before 
the year 1000. Who these Norwegians 
were, the exact year in which they 
made their voyage of discovery, and 
from what port of Greenland they started, 
would be most interesting to know, but 
beyond the assertion that the voyage was 
made, and its acceptance as a point of 
historical faith by many writers, I can say 
nothing. Whatever the facts may be it is 
very evident that until the 24th June, 1497, 
when John Cabot, then in the service of 
England, visited it for the first time, New- 
foundland was, so far as the English were 
concerned, a terra iiicogiiifa. Not so. 

however, with the Portuguese, for their 
intrepid navigator, Vareiro, had already 
landed on those cold shores, and there are 
documents to pnjve that in 1497, when 
John Cabot \isited the country, the Por- 
tuguese had established their fisheries 

I have before me a document prepared 
by Air. Harford H. Montgomery, real 
estate agent, of 61, Royal Avenue, Belfast, 
to which " A Schedule of Old Entries on 
Records of the Surrogates of St. John's, 
N.F., re Newman Estate," which com- 
mences at 1701 referring to " Planters 
Rooms in Port of St. J(jhn's as settled per 
order of Captain John Graydon, Governor 
and Commander-in-Chief of His Majesty's 
Ships and Forts in Newfoundland, Viewed 
and appointed out by us under-Sub- 
scribers." The following is the next 
entry : — " Messrs. Taylor & Newman — in 
the Plantation of William Merly one 
Boat's Room Fourteen Flakes Standing 
up and down the Harbour." A flake 
means a sort of scaffold or platform made 
of hurdles used for drying fish. Although 
the said Planters' Rooms cannot be identi- 
fied with any of the present holdings of 
the firm of Messrs. Newman, Hunt 
and Co., it is surmised that the entry 
refers to their Magoty Cove property. 

When Messrs. Newman first established 
themselves in Newfoundland the aboriginal 
inhabitants were still to be found. They 
were a tribe of Besthics and are now 
extinct. There are a few remains and 



relics in the Museum of St. John's, one of dispute to be final. The grandfather of 

them being the body of a child which the present partner in the firm of Hunt, 

seems to have been dried in some way, or Roope, Tcage & Co., li\'ed in the Ouinta 

smoked. They do not appear to have been Amarella, Oporto, which property was in 

a very peaceable people, and soon fell foul later years acquired by his son, the late Mr. 

of the fishermen, who quickly wiped them Cabel Roope. The Roope family belongs to 

out of existence altogether. The last of Dartmouth, and has been honourably con- 

them was an old woman, who was captured nected \\'ith St. Jcjhn's and Portugal for 

by some explorers and brought to St. more than a centm-y. 1 belie\e the firm 

John's, but she did not live very long. The was established in Oportcj in 1735, but 

present Indians are Mic-Macs, originally befoi'e that the supercargoes of the house 

imported from Nova Scotia, where there had visited tlie country for the purposes 

is a fair sized Colony. I believ 
most of them work in the coal 
mines, but the Newfoundland 
Mic-Macs gain their li\-ing by 
furring and hunting. The following 
are a few of the Mic-Mac words: — 
Tamowe (tobacco), abouaditch 
(woodpecker), powitch (partridge), 
mindou (de^'il), casteome (mo- 
lasses^, bulowe (butter), nebeech 
(tea), pipenoue (bread). The port 
and town of St. John's are on 
the east side of the island ; the 
harbour is spacious and sheltered 
on all sides by high rocks. The 
town was almost wholly destroyed 
by fire in 1846, when a great many 
valuable documents were burnt, 
and again in July, 1892. 

Under date August 3rd, 1785, (^^jj^^ 
the following entry appears, in 


of trade. In 1761 the style was 
Holds\^-orth, Olive & Newman, 
and in 1812 became Hunt, New- 
man, Roope & Co. I will here 
mention that in the Church of 
St. I^etrox, Dartmouth, there is a 
very beautiful brass in memory of 
John Roope, dated 1609. The 
first Go\'ernor of Dartmouth 
Castle was a Mr. Roope, who 
obtained his appointment when 
William of Orange landed at 
Brixham, and the last Governor of 
the Castle was a Mr. Holdsworth, 
who died about forty years ago. 
Nicholas Newman and his wife 
Joyce lie under the altar at St. 
I^etrox, Dartmouth, the date on 
the stone being 1609. No less 
than three generations running of 
the Newmans married into the 

wlnich the name Roope is men- ^'"' '"''''"'••-''"""• Wim;. f;|,-,-,j|y ,,f Holdsworth. 

tioned for the first time : — " The 
Pishing Admirals to hold a Court at St. 
John's and enquire into dispute between 
Mr. Robert Nieols and Messrs. Newman 
and Roope, respecting part (jf a plantation 
in or near Alagoty's Cove, formerly Maurice 
Walsh's, and report their opinion to the 
Governor." These Fishing Admirals were 
appointed for one year, and obtained their 
jurisdiction by being the first in that ycai' 
to visit Newfoundland. The first was the 
Admiral of the I-leet, next came the Rear- 
Admiral, and so on, their verdict in any 

In 1812, \\hen we were at war 
with our powerful neighbours, the French, 
the vessels belonging to Messrs. Newman 
had a \'cry exciting time of it. From the 
correspondence In the possession of the 
firm I make the follow ing exti'act : — "The 
'DLick' sailed from Little Hay 5th Decem- 
ber, 1812, for Oporto. On the 22nd 
December she was taken by two French 
frigates, longitude 16.04, latitude 42.35, 
who let her proceed after hea\ing over- 
board about 900 quintals of fish in order 
to put aboLit 100 prisoners aboai-d. The 


' Duck ' \\'as re-captured by an English 

frigate and taken to Halifax." Earlier in 

the same year, on the 23rd January, 1 

read that " The ' Gosport ' was taken by a 

French pri\ateer, ' La Gavotte,' of 16 

guns, who let her proceed after plundering 

her of 150 quintals of fish." In 1810 the 

firm was Newman, Hunt & Christopher, 

in London, and Robert Ne\\man & Co. in 


It will be remembered that on the 

1st June, 1813, the short, but brilliant, 

engagement took 

place between H.M.S. 

' Shannon ' and the 

American frigate 

'Chesapeake' of 

Boston. On the 

'Shannon' there were 

22 Irishmen who had 

been on board Messrs. 

Newman and Co.'s brig 

' Duck' for conveyance 

to Newfoundland; 

unfortunately she was 

captured b y the 

American privateer 

" Governor Plumer," 

hut was recaptured by 

the British privateer 

brig " Sir John Sher- 

brooke," and these 
men were put on the 
" Shannon " and ren- 
dered signal service to 
their flag and country. The Americans seem 
to have been more severe than the French 
in their way of capturing our ships, as 
instead of " heaving overboard about 900 
quintals of fish in order to put about 100 
prisoners aboard," it is recorded that in the 
same year the " St. Lawrence," another of 
Messrs. Newman's ships, was boarded by 
an American privateer, who plundered, des- 
troyed, and disabled the vessel in every way 
possible, flinging overboard the cargo ; she 
bore up for Dartmouth, arriving 10th April." 

The late Mr. Ctbd Roop, 

From a letter dated London, 3rd 
November, 1813, addressed to .Mr. John 
Teage, St. John's, 1 make the following 
extract: — "We have great news to-day 
from Saxony; on the 16th and 18th ult., 
the allies beat the French, and on the 19th 
stormed Leipzic ; besides an immense 
number killed, the French loss was 35,000 
prisoners and 180 pieces of cannon and 
30,000 sick and wounded. The King of 
Saxony and immense magazines taken at 
Leipzic. The allies were in full pursuit of 
the remainder of the 
French army. Bona- 
parte sa\-ed himself by 
flight." The following 
extracts recall, among 
other incidents, the 
greatest battle ever 
fought on the Con- 
tinent of H u r ope. 
Letter dated 20th 
June, 1815 : — " We 
have lately accounts 
from Naples that King 
Murat is off, haxing 
been beaten by the 
Austrians and that city 
surrendered to om- 
fleet, giving up theii- 
frigates and arsenals, 
so that the former 
King is, before now, 
restored, and we, of 
course, shall have that 
city open for our trade, which till 
now has been doubtful. We have to-day 
accounts of some hard fighting on the 
Continent between Lord Wellington and 
Bonaparte, the latter said to be beaten 
back." On the 22nd June, 1815, they 
again refer to Waterloo : " ^^'e have this 
day accounts from Lord Wellington, who, 
with Blucher, has had a bloody conflict 
with the French army, commanded by 
Bonaparte in person, who was defeated 
w ith the loss of 200 pieces of cannon and 



part of his luggage. We think he will soon 
be done up now." The great battle took 
place on the 18th June, so that the news 
of this great victory occupied some dajs 
in reaching London. 

In those warlike days at the commence- 
ment of the present century, when 
Privateers had a fine old time of it, 
merchant vessels trad- 
ing to the West India 

Islands were fined if 
they did not c a r r y 
arms and ammunition, 
as will be seen by the 
following: — "2tith Feb- 
ruary, 1816. Vessels 
that go to Tobago pay 
a fine if they do not 
carry gunpowder. Pei"- 
haps it may be the 
same at Trinidad ; and 
as you have some 
which you said was not 
good, you had better 
send that." They do 
not, howe\'er, seem to 
ha\e attached much 
i m p r) r t a n c e to t h e 
quality of the gun- 
powder, and, probably, 
preferred a peacefid 
sLu-render to trying 
conckisions with their 
more powerful oppo- 
nents. In fact, they 
were justified in so 
regarding the matter, 
for, according to the 
documents before mc, 

good luck almost in\'ariably attended 
these captui'cs, as the \essels wcic 
generally recaptured. For instance: "In 
1814, the 'St. Lawrence' on a voyage 
from Newfoundland to Bilbao with a cargo 
of fish, was captured by an American 
privateei", reeaptLU-ed by a British frigate, 
and again captured by another American 


ill. Cabd Roc'l- 

privateer, 'The Wig,' and sent to America, 
but was recaptured again by the English 
and sent to Portsmouth." A voyage 
so full of incident has, perhaps, never 
befallen any other vessel. 

The interesting correspondence which 
lies before me is not devoid of amusing 
observations. I read that " Henry Denis 
Glynn went out t(j 
R. Newman &- Co.'s 
house in Newfound- 
land in 1827, and \'\as 
at Harbour Briton at 
the time of Mr. Mat- 
terface's death at St. 
Lawrence, and remem- 
bers that his body was 
preserved in a pun- 
cheon of Rum for con- 
veyance to England, 
but that after all he 
was buried at St. 
Lawrence." The letter 
does not state \\hat 
became of the pun- 
cheon of rum. In the 
same letter reference 
is made to an editor 
whose ears \\ere CLit 
off for ha\ing \\rittcn 
in a disrespectful way 
< I f a N e w" f o li n d 1 a n d 
m e r e h ant. O n t h c 
othei- hand. I come 
across one of those 
nivsteries of the se.i 
familiar to all who 
have been connected 
w itii shipping. " The 
' Talbot ' sailed from Oporto with a cargo 
of salt on the 24th September, 1892, and 
was not heard of again." 

Under the heading " Newman Planta- 
tions," 1 find the following: — "Oldest 
bciok found at Harbour Briton, dated 
1772, belonging to Samuel Young — a sort 
of (.liary, a log book, with account of voyage 



between Little Bay and Oporto, and 
general account and table book. On 26th 

October, 1887, Mr. G and self went 

to Pushthrough Island, where we used to 
have an establishment, and found an old 
hardwood 'shore,' about 100 j'ears old 
buried, and as sound as when driven in ; 
after a good deal of trouble we brought it 
away. Nothing left of the stores, flakes, 
etc., there. At St. Lawrence there are 
still the ring bolts, and the Island on 
which Newman & Co.'s room formerly 
stood. John Teage 
appointed agent in 
St. John's, 1st June, 

In 1814 Mr. Harris 
Roope was agent for 
the firm at Bilbao, 
in which year the 
"Duck" was captured 
and given up to bring 
more than 100 pri- 
soners to England, 
after throwing all the 
fish that was between 
decks overboard to 
make room for the 
men. This was the 
second time she had 
been used for the 
same purpose. About 
the same time the 
"Selby" was captured 
on her voyage from 

Little Bay, on the Newfoundland coast, 
to Portugal, but given up. 

At Townstall Church, Dartmouth, there 
is a tablet to the memory of a Mr. Roope, 
who died in the north of Spain, but \\hose 
body was brought over to England for 
interment. I must also mention that in 
1791 the firm was Newman, Land & Hunt, 
in Oporto, and there are some members 
of the Hunt family buried in the church- 
yard. The name Land is familiar to all 
in Oporto, as it was borne by the late 

Mr. Teage, whose baptismal names were 
John Land. At the commencement of the 
present century the postage from St. 
John's, Newfoundland, to Liverpool was 
4s. 3d., and to Ross-shire 7s. 

At the present day the number of 
British residents in Oporto who represent 
old families of that place are very limited, 
and among these Mr. Cabel Roope is 
decidedly one of the most esteemed as 
well as being a general fa\ourite with 
all. He is, notwithstanding his having 
been born in Portugal, 
a thorough English- 
man, but at the same 
time m (J s t kindly 
disposed to the people 
among whom he has 
lived and worked. He 
is popular in the 
broadest sense of the 
word; he takes an 
interest in all British 
sports and other 
amusements Cf)nnected 
with the community as 
well as in the main- 
tenance of some of our 
more serious institLi- 
tions, and on various 
occasions he has been 
the Treasurer of the 
British Factory House. 
1 am glad to have been 
able to reproduce a 
characteristic portrait of him, which will 
be recognised by a large circle of friends 
and acquaintances. The Roopes, Hunts, 
Holdsworths, Newmans, Teages, are all 
related, and represent in themselves the 
finest traditions of our race domiciled in 
a foreign country. One of Mr. Roope's 
sisters is married to Mr. Arthur Stand- 
ring, the manager in Oporto of Messrs. 
Offley, Cramp & Forresters, and brother 
of the present partners of the old 
established firm of Standring Brothers, 



now Standring and Drake, of 50, The 

This very old firm had introduced port 
wine into the West of England and St. 
John's, Newfoundland, in a tentative way, 
or perhaps as a matter of barter fully half 
a century before gradually adopting the 
business of Wine Shippers. I have docu- 
ments before me to prove that their 
wine business was being conducted in 
Oporto as at the present time, as carin- 
as 1756, under the style of Messrs. Holds- 
worth, Olive and Newman, the latter 
style being that of the firm which owned 
the beautiful brigs trading with Por- 
tugal and Mediterranean ports from the 
banks of Newfoundland. The Newman 
family, many members of which were born 
in Oporto, is now represented in the firm 
of Messrs. Hunt, Roope, Teage & Co. by 
.Mr. Robert Lydston Newman, who suc- 

ceeded his father, Mr. Thomas Holdsworth 
Newman who died in 1894. His grand- 
father. Sir Robert Newman, Bart., had 
been partner in the same firm when it was 
Messrs. Hunt, Newman and Roope, in 
Oporto, but retired from it early in life. 
Mr. R. L. Newman is a Director of the 
Bank of England ; the late Mr. T. Newman 
Hunt, who was also a partner in the 
Oporto firm, having been for many years 
a Director, and at one time Governor, of 
the same Corporation. 

Messrs. Hunt, Roope, Teage & Co. are 
the proprietors of the Ouinta da Eira 
Veiha, situate in one of the most favoured 
districts of the Wine country ; it is 
beautifully situated, overlooking the junc- 
tion of the river Pinhab with the Douro. 
The produce of this Ouinta has been 
continuously shipped by them since the 
commencement of the present centurv. 

Peasanl wearin,;; /'iiZ/uifrt, or Siraw Cloak, lor Wet Weather. 





HE history of a nation 
is, in my opinion, easier 
to write than that of a 
private firm which has 
been in existence some 
centuries. The former 
has had statesmen who 
"- promulgated laws, 

copies of which are archived in our national 
libraries, and, therefore, at the disposal of 
anyone who is studious enough to search 
for them. But, with the latter, we have 
to deal with men who, as a rule, were 
more anxious to preserve their business 
than to make a name which should be 
remembered as a household word. Of 
course, when these firms get old the 
time arrives for us to enquire into their 
history, and then we find in the majority 
of cases, that the documentary evidence 
wherewith to write a chapter descriptive 
of the building up of a magnificent 
firm has been ruthlessly destroyed. Such 
is the case with this very ancient house, 
a few records of which at my disposal 
carry me as far back as 1692, when 
Rlr. Job Bearsley arrived in the North 
of Portugal ; but I would not be at all 
surprised to hear that he was not the 
originator of the firm, because in those 
days, as I have already said, many houses 
established in England and Scotland 
had sent out supercargoes and factors 
to the North of Portugal to establish 

themselves there and do a bartering trade. 
Anyhow, we do know that the said Mr. 
Bearsley resided in Vianna as well as 
in Oporto at the end of the 17th century, 
and that up to the end of the 18th cen- 
tury some of his descendants were still 
li\'ing there, and that they all were partners 
in the firm which eventually became, and 
is still worthily known as Messrs. Taylor, 
Fladgate & Yeatman. Before proceeding 
further, I will remind my readers that 
Vianna do Castello, on the Lima, was then 
what Oporto is at the present day in 
respect to the port wine trade ; it was the 
place of export; Mon9ab, on the Minho, 
was what Regoa is now, the capital of the 
wine-growing district. The road to the wine 
country in those days was not confined to 
the River Lima, nor to its banks. But 
there is no doubt that the finest \\ines were 
grown between Arcos do Val do Vez and 
Moncao, and therefore we can picture to 
ourselves Job Bearsley with his impedi- 
menta ascending the glorious Lethe of the 
Romans in a flat-bottomed boat propelled 
by long staffs, after the style of our modern 
punts. In the course of a few hours he 
would arrive at Ponte do Lima, which 
takes its name from the stone bridge 
spanning the river. Here, groves of 
orange trees, lemon trees, and vineyards 
would greet him ; and after refreshing the 
inner man he would resume his journey 
up the Lima as far as the Carregadouro, 



from which place he would take horse picturesque but small Cabrab, runs through 

to Arcos, and then he would find himself the Province of Minho. Its course is 

in the heart of the then Portuguese wine about twenty-one leagues. As I said 

region of the north. There was still before, the remains of the celebrated Arch- 

another way, and that was by road bishop of Braga, D. Bartolomeo dos 

from Vianna to Ancora and Caminha, at Martyres, are buried in the north side 

the mouth of the River Alinho, thence of the choir of the old church of S. 

to Villa Nova da Cerveira and MoncM. 
The two routes I ha\'e 
mentioned, converg- 
ing at Moncjao, would 
almost describe an 
oblong, and within this 
sphere were the finest 
factory wines grown. 
Vianna do Castello is 
situated at the north 
side of the entrance to 
the River Lima, and 
was raised to the rank 
of a city in 1847. 
By the Romans it 
was first named Neme- 
tanobriga, afterwards 
Velobriga, and at a 
still later date, Diana, 
o w i n g to a temple 
it contained erected 
to that goddess, and 
thence, by an easy cor- 
ruption, to Viana or 
Vianna. The harbour, 
as seen from the 
quay, gives one the im- 
pression of being suffi- 
ciently capacious to 
contain a large number 
of vessels of any size, 
but the river is very 
shallow and the bar 
imposing-looking castle 

approach to tlie city by sea, was built 
during the time of the Spanish occu- 
pation by Phillip II. and is dedicated to 
Santiago, the patron Saint of Spain. The 
Ri\'cr Lima rises in the Sierra de S. 
iVlamede, in (jalicia, and, i-eeei\'ing the 

Domingos, which was erected by him. He 
was born at Lisbon 
in 1514, entered the 
Dominican order at 
the age of 14, and was 
nominated to the 
Archbishopric in 1558. 
He distinguished him- 
self at the Council of 
Trent by his learning 
and ability. 

I will at this point, 
inform mj' readers 
that the trade from 
\'ianna to British 
ports was very con- 
siderable in the 17th 
century, and that we 
had Consuls there; for 
instance, Mr. Chris- 
topher Battersby is 
described as " Consul 
of the English nation 
at \'ianna " towards 
the end of the abo\e 
refei-red to century, 
but unfortunately the 
O p o r t o r e g I s t e r o f 
births, man-iages and 
deaths, of \^hich 1 gi\ e 
a transcript ciscw here, 
goes no further back 

I. FUiilgalr (ft(i/o;i rfn Kucihi). ISJI 

tortuous. The than 1716, although we know that we had 
commanding the Consular Chaplains there fully a hundred 
years before this date. The names of 
Peter, Charles, Bartholomew, Francis, 
and William Bcarslcy, are mentioned 
Ifi the register now kept at Doctors' 
Commons, as either having married in 
the north of Poi-tugal, or ha\ing had 



their children christened there, and 
I assume that they were the sons of 
Mr. Job Bearsley. It is recorded by 
Mr. John Croft, in a pamphlet prepared 
by him and published in 1788, that Air. 
Peter Bearsley was the first English- 
man to visit the Alto Douro for the 
purposes of buying wine, and as Walter 
Maynard was appointed to the Vice-Consul- 
ship at Oporto in the year 1659, I can only 
conclude that the British residents in the 
old city had not yet engaged in shipping 
^^■ine to England, but that their business 
transactions were confined to dealing in 
corn, oil, iron, English cotton goods, etc., 
and that the wine export from Vianna had 
commenced many years previously, for, 
according to a document I have before me 
"it was only in the year 1727 that the 
British merchants or factors at Oporto in 
a manner incorporated themselves, and 
made certain rules for their proceedings, 
which have been obseiwed with little altera- 
tion ever since." I must here remark that 
this applies to those engaged in the wine 
trade. The alterations which have taken 
place in the style of this grand old firm 
since 1692 are as follows: — 

Job Bearsley . . 
Peter Bearsley 
Bearsley & Brackley 
Bearsley, Brackley & Bearsley 
Peter Bearsley & Co. 
Peter & Charles Bearsley . . 
Peter, Bartolomew & Franc 

Bartolomew Bearsley & Co. 
Peter & Francis Bearsley . . 
Francis Bearsley 
Bearsley & Co. 
Bearsley & Webb 
Bearsley, Webb & Sanford 
Webb, Campbell & Gray . . 
Webb, Campbell, Gray & Camo 
Webb, Campbell, Gray & Co. 
Campbell, Bowden & Taylor 
Campbell, Taylor & Co. 
Joseph Taylor & Co. 
Taylor, F'ladgate & Co. 
Taylor, Fladgate & Yeatman 





As will be seen from the above, Francis 
Bearsley continued to be a partner in the 
firm up to 1806 in which year he died, his 
wife having pre-deceased him in Oporto on 
the 22nd July, 1785. On the death of 
Francis Bearsley, the sole surviving 
partner was William Webb, who, tool; 
into partnei-ship Mr. Francis E. Gray, 
grandson of Mr. Francis Bearsley, his 
father, Dr. Edward Whitaker Gray, of the 
British Museum, having married in Oporto 
.Miss Elizabeth Bearslej-, daughter of 
Mr. Francis Bearsley. With the death of 
.Mr. Francis Gray, in 1815, 1 believe we 
have the last connection of the Bearsley 

In 1769, when Mr. H. W. Sanford was 
admitted partner into the firm of Bearsley, 
\\'ebb & Sanford, he mari-ied .Margaret 
Bearsley in Oporto, the officiating minister 
being the Rev. William Emanuel Page, in 
the presence of Francis and William 

In 1808 Mr. Camo joined the fiim, 
which then became \Vebb, Campbell, 
Gray & Camo. He was able, owing to his 
nationality, to render most \aluable ser- 
vices to his partners as well as in the 
preservation of the British Factory House 
during one of the most eventftil periods in 
the history of Portugal, when Oporto was 
twice in the hands of the French and twice 

iMr. CaiTio was a typical American, a 
man full of energy, fertile in resource and 
never wanting in pluck, three qualities 
absolutely indispensable in those dis- 
tressful days. Much to his credit he left 
behind him a voluminous correspondence 
with Messrs. Campbell, Bowden & Co., 
the London House, from which I am able 
to give some very interesting paragraphs 
respecting the Port Wine Trade during 
the Peninsular War. I do not know how- 
he became interested in the business 
beyond the fact that he had been on terms 
of friendship with some of the firm's cor- 



respondents in the United States. The 
name Camo is not EngHsh ; 1 cannot find 
it in any directory, past or present. 

It will he rememhered that, fi-oni 
October, 1807, till June, 1808, Oporto, 
and indeed the whole of Portugal, SLiffered 
under the iron rule of the French. It was 
during this time that most of the English 
houses, so far as we can tell now, trans- 
ferred their stock of wine to Portuguese 
Trustees, and this operation was repeated 
on one or two occasions. After the re\'o- 
lution of 6th June, 1808, which relieved 
Oporto, for a time, of its French and 
Spanish garrison, almost without blood- 
shed, the British merchants gradually 
resumed their business transactions, but, 
according to the correspondence before 
me, Mr. Gray and Mr. Camo were the first 
foreign representatives of English houses 
to arrive. The first letter after " the first 
relief of Oporto," is dated 30th July, 1808, 
and from the contents I conclude that 
either Mr. Gray or Mr. Camo must have 
been on the spot for some time previous, 
as the said letter advises the shipment of 
215 pipes and 20 hogsheads per "Ann," 
bound for Plymouth. The Aery next letter, 
dated August 1st, serves as cover, among 
other remittances, to a draft from England's 
greatest General, Sir Arthur Wellesley, 
for £35 on the old banking firm of Messrs. 
Greenwood & Cox. 

The first few letters from the firm after 
the relief of Oporto were probably written 
by Mr. Gray, who, however, left for 
Plymouth in the " Comet," on the 24th 
September, 1808, and did not retm-n until 
June, 1811, during which time Mr. Joseph 
Camo was the sole resident partner. On 
the 18th September, 1808, he writes as 
follows : — 

" We have the pleasure to acquaint you that our 
house here, under its new establishment, continues 
to bear the same good name it has ever done among 
the natives of this place, who are ready at all 
times to assist us with credit and interest, as 
political affairs seem still to hold a favourable 

appearance for the general good cause. We have 
not yet altered the firm we adopted two months 
ago, and which has been the means of Mr. Camo 
having full credit among the Portuguese and will 
enable him during Mr. F. Gray's absence to con- 
duct the business with perfect ease and facility. 
We note your having informed our friends of the 
re-establishment of our house. TMr. Gray wrote 
.Mr. Campbell yesterday and informed him of the 
probability of a very short vintage ; it will begin 
to-day (September iqth) in the forwardest part of 
the country, and the season is very forward this 
year. The people employed in our Lodges are the 
same we employed formerly, and perfectly in- 
structed in their capacity." 

This letter shoA\s, if any proof were 
wanting, the credit which has always been 
extended in Oporto to British firms of high 
repute. We must bear in mind that in 
the days of the French In\'asion there 
were many people in England who were of 
opinion that the forces at the disposal of 
Sir Arthur Wellesley were quite inadequate 
to cope with the legions of Napoleon, and, 
therefore, we can easily understand that 
the Portuguese could not have had implicit 
faith in the eventual success of the British 
bayonets. If we calmly study these facts 
by the light thrown upon them by official 
documents, we must recognise that the 
Portuguese had even moi-e confidence in 
the word of Englishmen than in British 
military resistance. W'e should ne\er 
forget that they have always had implicit 
confidence in British integrity, and the 
letters from Mr. Gray and Mr. Camo 
abound with evidence of this good feeling 
on the part of our most ancient allies. 

About the latter end of 1808 Mr. Joseph 
Camo was trying to obtain sonic appoint- 
ment connected with America, possibly 
that of United States Constd at Oporto, 
tor on the 10th October he writes: — 

" We duly observe what you say respecting our 
Mr. Camo, and he will write his friend, Mr. 
Williams, who, he has no doubt, will give him all 
his interest to get him the situation, and, most 
particularly, should his friend Mr. Munro get the 
election, this must not be neglected, and jou must 
on your side use all your interest and endeavours 
to secure a thing so desirable, and which would be 



ihe means of making the house generally known 
in America." 

I think there is nodoLibt that .Mr. Canio 
did not secure this appointment, toi' 
an.xioiis and terrible times \\"ei'e fast 
approaching;. The first sij^ns of uneasiness 
are contained in a lettei- dated 26th 
October, 1808. in which he assures the 
London firm — 

" We shall 
not go to sleep, 
but be always 
on the watch.'' 

On the 3rd 
N o \' e m b e i' 
he i n f o r m s 
the London 
house that — 

'■ IJ e ;i e r a ] 
lieresforil is 
here (Oporto) 
on his wa\' to 
join the Dritish 
troops at .\1- 
meida. where 
v.e understand 
is the first 
liiiJe.-.-vons. He 
goes off in a 
day or two, and 
after he has 
joined all the 
troops that are 
destined I o r 
Spain w ill enter 
that kingilom 
at the same 

By the 2nd 
D e c e m b e r 

matters were lookino nj(ji-e threatenm!.; : — 

" We ha\"e been for this past \\eek under cijn- 
stant alarm on account of the news from Spain 
and the information that we received is so \er\- 
uncertain that it is impossible to form any idea of 
what is going on." 

On the 9th December he again \\rites : 

" The ' La\'inia,' frigate, has arri\'ed off this 

place last night from England, last from Corunna. 

General Sir John Cradock and his staff landed 

>'. A. Fladgalc, Baioii da RocJd. 

horn her, but the\- are going again on board this 
evening. She takes them to I^isbon." 

On the i4th December, 1808, Mr. Camo 
be,L;ins to think it may lie necessary to 
remove the stock :- - 

'• The troops here are mo\ing out, and the 
people of this country are determined to die 
rather than submit to the French a second time; 
we e.xpect every day to hear that our troops 
in Spain ha\e formed a junction : this is a 

material object. 
Should things 
come to the 
worst, and it 
be necessary t(j 
send away an\ 
property that 
we might have 
on hand, we 
ha\-e no \ essels 
here now, and 
w'e do not know 
of any coming. 
What am I to 
r] o in this 
case '" 

.Mr. Camo's 
letters of the 
17th. 23rd. 
and 2 5 t h 
D e c e m b e r. 

1808. are 
s o m e \\" h a t 
more hope- 
ftd ; but this 
was of sh(jrt 
duration, for. 
on the 4th 
J a n LI a r y . 

1809. he 
writes : — 

"We are kept in this most cruel state of suspense, 
so that no person knows hardly what we do. I wish 
much to hear from you (the London firm) before 
I come to any determination ; but should circum- 
stances require it, I will ship oft" (if the state of 
the wines will allow it) everything which is now 
in the lodges. But shipping is wanted for that 
purpose, and I see no \essel in the river which 
would answer. You must make some kind of 
arrangement, if not too late when this reaches 
vou, and senf me out two brigs. I will assure 




viij Ihat 1 will make e\ery exertion in my powei- 
to be on the iji/i-'/i'c\ An application has been made 
to the Commander at Lisbon for a convoy His 
answer is that the few vessels that are under his 
orders will not permit of his being able to comply 
with our wishes, but he recommends us to make 
the application to the commanding oflicer at A'ig" 
who will, no doubt, comply with it. This was 
done yesterday. The "Lively," frigate, is ordered 
to cruise off this place for the protection of the 
merchants in case of need. I yesterday recei\-eil 
a letter from Lisbon, b}' which it appears that 
on that da\- an ofhcial recommendation from 
Mr. \Tlliers to the British merchants was pri\ atel\" 
given to ship off their liulky property. The same 
lines ^vere recei\ed here b\' 
some of our great irten." 

Letters tuok a hniij, 
time in an-iviiig at 
tlneir destination in 
those days, for i)i a 
letter written hy .Mr. 
Canio on the 13th 
January. 1809, he 
aekn(.n\ledoes reeeipt 
ot'- letters fi-om London 
dated. No\enihei- 25th, 
Dpeemher 7th, 14th 
and 20th. All letters 
\\\>re sent in tnpheate 
hy diff\Tent \essels. 
and often by ditt'erent 
roLites, btit lie I're- 
(.|Liently nd\ised the 
Cornnna rotite. On 
the 13th ,1 a n nary, 

1809, he writes to inform the London 
house that the Lodj.;es oceupied hy the 
firm at Villa Xova were in danger of heino 
flooded hy a freshet in the l)oin-o. This 
renderetl the e.xportation of wine qihte 
impraetietihle, as on such occasions the 
bar is one fri.i;htl'td mass of scethin,t; 
ctn-i-ents, dri\'in'4 in di\crs directions, and, 
therefore, prodticini; an impassable barrier. 

These Hoods oecin- periorlically in tlie 
i-iver D(Kiro, and are most lormidahle. 
They are caused by a thaw in the moun- 
tainous districts of Traz-os-Alontcs. Heax) 

riu- l„lr Mr. .V(.fg,,„ 

rams often sticcccd "reat falls of snow, 
and within a few liours the comparati\cl\" 
speakino shallow waters i.if the tipper 
DoLiro are transformed into terrible whirl- 
pools tind I'apid cataracts, and the irresis- 
tible force of the current carries all befoi'c 
It. I recollect seeino fi\e ftill-rigj>ed ships 
wrecked in the n\ci" in one day. Strangely 
enough, they all bore the name of Porto 
in some form or other: one was the '• Flor 
do Porto." another the " Duc]tie do Porto," 
and so on. Forttmateb'. no li\-cs \\-ere 
lost, as king before the " fresh," as it is 
called in Oporto, had 
attained its full power 
the crews of all \essels 
in danger had come on 
s h (.1 re. ( ) n a n o t h e r 
occasion a British ship 
call cd t h e •■ Fai r 
H 1 be r n i a n " b ro ke 
loose frrini her moor- 
ings on the Douro. 
and, whirling round 
and round in mid- 
st rea m, c^"e n t ual ly 
turned o\er on a sand 
hank on the bar. Her 
c r c w m a n a g e d to 
scramble on to the 
keel, btit. as no assist- 
.1 n c e i n those day s 
cotild be rendered from 
the shore, all the li\cs 
were lost in sijglit of the crowds which lined 
both banks of the ri\er. 

In the month of February Air. Camo 
was laid up with "a kind of rhetimatic 
le\er: he, howe\er, contiiuied \\riting, 
and was anxiotisly expecting the arrival of 
two \cssels from linsjiand, the ■' .'\liner\-a " 
and the '• lisdaile," in \\hich he ptirposcd 
shipping the remaining stock, should they 
arrive in time to allow- him to do so. F\)r 
some reason or other these vessels did ni)t 
arrlx'c, so he secured the " Phcvnix " and 
the " Atalantti," which he comnienecd 



loading as quickly as possible on the 17th 
March on hearing that the French had 
advanced as far as Braga. He succeeded 
in getting tlie wine on board these 
vessels, and shipped some on the Dutcli 
galliot '' Yvrow Emmegina '" bound for 
(juernsey; but they did not get over the 
bar, and remained in tlic ii\er during the 
occLipation of Oporto b\' Soult. 

Further on .Mr. Camo savs : — 

" 1 fear that should the French ever ha\e pos- 
session of this country again, no neutral will be 
respected, and that not one pipe of win'- .vill be 
permitted to be exported. I take particular note 
of what you say as to the 
propriety of immediately 
dropping the firm of Webb, 
Campbell, Gray and Camo, 
and taking up the intended 
one of Camo, Collings & Co. 
This is not so practicable, 
and particularly at the 
present time as you 
imagine ; and, notwith- 
standing all the letters you 
have sent me for friends 
here, they ne\'er would per- 
ceive the use and necessity 
of this act, though it would 
be for the protection of 
f roperty. It would create 
distrust and suspicion 
The idea of being con- 
nected uilli any ollwr iuhject 
than a Bnh'sli one would 
be enough to make them 
desert the house for ever." 

On the 17th January, 1809, .Mr. Joseph 
Camo's position in Oporto became so 
critical that he no longer talks of remain- 
ing. He writes : — 

" We are in the most unpleasant situation. 
I am this day making a passage (transfer) of all 
our stock to three persons. It is not in my power 
to convey to you an idea of our situation, and 
you would not believe it ; no one is safe Should 
there be time for the merchants to get away it is 
absolutely necessary for me to do the same, but it 
shall not be till the very last moment, God grant 
us a little more time and some fine weather. 
1 much fear we shall all be nabbed here,'' 

.Mr. Camo fled to Lisbon when the 

.Vr. Hurry 05i,;il,l Yuiln::, 

French entered Oporto, and did not return 
until the 2nd of June, or twenty-one days 
after the city had been relieved by the 
forces under Sir .Arthur W'ellesley. The 
\essels above mentioned were then des- 
patched on their voyage — the " Phoeni.x " 
fur London, and the " .Atalanta " for 
Plymouth. It would seem that the firm 
did not fill the " .Atalanta " but only con- 
tributed t(jwards her cargo, for it is stated 
in the correspondence that their wines 
being at the bottom of the vessel they 
lost none, while .Mr. Webber (Offley & Co.), 
whose wines lay at the top, lost eight pipes. 
.Mr. Camo remained a 
partner in the firm 
tintil the end of 1815, 
when .Mr. Gray died, 
and the firm was re- 
constituted as Camp- 
bell, Bowden & Taylor. 
In the years 1810-11, 
.Ml'. Camo did a large 
business for the firm 
in cargoes of wheat, 
rye, Indian corn, i-ice, 
etc., which he genei'ally 
sold direct to the com- 
missaries of the British 
and Portuguese armies. 
He was the only 
foreigner w ho has ever 
been admitted to the 
meetings of the members of the British 
Factory House, on which occasions the 
question, among others, of applying for 
convoy was often discussed and settled. 
.Mr. Camo died at Bordeaux in 1816. 

The offices of the firm were for many 
years in the Rua das Cangostas, with the 
principal entrance almost opposite the 
fountain, and a side entrance through a 
yard at the back of the Factory House, 
leading to the Rua de S. Joao Novo. The 
yard was supposed to be the property of 
the British Corporation of the Factory, 
but when, some years ago, it was deemed 


OPORTO, OLD AXD A' /ill". 

desirable to enlarge the house in the 
direction of the said small plot, documents 
were produced showing that the rights 
over it had been conveyed to other parties 
by Mr. Camo, acting on behalf of the 
members of the Factory who were absent, 
the proceeds of which were required for 
some purpose connected with the institu- 
tion of which he, Mr. Camo, \\as left in 
charge. The Rua das Cangostas. as I 
knew it, has disappeared, and in the place 
of a badly-paved, tortuous, and undulatini^ 
lane, a broad street with tram-lines 
connects the Rua do 
Infante Dom Henrique 
(Rua Nova dos In- 
glezes) with the Largo 
de S. Domingos. 

In 1816, Mr. Joseph 
Taylor was admitted 
partner, when the style 
became Campbell, 
B o w d en &• T a y 1 o i". 
After having careful b- 
examined the corres- 
pondence of .Mr. Taylor 
with his London firm, 
.Messrs. Campbell. 
Bowden & Co., I ha\e 
arri\ed at the con- 
clusion that he had 
been resident in the 
old city for many years, 
because whenever he 

quotes Portuguese, he is most accurate, 
and furthermore shows thnnighout his 
letters an intimate knowledge of all the 
details connected with the bLisincss, \\hich 
was then not only confined to the \\'inc 
trade, but to receiving consignments of 
Indian corn, wheat, iron bars and hoops, 
tin plates, cod Hsh antl \arious other 
articles of commerce, as well as acting as 
representative in certain financial transac- 
tions for the firm of Messi's. Rothschild. 
I observe th it in the i-egister of baptisms 
for 1724 .Mr. .lames Ta\lor, described as 

wine merchant of Oporto, had a son bap- 
tised Joseph ; of course this may be a 
coincidence, but, as I said before, Mr. 
.loseph Taylor proves himself so familiar 
with the language of the coimtry, the 
people and theii- habits, that it is just 
possible that he was descended from the 
wme merchant abo\e named. 

.Among the correspondence referred to, 
the following, dated 15th July. 1817, is of 
interest : — 

"This morning's piist from the Douro brought 
u^ ni-w-icit the house l):--Ionging to poor Gra\-, being 
burnt down, but as it was 
occasioned Vjv the (!?om- 
pan\'s serx'ants, we hpixe 
no doubt the\' will either 
rebuild it or pay us the 
\ahie ol it ; \"0u will obser\"e 
Mr. Gray let the Company 
distil lirandy there, and we 
have not disturbed them 
since, although the^" ha\"e 
ne\er paid an\- rent ; we 
lTa\'e. howe\ei". alwa\s 
given Grab's rent account 
the same as he charged 
himself when he kept the 
books — we are not sorr-v 
for the accident : if the 
Company are Itonourable 
enougli to pa\" the loss, 
which we ha\"e no cloubt 
thev \\ ill do." 

The house to which 
Mr. Taylor refers is the 
one which the firm still 
owns at Salgueiral, known as the Alam- 
biqties, w Inch, dtiring the Peninsular War. 
was tised b\- .Marshal Lord Beresford as a 
hospital for the sick and wounded. .Manv 
years ha\e now elapsed since that terrible 
war finished, and as we weiul our way 
through the dusty lanes of the Doino 
district, we are apt to forget that thousands 
ol British soldiers have here sprimg up to 
arms at the bugle call, and that otir 
ancestors rendered them all the assistance 
in the power of cl\ illans. 

In 1837. .Mr. John Alexander l-ladgate 

OPORTO, OLD AM) Xl-lW. 133 

joined the firm, when it became Taylor, death of Mr. Joseph Taylor in 1837, Mr. 
Fladgate & Co., and I present m)- readers Fladgate was left sole partner, and, at the 
with a portrait of Mr. Fladgate by the suggestion of Mr. .Matthew- Clark, then 
late Baron de Foi-ester, taken in the the London agent of the fii-m, a partner- 
said year, ship was arranged Vihich commenced 1 .^t 
Mr. Fladgate was born in the parish of January, 1839, with ,Mi-. Morgan "S'eatman, 
St. (}iles-in-the-Fields in the year 1809, grandfather of the present Mi". Harry 
and, after ha\ ing been engaged in the wine Oswald ^'eatman, 

trade in England, he sailed for Oporto in Mi-, N'eatman came of a \ery old D(jrset- 

1836, from London on board the paddle shux- family, settled for many generations 

steamei" "Manchester." He was, how- at Hinton St. Miir\', near Stm'minstcr 

e\'er, not able to land off Opoi-t(j, liut had Xewton, and had established himself as a 

to continue his journe}' to Lisbon, which wine merchant in the town of Dorchester, 

took him 8 days andcost £1.5. The following where for man\- years he had been a 

year he returned to BnglantI and was friend and customei' oi' .Mcssi's. .Joseph 

nuin-ied to .Miss Dalglish. .\t this time Taylor and Co. .Mr. \'eatman continued 

he went o\'erIand by way of \'igo, a partner in the firm imtil fns death In 

X'aladolid, Burgos, Bordeaux and Paris: 1 849, at Ivichmond, Surre\-. 

for a part r)f the way he had as tra\elling Mr. Morgan ^'eatman, son of the abo\e, 

companion .Mi-. .Arthur Hui-it, and his joined the fii-m in 1 84(S. on attaining hi'-; 

description of the journey ii-i a badly eon- majority, and continued in it luitil Ins 

structed Cnclw de CollcTds over almost death in 1889. He was only an occasional 

in-ipassable roads is most amusing. He \isitor to Oporto, but was well know n and 

returned to Oporto in the san-|e yeai- on i-cspccted in the Cit\-, whei-e for oxer 40 

board the steamer "Don Juan." .Mr. _\ears he was the London partner of the 

Fladgate's brother, Frank, was for man\- firm. 

years a men-iber of the Garriek Club, of In the year 1843 the style of the firm 

w-hich he becan-ie the Father. In 1870 was altered to that of Taylor. Fladgate 

.Mr. John .Alexander Fladgate was and Yeatman, which is retained t(j the 

created Baron da Roeda in the peerage of present day. In 1844 they purchased 

Portugal, and he w-as also Comn-iendador from the Sovral fan-iily the Ouinta da 

da Ordem de Christo. Four of his l-?oeda, of which mention is n-iade in the 

daughters n-iarried Oporto wine shippers. description of the Douro. The Ouinta 

viz. :— .Miss Catherine .Mary married was transferred in 1862 to .Mr. Fladgate, 

Mr. Joseph Jan-ies Forrester, of .Messrs. and, after his retirement, w-as purchased 

Offley, Cramp and Forresters ; Miss by Messrs. Croft & Co. In 1893 Messrs. 

.Marian married .Mr. Albert Charles Taylor, Fladgate and Yeatman acquired 

Morgan, of Messrs. Morgan Bros., ^^'ine the Ouinta de Vargellas, once famed for 

.Merchants, Limited ; .Miss Florence the production of fine w-ines, and though 

married Mr. Pedro GoncalvesGuimaraens. at the tin-ie of purchase it was neglected 

of .Messrs. M. P. Guimaraens & Son: and desolate they hope by judicious 

and Miss Janet married .Mr. Charles re-planting of the best parts of the Ouinta 

Wright, of Messrs. Croft & Co. Baron to restore to it its former reputation. 

da Roeda retired fron-i business scjme Francis Pedro Gauntlett Fladgate. son 

years ago, and 1 have much pleasure In of the Baron da Roeda was admitted 

reproducing a photograph of him, taken ,=i0 partner on the 1st January, 1867, and 

years after the previous portrait. On the died in 1888. 



The present partners in the firm are 
Mr. Harry Oswald Yeatnian, born in 1856, 
son of the last nientitined Air. .Mor;^an 
^'eatn^an ; he entered the firm on the 
1st January, 1884: Mr. Charles Neville 
Sl-ieffington joined on the 1st Juh', 
1885, havin,!4 alread)- had many years' 

experience of the Oporto trade, first in 
the film of Messrs. Sih-a and Cosens, 
and afterwards as a shipper in his own 
name, and ,Mr. Frank Pym Stanley 
^'eatman. joeinger brother of Mr. H. O. 
'S'eatman, born in 1869, admitted partner 
1st Julv, 1897. 



CR(J1'T .\; CO. 

[ARLIEST aiiKjiig the 
aiithenticateil records I 
possess of this firm is 
one dated 1697, when It 
\\'as styled Phayre l\- 
l->radleys — the menibei's 
of which formed pai't of 
the Factoi-ies then estah- 
hshed at Oporto, and 
Alonc;K), on the Ri\ei- Alinhcj. But tlieix 
is no doubt that the firm haoi been in 
existence previous to this date, althoui^h 
it be n(jt pcjssible to determine exactly 
when it commenced operations. There 
are, however, documents bearini^ no date, 
biit c\'idently of a remoter pei'iod, as the 
caligraphy and the paper on which they 
are written ai-e far more antiquated. In 
fact, 1 have no hesitation in placing .Messrs. 
Croft L^- Co. as among the earliest shippers 
of Red Portugal Wines. The following 
are the changes in the firm since 1697 : — 
Phayre & Bradle)'S . . . . 1G97 

Phayre & Bradley .. .. lyog 

Phayre, Bradley & Tilden . . 170'j 

Tilden, Thompson & Stafford .. i/ij 

Tilden & Thompson .. .. 172J 

Tilden, Thompson & Croft . 173'J 

Thompson, Croft & Afitchell 174J 
Croft, Stewart & Croft . . . . 1750 

Thompson, Croft & Co .. .. 1767 

and the name Croft has been retained ever 

Strangely enough, I also find the name 
Croft mentioned in 1745 as belonging to 
the firm of Lambert, Croft & Co., als(j 

members of the hjritish l-actor\'. It is of 
great interest in connection with this old 
firm to give the following extracts from 
'■ .\ Treatise on the NA'ines of Portugal since 
the Kstablishment of the Hnglish Factory 
at Oporto, anno 1727, h\- .lohri Ci'oft, 
S.A.S.. Member of the 1-actory at Oporto, 
and Wine Merchant, ^'ork." The pamph- 
let was published ni 1788. and it will thtis 
be seen that Mr. Cr(jft fixes the commence- 
ment of the impoi-tation of Porttii.;al wines 
into lingland at abotit 1688. He says: 
" It \\as abiHit a lumdred \ears ago that 
the PortLigal wines were at first imported 
into England, ami chiefly or prhicipalK- 
ttbotit the I'eign of Otieen .Anne, on the 
decadence or falling off of the Florence 
\intages, that the wines from OpoiTo crme 
int(") any sort of drauoht or use : for befoix' 
the introdtietion of the ports there were 
also imp jrted the Ribadavia wines from 
Galicia, a pro\ance in Spain, though of 
this sort there onl\' used to come about 
two or three thrjusand pipes yearly. They 
were a thin sort of wine, the I'ed not un- 
like what is called or termed in Portugal 
■ Palhete or Alethuen wine.' fi'om one. .Mr. 
Paul Alethuen. \\-ho was the first that 
mixed red and white grapes together. 
When the demand for this sort 
of wine became greater than its 
pnjduce, especially in a scanty \-intage, it 
put some English supercargoes who resided 
their and at I'iaiiiia, near Oporto, at that 
time, on teaching the Portuguese to 



ciilti\-atc the \ Ineyards on the heitjhts or he uses a pleee of Cheshire eheese for 

moLintains horilerin.n on the rner Donro, pretended digestion sake." 
whenee the district takes the name of Cima .Mr. Croft ascrihes the eoming into 

dti DoLii-o. It is ahont f )rt\' or fift\- miles sndden repute of the wines of Cima Dom-o 

Llistant from tiic City of (3porto. where the to " the had produce of the \'\-ines of other 

harlioui- is, and where it rmis into tine sea. countries, their falhn!4-off and scanty \"in- 

It is \-ul.::;arly called liN' the Bni^iisii Factor)- tai^es, as said hefore : and, secondly, to 

i-esidin,i4 there tlic ;e(//i' coiiiitiy. and thence the lulviijitiiij^c arising- from the cstaljli^lilia;- 

it is that the wines are transported and n fiuinry i<r l/odv of nwrihdJits at Oporto, 

conveyed down to Oporto in proper \-essels. so far considered heneficlal in takinj^ off 

heint; a sort of lighters or keels," 

Mr. Croft also treats ahoLit the culti\ 
tioii of the \nie\arels, 
which, at first, he 
says, "owing to more 
eai'e and lahour hemg 
employed, and the 
SLimmer seasons m 
l^ortugal hcing in- 
tenseh" and excessively 
hotter than of later 
V'cars, the wines were 
then undouhtedly 
loLind richer and of 
superior strength and 
mellcjwness to those 
prodLieed at present, at 
least h\' the accoLint of 
them from the old 
people in that eountr\ . 
It is chiefly owing to 
the d e 1 i c a c _\' a n d 
tenuity of the soil, and 
Its hemg at a proper 
(.listance from the sea. 

1 lu Lilc Sir jvlni Crojl. fi.M/ 

the woollen mamifactures of England, 
Linder the sanction of those most \aluahle 
pn\ileges ceded hy 
John i\'.. King of 
l-'ortLigak in the year 
1 (i54. to Oliver Crom- 
well and the Go\ern- 
ment of England, from 
which time — /e/' hcfuvi: 
tlhv i^'ciif <nilv (IS siipir- 
Kirgcc's. II 11(1 i-itiiiiu'il 
ii^iuii Ic Eiii;linul—-\\c 
ma\" date the first 
settlement of the 
l-~nglish 111 Portugal. 
In the infaiKw of the 
trade the first cost of 
a pipe of red port in 
Cima l)our(i was aboLit 
-ens or £17, and the 
dLitv m \er\' 
inconsidcrahle to what 
It IS at present, or has 
been of later vears ; all 

w hieli 

r\"ed, as 


that the situation is eertamlv the best as the high denuind t hey, to encourage 

sLiited or most favourable r,( any in liurope the l^irtuguese to attend to their vineyards 

lor the growth ol red wines of a superior .ind neglect their eorn-Linds, for at that 

mellowness or bodv. vv hich, owing to the time of day the district of Cima I~)(Hiro 

system ot nioilcrn luxurv-, is so much was ebiefiv- corn-land, and from the rich- 

lanuharised to us by custom in bai-land. ness of the soil and the rruitfiiiness of the 

and S.I much adapted to the taste and country, aft'ordcd as fine a produce as any 

constitution ol the Noithern climates in l:-urope, and so great a plenty as it was 

as to become a staple eommoility : and an never known that the province of Entre 

Englishman of any decent condition or Minho e Douro, or Oporto, wanted grain 

circumstanee cannot dispense w ith It after of anv" sort: nor was it ever known, at 

Ins good dinner, in the same manner as that time, that anv' corn was imported or 



wanted from abroad, there being a rej^ular Britain. At first the export was about 

and sufficient supply from that rich and 5,000 pipes, and in the year 1780 it was 

plentiful province." found to be from 20,000 to 30,000 pipes a 

Again does Mr. Croft lay stress on the year. The wines from \'ianna, near 

importance of the Factory at Oporto, for he Oporto, were at first in great repute. The 

states that by "the settling of it the mutual wines of Cima Douro came in demand 

intercourse of the trade, and the encourag- afterwards. In the year 1701 the Douro 

ing demands from England for the \\ines, wines were sold in the wine counti-y at 

with the close attention of the nati\'es to £2 15s per pipe; in the year 1731, at £13 

the growing and cultivating of the vines, per pipe; in the year 1779, at £8 per 

it was soon seen, by degrees, that then' pipe." 
corn lands were 

changed into vine- 

This letter, so 
important and in- 
teresting to the 
port wine historio- 
grapher, goes on to 
say that " in 1669 
no Portugal wines 
were entered in 
the Custom-house 
books at that time, 
according to Dave- 
nant, inspector- 
general of imports 
and exports. It was 
only at the epoch of 
the Restoration that 
the use of wines 
became at all com- 
mon in England, at 
which juncture they 
were chiefly im- 
ported from France 

The present Sir John Croft, Bart. 
iFroin a Fainting taken '.,'lien he "^'as at Eton). 

Respecting the 
English super- 
cargoes, Mr. Croft 
says "they first 
established them- 
selves under the 
sanction of the 
prii.-ileges granted 
by the Court oi Por- 
tugal and authority 
of England, in the 
year 1656, when 
Cromwell gave the 
patent of Consul- 
General t(} one 
Thomas Maynard, 
with a patent of 
Vice-Consul to his 
brother, Walter 
Maynard, of the 
Vice-Consulship at 
Oporto, in the year 

The next docu- 
ments to which I 

and Germany. In King W^illiam's time will refer are to be found in a memon- of 

some wines were sent to England, but in public services rendered by Sir John Croft, 

no great quantity. In the year 1702 the of Cowling Hall, York, and of Doddington, 

war broke out with France and Spain, and Kent, Bart., K.C.T., D.C.L., &c. It appears 

the Portuguese, joining the allies, the next that His Excellency Charles Stuart, 

year a new treaty, commonly called the H. B. Majesty's Minister in Portugal, 

Methuen Treaty, was concluded upon that having in 1810 represented to Mr. Croft, 

occasionby Queen Anne, by which Portugal who had just arrived from England, that 

wines were to pay one-third less duty than Viscount Wellington was in great want of 

French wines. From this time we may information of the number and description 

date the general use of port wines in Great of French troops that had entered, and 




were entering Spain, and of their move- be molested in his quarters, but is, 

ments there ; and having suggested to Mr. on the contrary, recommended to the 

Croft (who was upon the eve of an excur- attention of the General or other officers 

sion to the north of Portugal) to write commanding the troops. Given under 

from thence to Corunna; he there arranged my hand at head-quarters this 6th day of 

a plan (Col. Napier alludes to it. Vol. IV., March, 1812. 

page 220), by means of which Viscount "(Signed) WELLINGTON." 

Wellington received during the spring and Mr. Croft's remarks about the state of 

summer of that year some information of the country after the invasion are preg- 

the nature suggested. nantly summed up in the following 

The British Parliament having in 1811 extracts: — "In the district of Leiria the 

voted, at the suggestion of Lord Welling- number of inhabitants, according to 

ton,, £100,000 forthe 
relief of Portuguese 
sufferers, his 
Excellency Charles 
Stuart and the 
Regency at Lisbon 
earnestly requested 
Mr. Croft to under- 
take the distribution 
of the grant. Then 
follows an order 
p r o m Li 1 g a t e d b y 
General Viscount 
Wellington, Com- 
m a n d e r of the 
Forces, to all r- » 
authorities : — " The v 
bearer of this is 
Mr. Croft, who is 
attached to the 
British Mission at 
the Court of Lisbon, 
and is employed by 

his Majesty's Minister to distribute the 
bounty voted by Parliament for the 
relief of the inhabitants of Portugal, and 
the General or other officers commanding 
posts and detachments are requested 
to gi\'e him every assistance in their 
power, and to provide him with quarters, 
provisions and foi'age. In the event of 
troops marching into towns in which vote was one hundred thousand pounds, 
this gentleman may be i-esiding for the and had been augmented by private 
purpose of executing the duty with which liberality. The degree of relief which 
he is entrusted, he is hy no means t<j had been afforded to that countrv was 

The present Sir John Croft, Burl 

official inquiry, is 
diminished from 
48,000 to 16,000. In 
the sub-division of 
Pombal, the number 
previous to invasion 
was 7,000 ; of these 
only 1,800 remain." 
A chicken 

cost £0 15 10 

A bushel of 

wheat ... 2 12 
A pound of 
w h e a t e n 
bread ... 
A pound of 

butter ... 
These prices 
about six 
higher than before 
the invasion. From 
Hansard's Parlia- 
mentary Debates, 
vol. 28, page 622, July 6, 1814, the follow- 
ing extract is made : — " Lord Castlereagh 
presented a report of the Commissioners 
for distriheiting the sum of monev ^•oted by 
the House to the Portuguese sufferers, 
whose country had been laid waste either 
by the enemy or in order to render 
Portugal untenable by it in 1810. The 

1 9 

3 11 



astonishing. The cattle had been re- Mr. George Warre, so that we again 

placed by importation, implements of recognise how our old Oporto families 

husbandry, and seed and coi n had been have intermarried. I am glad to be able 

distributed over the country. Instead of to state that there is not much danger of 

leaving a large tract to desolation, culti\a- the family name dying out, as there are 

tion was to a great degree restored. Mr. six sons and seven daughters li\ing. In 

Lushington expressed a wish that the former days, like some other wine firms, 

report should be printed. Mr. Warre Messrs. Croft & Co. had a sailing ^•essel of 

confirmed the statement of the noble lord, their own trading between the West of 

and bore testimony to the disinterested England Ports and Oporto, and not many 

conduct of the persons who had been years ago I met, at Exeter, old Captain 

appointed to distribute the grant, who had Pearce, who used to command her, and he 

declined repayment of 
their expenses. Mr. 
Wynn remarked that 
the grant in question 
and its application 
must have had an 
admirable effect in 
strengthening the tie 
which binds us to 
our most ancient and 
faithful ally." Such a 
friendly feeling existed 
between our troops 
and those of Portugal 
that when the Bi-itish 
soldiers separated from 
them they broke their 
ranks to display their 
attachment to these, 
their companions in the 
glorious works which 
they had achieved. 
The Prince Regent 

Mr. Francis Croft. 

remarked on the in- 
creasing tendency for 
limiting the wine trade 
to London and thence 
distributing the stock- 
over England wherever 
purchasers may be 
f o u n d . 

The Th(jmps(jns. <>{ 
Yorkshire, are a very 
old Oporto family, they 
having first gone there 
in the year 1713, and 
to this day the name is 
still ^■ery (jften men- 
tioned in connection 
with that of the firm. 
Their direct descend- 
ant is Sir Henry 
Meysey Thomps-on, of 
Kirby Hall, Yoi-kshire, 
Bart., who, however, 
is not connected with 

of Portugal, being desirous of giving Mr. Messrs. Croft & Co. The following is a 

Croft "a public and honourable testimony " list of the members of the British Factory 

of his highness' gratitude, conferred on at Oporto when the first Mr. Thompson 

him an honorary Commandership of the joined it : — Dowker, Stukey iS; Stert ; 

Order of the Tower and Sword, and title David & Robert Jackson ; John Clark ; 

of Baron da Serra d'Estrella, and by his John Page; Peter Bearsley; Byrnes&Co.; 

own Sovereign his services were recognised Gideon Caulet ; Curtis & A\ ettenhall ; 

as already described. Henry Gee, etc. 

This Sir John Croft, who rendered such 
signal service to his King and country, 
married a Miss Warre, and the present 

It will always be remembered by British 
merchants in Oporto that the late Mr. J. 
R. Wright, manager of Messrs. Croft and 

Baronet, of the same name. Is cousin of Co.'s business in that city, lost one of his 



arms during the Civil War between Dom 
Pedro and Dom Miguel. He was living in 
the Bandeirinha when a shot, or shell, 
burst through the roof, fell on his arm, and 
so injured it that it had to be amputated. 
No merchant was more esteemed than Mr. 
Wright. He was a thorough Englishman, 
and by his unpretentious and straight- 
forward character he earned 
for himself, among all classes 
and conditions of men, that 
respect which, for being un- 
ostentatious, made it the more 
acceptable to him. 

Messrs. Croft & Co. own the 
Ouinta da Roeda, and their 
\\-ine stores at tlie Terreirinho, 
Villa Nova dc Gaia, have been 
in the occupaticMi of the firm 
for many years. There is no 
Oporto firm that has taken a 
more lively interest in the wel- 
fare of Poi'tugal than Messrs. 
Croft & Co., and some of its 
partners ha\e received the 
recognition of the Sovereigns 
of Great Britain and Portugal, 
in fact some of the honours 
offered were not accepted. The 
present managing represen- 
tative of the firm is my former school- 
fellow, Mr. Charles Wright, who married 
Miss Fladgate, daughter of John Alexander 
Pladgate, Baron da Roeda. 

In my description of the River Douro 
and some of the principal vineyards I 
mention the Ouinta da Roeda, and repro- 
duce a picture of it from a photograph 

Tki late Mr. J. R. Wright. 

taken by Messrs. Emilio Biel & Co., of 
Oporto, who were instructed by my editor 
to accompany me on a most enjoyable 
journey in the wine-country in order to 
present to my readers an idea of what the 
paiz vintmteii'o is like. I termed it an 
" enjoyable journey," but it was one of the 
hottest I have experienced. Sometimes 
we travelled by train in very 
comfortable first-class car- 
riages, sometimes by boat, but 
more often on horse-back. We 
were sorely troubled by flies 
of all sizes and colours, some 
more vicious than others in 
their biting propensities. But 
we had good food and magnifi- 
cent wine, and when we arrived 
at the Ouinta da Roeda, the 
barbecued suckling, the roast 
turkey and chickens awaited 
us. One never tires of jour- 
neying under such circum- 
stances. I strongly recommend 
all intending visitors to the 
Douro not to drink too much 
water ; the medical men affirm 
that it prodLiccs intermittent 
fever. I think I did taste it 
on one occasion, but in the 
Douro thev put it not on the table. At 
the principal OLiintas in Douro-land (if 
yoLi are fortunate enough to be invited to 
them) all you get is of the best ; it is at 
Ouintas like the Roeda, No\al, Zimbro, 
Boa \'ista, \'esuvio, &c., that one becomes 
pleasantly and thoroughly familiarised 
with the port wine history'. 





MONG the many pleasant 
reminiscences I treasure, 
as still binding me to my 
native town of Oporto, 
is tiie recollection of 
the day when my uncle, 
Henry Wilcock, allowed 
me, on my leax'ini^ school, 
to occupy a desk in the office of Messrs. 
Offley, for which firm he was manager 
for many years. It is only natural, 
therefore, that in attempting to reco\er 
from dusty shelves and worm-eaten 
ledgers the history of our Oporto A\ine 
houses, 1 should include in my early 
chapters the one with which I had the 
honour of being associated when a bo)-. 
At a very early age I was inducted into the 
large wine stores, w hich we, in Oporto, call 
lodges, of the above-named firm, under 
the kind auspices of the adniiiiistradur, 
Senhor Luiz Maria Lucio, father of the 
gentleman who now holds the same posi- 
tion. How large the pipes seemed to me 
then ; how long the passages between the 
rows of pipes ; how gigantic the toiuieis or 
vats holding some 30 or 40 pipes of wine 
each ! There were considerablj- more 
casks in that lodge than there were soldiers 
in Oporto, and Oporto is a garrison town. 
The cooperage occupied the fore, and 
side, yards, under the shelter of a red tiled 
outbuilding ; close to were stacked large 
quantities of Baltic oak staves for the 

makmg of the casks. If the interior of the 
lodge interested me, the cooperage was the 
place 1 preferred, as it made me wonder 
how the coopers, with but little else than 
the assistance of a con-ect eye and long 
experience, could consti'uct the \arious- 
sized casks to contain the exact number 
of gallons required. And what boy is there 
that does not like t(j see carpentering in 
some form or other ? Lazaro was the 
head cooper, a position of considerable 
responsibilty in all large wine houses ; the 
ganger of the men who carry the wine 
aboLit for the purposes of blending was 
Antfjnio Pinto. These men used tcj tell 
me tales of the great war between the two 
royal brothers Dom Pedro and Dom 
Miguel ; how in those troublous times all 
Bi-itish firms in Oporto had the red ensign 
painted on the outer doors of the property 
so as to prevent the soldiery from entering; 
and how many Portuguese firms availed 
themselves of the same means to secure 
exemption, but were not always successful. 
Then they would tell me about old Lobo 
da Reboleira, the miser, who, knowing that 
the Pedroites were going to call on him 
for pecuniary assistance, left a card on his 
door with the words " Lobo nao cstd na 
lura" — the wolf has left his lair. But far 
more interesting to me were four old flint 
lock muskets which French soldiers had 
left there during the Peninsular War, 
when Sir Arthur Wellesley drove them 



from the neighbourhood of Oporto. I 
used to conjure up scenes of battle in 
which the scarlet tunics were always 
victorious, and the " frog-eaters " com- 
pletely checkmated. These guns, so far 
as I was C(jncerncd, were worth more than 
all the wine lodges put together. 

The oldest document I can find in ^\■hich 
the name Offley appears hears the date 
of 1761, when 
the fir m w a s 
Messrs. Etty, 
Offley and Co. ; 
but, by analogy, 
I trace the exis- 
tence of the 
firm hack to 
about 1729, as, 
by a document 
I have before 
me, there is no 
d o Li b t that 
s o m e gentle- 
m e n , w h o s e 
names appear 
as partners in 
the firm, are 
m e n t i o n e d 
many years be- 
fore as being 
wine shippers. 
From 1761 to 
1772, the style 
w as Messrs. 
Htty, Offley and 
Co.; from 1773 
to 1778, Messrs. 
Etty, Offley, 

Campion & Co.; then up to 1786, it was 
Messrs. Offley, Campion, Brooks i.*v' Co. : 
and from 1786 to 1788, Messrs. OfHey, 
Campion, Hesketh & Co. The names 
Campion and Hesketh hark back to a 
much remoter period, hir I find them 
mentioned in the early part of the 
eighteenth century. From 1789 to 1804 
the firm traded as Messrs. Campion, OfHey, 

The L.ilc Mr. Clidilcs Oljhy 

Hesketh & Co., after which year the name 
Campion does not again appear. From 
1805 to 1809, in which latter year the suc- 
cessful passage of the Douro took place, 
considered by some to have been the most 
brilliant battle in the Duke of Wellington's 
whole career, the firm was Messrs. Offley, 
Hesketh, Webber & Co., and I will here 
mention that Mr. James Forrester, great 

uncle of the 
present part- 
n e r s , was 
alread}' con- 
nected with the 
firm, he having 
arrived in 
Oporto in 1803. 
The Offleys 
were important 
merchants in 
the city of 
London and 
presented valu- 
able plate to 
the Merchant 
Tailors' Guild. 
I think it must 
h a v e bee n 
about 1761 that 
the first Mr. 
Offley visited 
Oporto, but I 
cannot trace his 
christian name; 
the t \\- o last 
partners in the 
f i r m of this 
n a m c \\ e r e 
William and Charles Offley, who died in 
1 857. 

I will here remark that the Offleys, 
Heskeths, and Campions, Webbers and 
Forresters have been resident members 
of the British community in Oporto. 
Mr. James Forrester, imele of the late 
I>;iron de Forrester arrixed in the old 
wine city in 1803 and was joined by his 



nephew in 1831. Air. James Forrester, 
of whom I f^ive a re-production of a bust 
in the possession of the firm in London, 
died in Oporto on the 17th of June, 1840. 
In 1848, Mr. Francis Cramp joined the 
firm ; when it became Messrs. Offle)', 
Webber, Forrester & Cramp ; the late 
Baron de Forrester married in 1836, Miss 
Fliza Cramp, his partner's sister, who 
died in Oporto in 1847 and was buried in 
the old churchyard. 

The present partners in the firm are 
Mr. Frank Woodhouse 
Forrester and his 
brother Mr. William 
Offley Forrester, the 
surviving sons of the 
late Baron de For- 
rester ; beyond these 
there were two other 
sons, now dead, 
James Forrester and 
Joseph James For- 
rester; the former 
married Miss Stand- 
ring, daughter of 
Benjamin Standring, 
of the old firm of 
Messrs. Standring 
Brothers; and the 
latter married Miss 
Catherine Alary Flad- 
gate, daughter of John 
Alexander Fladgate, 
Baron da Roeda, in 

The Oporto office of Messrs. Offley, 
Forrester & Co. is in the same building 
which tlney occupied at the commencement 
of the present century. In Baron de 
Forrester's picture of the Rua Nova dos 
Inglezes, now called the Rua do Infante 
Dom Henrique, the house is seen on the 
right hand side, with the old clerk standing 
in the verandah. This man was, if I 
recollect aright, Joab Francisco d'Assis ; 
he lived and died in the service of the firm. 

lUiil •'] Mr. Ja 
Dtid nth J 

His son, of the same name, was aftenvards 
book-keeper in Offley's, and left about 
1851. The present manager in Oporto is 
Mr. Arthur Standring; he succeeded the 
late Mr. John Whiteley Atkinson, who had 
been for nearly fifty years in the service of 
the firm. 

Lil<e some other English firms in Oporto, 
M'jssrs. Offley, Cramp and Forresters 
have acquired ^■ineyards of their own in 
the Alto Douro ; among others, the Quinta 
da Boa Vista, the Ouinta da Cachucha, 
and the Ouinta do 
Ujo, and properties 
at R e g o a and S . 
Christo\;i(j. Respect- 
ing these first two 
Ouintas, I have some- 
thing to say; the 
former belonged to the 
friara/j de Viamonte. 
T he Ouinta da 
Cachucha was bought 
by the firm from the 
present Baron d e 
Saavedra, descended 
on his father's side 
from the great Cer- 
\- a n t e s , author of 
" Don Ouijote," and 
also from the most 
noble family of Nevill, 
of Abergavenny — that 
is, his paternal grand- 
father was of Spanish, 
and his paternal grandmother, of English 
descent. In connection with the family 
of Nevill, I \\\\\ observe that there is an 
old house not far from Candal, oppcjsite 
Oporto, which, up to 1864, to my know- 
ledge, was the property of John Ne\ill, 
who lived there in retirement with his 
sister. Over the principal gateway, as 
well as over some of the doors, the 
arms of the family of Aberga\'enny 
appeared ; to wit, two bulls supporting 
a shield, the quartering of which, how- 



ever, I do not recollect ; but the motto, 
Nc vile vclis (" Incline to nothin_o- low ") 
was perfectly legible. This small property 
was called the Ouinta do Fojo, and later on 
was bought by the late i\lr. John Andresen 

obtained by a constant application and 
attention to the requirements of the vines. 
This truth must be patent to everyone 
connected with that huge district where 
we have to deal with difficulties almost 

capitalist and merchant in Oporto. It unknown in any other viticultural region 

would be interesting to know under what 
circumstances, and when, a scion of the 
family of Abergavenny first took up his 
abode in Portugal. The father of the 
present Baron de Saa\'edra married a 
jVliss Van-Zeller, and when he died he was 
commander of the 
municipal guard of 
Oporto. His son, 
Adolphus, in virtue of 
his English and noble 
descent, was allowed 
to become a pupil 
at Air. Whiteley's — a 
privilege which not all 
English boys resident 
in the place enjoyed. 
The Messrs. For- 
rester are nothing if 
they are not practical, 
as will be seen by the 
great interest they 
ha\e paid to their 
vineyards in the Alto 
Douro, and to their 
vine-nurseries in Villa 
NovadeGaia. I think 
I may safely say that 
there are very few 

The late Mr. Frdiuis Ciaiiip 

of the world ; nothing that I have seen on 
the Rhine, or throughout the «hole of 
France, Italy, Austria or Spain would give 
the traveller the slightest idea of what the 
Douro and its inhabitants are like. It is, 
as I said before, a marvellously mysterious 
land, with a soil very 
peculiarly its own, 
with a temperature 
which, in summer, 
reminds one of the 
tropics, and in winter 
of the frigid zone. I 
have given you here 
and there photo- 
graphs of some of 
the finest quintas in 
the Douro ; I have 
attempted to describe 
the geological forma- 
tion of that wonderful 
land, but 1 cannot do 
justice to the glorious 
work of Nature, more 
there than elsewhere. 
This rich \\- i n e 
country being distant 
from Oporto a matter 

Liii-ic. ait, vtij, itvv irom uporto a matter 

men who know the Alto Douro better of about 60 miles, and the resoiu-ces 
<-i,n„ I Jo. I have visited all the principal of ci\ilisation, in the shape of hotel 


Quintas, and heard what a 

the chief accommodation. 

good roads, &c., not 

farmers have had to say respecting the having yet been introduced in those parts 

treatment of the vines, and, furthermore, for reasons \\hieh arc very evident to 

I have had many an opportunity of seeing all acquainted w ith the district because 

what has been done. Comparisons, as there would not be sufticient demand 

we know, arc invidious; but, in a matter for them — Messrs. Forrester very wiselv 

of this nature, it behoves me on behalf of decided on establishing their vine nur- 

the great viticultural interests of the series in close proximity to their wine 

Douro, to state that remuneration for stores, or lodges, at Villa Nova, so that 

capital and labour expended is only to be they might be under their personal super- 



vision, or tliat of Senhor Manoel Maria 
Lucio, the administrator of tiieir lodges, 
than whom a man more versed in the 
science of viticulture in Portugal does not 
exist. To his indefatigable energy he 
brings the assistance of a mind well read- 
up in all the latest methods of combating 
the terrible diseases to which the vine has 
of late years been a victim. To him it has 
really been a labour of love, under the 
direction of his principals, who thus carry 
on the famous traditions of their father; 
he has furnished an object lesson in the 

turned over with pick, shovel, and crowbar 
to the depth of 8 to 10 ft., resulting in 
many instances in the merging of five or 
six of the old terraces (jeios) into one, 
thus economising space, and rendering 
cultivation more easy. 

The principal wine lodges of the firm 
are known as the Arniasciiis da Aguia, or 
Eagle Lodges, owing to a rather good 
representation of the bird of freedom 
being placed over the facade. But beyond 
these lodges, or stores, which are capable 
of containing 4,000 pipes of wine, Messrs. 

The late Mr. Jam£s Forrester. 

shape of a nursery where study and prac- 
tice have been most happily combined. 

The said nurseries are situate on the 
slopes of Gaia, facing almost due north, 
with the Serra Convent to the east and 
the Atlantic to the west. The young 
American vines are here planted, and are 
layered according to what is termed the 
Chinese system. It is with these sturdy 
stocks, already capable of carrying a graft, 
that Boa Vista is being replanted ; great 
importance being attached to deep trench- 
ing (roteamento), the schistous soil being 

The tale Mr. Joseph James Forrester 

Offley, Cramp, and Forresters lease other 
and larger premises not far off, which 
are also under the administration of my 
old friend Manoel Maria and his son. I 
will observe that these huge stores are not 
in any way similar to our cellars ; they are 
not under ground, but are in the form of 
long rows of buildings constructed of 
granite, and the roof covered with red 

A shipping pipe, containing 115 gallons 
of wine, is constructed of, on an average, 
25 staves in height, with 5 staves at each 



end. The number of hoops employed is 
the following : — On each side of the boni;c 
are four hoops, two of iron and two of 
wood ; then come the ^obrc bnjo, or 
" second" iron hoop, the colctc, or " third" 
iron hoop, and the areas da cahcca, or 
" chime " hoops, two being of iron and 
one of wooci. A port pipe has, therefore, 
eighteen hoops. A cooper can make one 
pipe per day and start on another one. 
The importation of staves for the making 
of casks for the port wine trade has 
developed consicierably with the Baltic 

have been for many generations the family 
of Oliveira, of the village of Porto Manco. 
The arracs of the River Douro are worthy 
of special notice as being men of great 
nerve, as well as for being most expert and 
careful pilots. You must see the terrific 
rapids of the Douro to be able to appre- 
ciate the service these men have rendered 
the wine trade of the country. The boats 
are of very primitive shape, being con- 
structed of rough planks, with a long bow 
raised from the water, while within a few 
feet of the stern a sort of bridge is built 

ports, whence the best sta\es are imported. 
I do not know what an empty pipe weighs, 
but it is a rather cumbersome article for 
one man to raise above his head. This 
feat was, however, executed by the anuics 
Antonio d'Oliveira in the presence of Baron 
de Forrester; he was known for his 
gigantic strength, and it is recorded of 
him that on another occasion he, by a 
quick' and adi'oit movement, lifted a full 
pipe which was lying on its waist, on to 
its head. 

The anuh's, or head-boatmen, of the Hrm 

Mr. Fi.iiik ir. Foi-mln: 

fi'om which the airacs works the ispaihlla , 
or long rudder. These boats ai'c con- 
structed to carry from 30 to 70 pipes of 
wine, and arc pi'opclled either by oars, or 
by a large square sail. 

The ai'iiiiS at one time wei'c \ery 
frequently addicted to acts of \iolence, 
and were held in great terror by the people 
residing near the banks of the Douro. 
Their honesty \\as abo\e suspicion, but, if 
anyone offended them, the)' would not 
hesitate to ha\c recourse to force. I 
r-emcnibcr being told of an anvfs ha\'in<j: 



mortally stabbed a priest in the parish to fifteen-year-old ones at 6s. 8d. Red 

church for some real, or imaf^inary, offence port is quoted at 6s. and white port at 

offered him. The authorities at Oporto 5s. 6d. per gallon " for ready money only." 

were communicated with, and a detachment This Mr. James Royston assures his 

from one of the infantry regiments was clients that 

despatched to the Alto Douro to seize the " 'hey will be treated with the same regularity as 

he carried on this business at Hoxton near twenty 
jears from whence he is lately removed." 

1 am also indebted to Messrs. OfHey 
for the signature of C(jlonel Francis Negus, 
the inventor of the agreeable concoction 
still known by his name, and a. fac simile is 
herewith given of it. The document to 
which it refers is as follows : — 

" Received October2nd,i7ig, from theRt. Honble. 
Lord William Poulett, one of the Tellers of His 
Majesty's Receipt of ICxchequer, the sum of eight 
hundred pounds in full as per within-mentioned 

murderer, which, however, they were not 
successful in doing, as the villagers, from 
every coign of vantage on the hills, kept 
up a withering fire on the soldiers, who were 
thus forced to retreat. It was when des- 
cending the Cach;uj da Valleira that Baron 
de Forrester lost his life ; the lamentable 
accident was due to the pilot not having 
lashed the rudder, \\hich \\(juld have pre- 
vented it from allowing the b(jat to fall off 
too much either way. When Baron de For- 
rester, with his practised eye, observed this 
omission, he remarked to Senhor 
Torres, who was with him, that 
there would be some mishap, and 
he proved to be correct ; the 
boat got athwart the current and 
capsized, and he who had so 
sedulously studied the Dour(j and 
made a most elaborate and useful 
chart of it was drowned in its 
waters on the 12th May, 1861, 
much to the regret of the nation at 
large. With him, if my memory 
serves me, beyond Senhor Torres 
were the Conde d'Azambuja and 
his wife, who were saved, but 
unfortunately two of the servants 
were also drowned. 

Among many curiosities in the posses- On the reverse of the document the 

sion of Messrs. Offley, I select the accom- following order appears:— 
panying advertisement which appeared in .- order is taken this 19th day of July 1719 By 

^ForSALE Mz-tlieCAN DhFM 

Q« Tkurfday tutit, at S A M'; Caffee-Hou/r, t:txi iht C-af,z:2: 
Hou/s in I homes-Street , aJ Sijc o'CUc* in fV a/u> noc;j, 
(inly on; Cask of H'tnf in a Lot) iiz. 

FORTY-T'wo Pipes of extraordinary good 
oH Palm Wine, clean lack d, of a maO delicau Talte, jed cy- 
rious Flavour, fine and fit for bottling, Wld in Time for Ejtpurtation. 

N. B. The aboee Parcel conlifting of the fioeft Wraes the IfUnd.of 
t'alni .^las produceJ for fevcra] Years Idft paft. in a Vault under a Sad- 
Uv\, tlie Upper End of Mark-Lare, between Fencburch-Strcet and 
Cratch;d-FryaT!. Three Eultj and Eight Hogfheads of excellent old 
MaJags Tent Wine, very rich, and of a fine Flavour, m a Cellar in 
theCov:rt next the Three Tuns Alelioufe, frontuig the Oilly-hole, 
tj.^ loyrer End of Crutched-Fryar^ afbrefaid 

To in (<xn and tided next Tuefday and WedneCday, (fiotn Ei|ht to 
C->; znti from Two to Six) and all Thurfday (as above) to the Time 
ef Sail. Tj Sc fold by 

JOHN WELCH, Bro!;e?. 

a London paper in the year 1752. 

Another advertisement in the same 
year, refers to 

" ' Mountain Wines Dry and Sweet,' to be had 
of James Royston, wine merchant, at the Iron 
Gates in Great St Helen's, between Bishopsgate 
Street and St. Mary Axe, London." 

virtue of his Maty's General Letters of Privy Seal 
bearing date the 29th day of September 1714 and 
in pursuance of a Warrant under his Royal Sign 
Manual dated the nth day of June 1719 That 
you deliver and pay of such his Maty's Treasures 
as remains in Your Charge unto ffrancis Negus, 
Esq. or his Assigns," 

The three-)-ear-old mountain wines were The rest has been cut off but there is 
offered at 5s. 6d. the gallon, and the ten a note to the effect that the signature is 



that of Colonel Negus who introduced the the bulk took place over the district of 

beverage, called after him, in the reign of 
Queen Anne. 

In looking over some old bills of lading 
belonging to Messrs. Offie)', I observe that 
one is for two hundred and ten pipes of 

which the port happened to be the centre. 
Wine had also, if we go back to a remoter 
period, a fixed value and price, and was 
not subject to the fluctuations resulting 
from excessive competition : in fact the 

wine, shipped on the good ship called trade was favoured by the high prices 

the Pegasus, Captain William Ballard, 

and bound for King's Lynn. This is, 
as compared with the present times, a 
marvellously large quantity of port wine 
for so small a place. But in the last 
century there were only a few seaports 
where wine and spirits could be landed, 
and, furthermore, business in bulk was 
not so centralised as now, or rather the 
centres were more, and the distribution of 

farmers were obtaining for their produce, 
and cheapness was not the 
order of the day. It took a 
long time before fox-hunting 
parsons and farmers recognised 
^ -%^ that they could no longer afford 

to drink their favourite port as 

the}' had been accustomed to 

do; but now it is a beverage 

within the acquirement of all, 

by the glass, however, and not 

by the pipe. Times change, 

and we must change with them ; the 

alteration may have been for better or 

for worse, but, as a rank Conservative in 

the port wine trade in particular, I would 

we could recall the days " when parsons 

drank port wine," and smart little 

schooners landed a couple of hundred 

pipes at such small seaports as King's 






HAVE great pleasure in 
being able to place before 
my many readers, the 
history of the Sandeman 
family, which has gi\'en 
to Great Britain brave 
soldiers and sailors and 
distinguished men in 
some of the highest 
offices of our Empire 
City. The first record 
we ha\e is of John Sandeman, a native 
of Alyth, who married Margaret A. Smith 
on the 23rd cf November, 1628. Their son 
was David Sandeman, of Piteraird, near 
Alyth, who had a son also named David, 
born on the 13th April, 1681. He settled 
in Perth and was twice married ; " first 
to Grizzle, daughter of Thomas Eason, 
writer, of Crieff, sometime in Strathmiglo 
and afterwards of Glentarkie." His second 
wife was Margaret Ramsay, daughter of 
David Ramsay, Esq., of Baldine, Fifeshire. 
The family is now in its tenth generation, 
and so far as is known the present repre- 
sentatives are all descended from the 
second marriage of David Sandeman with 
Margaret Ramsay, in the year 1716. 

The following letter gives us a glimpse 
of the circumstances under which the great 
commercial house connected with the family 
was founded. The writer was George 
Sandeman, sixth child and third son of 
George Sandeman and Jane Duncan, who 
was the addressee of the " Commencement 

de Siecle Letters " from his father and 
eldest brother, David George. The letter 
is addressed to " Mr. George Sandeman, 
Watergate, Perth, Xorth Britain." It 
bears the London postmark of 29th 
November, 1790, and it has been folded 
like a business letter, and endorsed by old 
Mr. George Sandeman — " Son, George 
Sandeman, London, 29th November, ] 790." 

" Dear Father, 

" I duly received j'Our favour of the 8th 
inst., wrote under my brother's, who arrived a few 
days after, and I was much pleased to see him look 

so well My brother having wrote lately, I 

should not address you now, but that I cannot 
delay acquainting you that, agreeable to the con- 
tents of your above mentioned fa\our and my 
brother's assurance that I may depend on ;f 300 at 
Christmas, I have taken a wine vault and am 
engaged to put in that sum by that time. . . . The 
reason of my obliging myself to provide my capital 
at Christmas is that the wines must be laid in there, 
if it can't be done sooner, on account of the winter, 
and I need not observe that a man's credit here 
depends upon his punctuality to a day. . . . 
" Your affectionate son, 


" London, Novembir igth, 1790," 

It is supposed that the gentlemen with 
whom Mr. George Sandeman was engaged 
in this venture were a Mr. Gooden, and 
Mr. Albert Porster, son of Mr. John 
Forster, who died in 1811, and Elizabeth 
Gledstanes. Mr. Albert Forster married, 
first. Miss Elizabeth Dobree Carey, from 
whom Colonel John Glas Sandeman's 
mother was descended, and secondly. Miss 
Maria Roope, of Devonshire, connected 



with the Roopes, of Oporto. Mr. Albert 
Forster's son John, and his grandson, 
John Carey Forster, were subsequently 
associated with the firm. Early in the 
present century the firm was Sandeman, 
Gooden & Forster, in London, and the 
address has never changed since Mr. 
George Sandeman founded it ; it has 
always been 20, St. S\i'ithin's Lane, and 
13, Sher- 
borne Lane, 
where, in the 
old house, 
officers re- 
turning from 
the Penin- 
sular W a r, 
with des- 
were f r e - 
c]uently en- 
tertained on 
their way to 
the Foreign 
Office, some- 
times sleep- 
ing there. 1 
believe Lord 
Downe did 
so on one 
M r. George 
S a n d e m a n , 
the f(junder, 
was known in 
the office as 
" Old Cauli- 
flower," on 

account of his white wig. He was the 
last London merchant to wear top-boots 
on 'Change. 

This Mr. Gcoi'gc Sandeman was father 
of Alfred Sandeman, at one time a 
most successful scpiattcr in y\ustralia. 
He was the possessor of the Vale l"]statc, 
one of the finest sheep runs near Sydney. 
His third son, Hdwin, was a very clever 

mechanician and draughtsman, and a 
reduced engraving of his drawing of the 
i-iver front of the Sandeman Lodges at 
Oporto still appears on the bills of lading 
of the firm. The eldest daughter, Mary 
Ann, married Mr. John Ramsay Thomson, 
M'ho, in 1845, was manager of, and partner 
in, the firm of Messrs. Gecjrge Sandeman 
and Co., of Oporto. He died in 1854. 

The late Mr. 
George Glas 
San deman, 
n e p h e w o f 
Mr. George 
was born in 

17 9 3, and 
Forster i n 

18 2 9, b y 
w h o m h e 
had nine 
c h i I d 1- e n . 
The eldest 
son, Mr. Al- 
bert George 
S a n d e m a n , 
his father, 
who died in 
1888, as head 
of the firm 
of .Messrs. 
George G. 
S a n d e m a n , 
Sons ilv- Co. 
At the age of 

sixteen he was inducted into the business, 
and toiu- years afterwards was sent out 
to the C)porto hoLise. In ISCiG, the vear 
made menidrable in London financial 
circles by one of the gr'catest banking 
collapses of modern times, he was elected 
a director of the Bank of England, 
and he became its hundredth G<n'ci-nor. 
Fi^r years he was the chairman of the 



London Dock Company, and was instru- 
mental in carrying into effect the impor- 
tant working agreement with the East and 
West India Docks. .Mr. Albert George 
Sandeman married Donna .Mai'ia C. P. 
de Aloraes Sarmento, daughter of the late 
Viscount da Torre de Aloncorvo, who was 
for many years f-'ortLiguese .Minister at the 
Court of St. James's. He is a Commen- 
dador of the Order of Christ, of Portugal. 
He has also ser\ed the office of High 
Sheriff of Surrey, and is one of Her 
iMajestj-'s Lieutenants and a Commis- 
sioner of Income-Ta,\ for the City of 

The second son is Coli.inel J(jhn Glas 
Sandeman, late Captain Royal Dragoons, 
Lieut. -Colonel commanding Esse.x "S'co- 
nianry Cavalry, Hon. Lieutenant R.,\'.R., 
and Sub-Officer of Her .Majesty's Royal 
Bodyguard of the Honourable Company 
of Gentlemen-at-Ai^ms. He married, in 
1862, Miss Eliza X'ictoii'e Cormick I^\nch, 
by whom he has fi\e clnildre]!. His elder 
son, X'ictor Staunt(jn Sandeman, holds a 
commission in the 17th I^ancers, and his 
younger son, Henry George Glas Sande- 
man, is a lieutenant in the Ro\'al .\'a\"\'. 
Colonel John Glas Sandeman is also a 
partner in the firm of .Messrs. George G. 
Sandeman, Sons & Co. The other 
partners are Lieut. -Colonel George Glas 
Sandeman, late 3rd Battalion Royal 
Highlanders (Black Watch), and Mr. 
Fleetwood Sandeman, third and fifth sons 
respectively of the late Mr. George Glas 
Sandeman ; and .Mr. Walter Albert San- 
deman, son of the senior partner. 

I will, before proceeding any further, 
give a short history of the Glas family. 
From a copy of the " ln\'entor)' of \\'ritts" 
of Pittentian, Strathearn, it appears that 
on the 21st May, 1540, a charter was 
granted and confirmed by James \ ., of 
half the lands of Pittentian to Sir Thomas 
Glas, chaplain of Dunkeld. On the 4th 
iMarch, 1556, Sir Thomas Glas resigned 

these lands in favour of James Glas and 

Elizabeth Stevenson, his wife ; and, on the 
2nd October, 1583, a charter was granted 
to Thomas Glas and his wife of one 
quarter of these lands to James, Lord 
Innerpeffray, who sold the lands to Thomas 
Glas. There was also the Glas family of 
Sauchie, one of whom, .Alexander Glas, 
was made a burgess and Guild brother of 
I^dinburgh on the 26th .March, 1650, and 
the Inland Excise of Pei'thshire was farmed 
to him in 1655. He married Marian, 
daughter of 
James Rae, of 
Coltonhupe, by 
Janet, daughter 
i.>1 Sir John Sin- 
clair-, of Steven- 
son, in 16 6 5. 
The mention, h\ 
S t o d d a r t , of 
.Alexander Glas, 
')f Sauchie, in 
connection with 
the arms of Pit- 
ten t i a n m a k e s 
the connection 
between the two 
families \-ery 
piTjbable. The 
S a n d e m a n s o f 
to-day are des- 
c e n d e d f r o m 
Anne Glas, who 
\\' as ma r r i e d 
to Thomas Sandeman. She was the 
daughter of John Glas, founder of the 

This religious sect was started by the 
Rev. John Glas in 1728, on his being 
expelled by the Synod from the Church of 
Scotland for maintaining certain opinions 
not considered i;rthodox b\- the Kirk. The 
sect is nuw better known as the Sande- 
manian, as it was owing to .Mr. Robert 
Sandeman, wh(j married Catherine Glas, 
that it was established in London. The 

The laic My. J. R. T ho 



great Professor, Michael Faradajs was an 
elder of the church. A Mr. George 
Sandeman, who was born in 1818, married 
Miss Abigail Faraday, niece of Professor 
Faraday. " It is remarkable," says 
Colonel John Glas Sandeman, " that the 
Sandemanian should consider rhyme as 
flippant, and, therefore, not the orthodox 
medium for psalms, hymns, and spiritual 
songs, and it is strange that with his 
knowledge of the Hebrew John Glas does 
not appear to Ifave appreciated the poetic 
nature of many parts of the Bible." The 
gallant Colonel states that b.c attended 
the meeting-house near Barnsbury Station, 
but he found it out of the question to 
undergo the whole of the infliction at one 
sitting, so he divided his attendances into 
three of an hour each on subsequent 
Sundays, but even so he did not succeed 
in seeing the end of the service, nor did he 
\^■itness, or participate, in the Love Feast 
or in the washing of feet. This Love Feast 
is in reality a plentiful repast, provided by 
the richer members, so that the poorest 
Sandemanian can count on a good Sunday 
dinner. Before sitting down to table each 
salutes his, or her, neighbour with a holy 
kiss, but this privilege is only enjoyed by 
members of the church. Whenever a 
brother, or a sister, desires it, his or her 
feet are washed as an act of kindness. 

The following extract from a book 
recently published is worthy of notice. 
The extract is to be found on page 152 of 
" Recollections of Old CoLintry Life," by 
John Kersley Fowler, V.D., Quartermaster 
of the Bucks Volunteers. " When the 
British Army was encamped and protected 
in the masterly lines constructed by the 
Gi-eat Duke at Torres Vedras, in or about 
1809, Mr. Sandeman, the then head of the 
great wine house in Oporto, was a frccpient 
guest at the Duke's dinner table, and the 
conversation once turned upon fine and 
noted vintages. Mr. Sandeman said he 
thought the vintage of 1797 was the finest 

port wine ever known, and that vintage 
was as much talked of then as the 1834, 
'47, or '51 vintages are talked of now. 
General Calvert, as a great favour, re- 
quested him to send two pipes of this 
celebratedwineto England. Mr. Sandeman 
did so, and the General made a present of 
one to the Duke of York, at that time 
Commandei--in-Chief of the Army, and the 
other he had bottled for himself." It will 
be remembered that General Calvert was 
the father of the late Sir Harry Verne)', 
who relinquished the name of Calvert on 
succeeding to the Claj-don propert3^ It 
seems that Sir Harry would not drink this 
wine, as, he maintained, it had become 
decayed; but Mr. Fowler saj^s he minutelj' 
examined It ; It was in curious old-fashioned 
bottles, was of a really beautiful colour, a 
light ruby, not tci-.cny, and he pronounced 
it perfectly' sound. Later on some of it 
was sold to a large London firm at £2 per 

One of the cliaracteristics, among many 
other excellent qualities of this old Perth- 
shire family, is that all that refers to them, 
socially and commercially. Is chronicled in 
a family magazine called "The Clan." In 
these pages I find how much the Sande- 
mans have travelled, what they have seen, 
and, what is still of more Interest to me, I 
am able to trace at a glance all the 
traditions of the family which form part 
of our national history. I also read of the 
life and death of Sir Robert Groves 
Sandeman, K.C.S.I., son of the late 
General R. T. Sandeman, of the Bengal 
Army, who was born at Perth on the 25th 
February, 1833, and who, for a short time, 
was at the office of Messrs. Sandeman In 
St. Swithln's Lane. When his pai'ents 
went back to India he was left In Scotland 
under the guardianship of his father's 
married sisters. He was of very delicate 
health, and this seriously Interfered with 
his studies, and, therefore, great was the 
pride of his parents at finding that, when 



opportunity offered, the boy not (jnly made 
his mark, but acknowledged gratefully his 
obligation to them for their fostering care 
during his early youth. The Times' cor- 
respondent, under date, Calcutta, February 
1st, 1892, said:— "The death of Col. Sir 
Robert Sandeman, which occurred at 
Lusbeyla on Fridaj-, is a serious loss 
to the Government. No frontier officer 
of recent times was better, or more 
deservedl}', known. The pacification of 
Beloochistan, and its conversion from a 
scene of constant civil \\arfare to a 
thriving state and one strong bulwark 
against foreign aggression, were mainly 
due to his policy and personal influence. 
It will be difficult to find a successor 
who will, to the same extent, command 
the respect of the Beloochis and the 
confidence of the Government." 

In another number of this exquisitely 
got-up magazine I find the following extract 
from an ancient book called "The Muses' 
Threno.lie," by Mr. H. Adamson, first 
printed in Edinburgh, at St. James' College, 
by John Anderson, in 1638 : — " Loncarty 
deserves to be remembered on another ac- 
count. A most extensi\'e, useful and flourish- 
ing bleachfield is laid down, where linen 
cloaths (jf all kinds are bleached after the 
Dutch and Irish fashion to great perfec- 
tion. The indefatigable industry and skill 
of William Sandeman and Company has 
got over almost insurmountable difficulties. 
Loncarty was the property of the Omeys, 
and after them the Chapmans, and is now 
annexed to Mr. Graeme's estate of Bal- 
gowan. The mansion-house stood in a 
morass almost inaccessible ; it was called 
the ' myreto\\-n of Loncarty." Since Mr. 
Sandeman farmed it the morass is no 
more ; instead of a quagmire, we see the 
house surrounded with lawns, orchards, 
grass-parks, corn-fields, and bleaching- 
greens; at the skirts, clumps of various 
kinds of useful trees rising in view. In 
place of dreary huts, we behold commo- 

dious and well-built \illages for the com- 
fort and accommodation of the labouring 

It may not be generally known that 
Colonel John Glas Sandeman is the 
inventor of what is now termed the 
" Penny-in-the-slot machine." In the pi^ac- 
tical application of his idea, he had recourse 
to the senices of a .Mr. Everitt, a mecha- 
nician, and at this gentleman's request the 
patent was granted in the names of 
Sandeman -Everitt. 

In Colonel Sandeman's dining-room 
there is a wonderfully good representation, 
made in clay and painteci in the style used 
to this day in Oporto among the producers 
of figures representing I-'ortuguese cos- 
tumes, of the late Mr. George Glas 
Sandeman and his bosom friend Mr. James 
Forrester (uncle of the late Baron de 
Forrester) seated on a sofa. The like- 
nesses are excellent, hut seeing they were 
such fi-iends, the sofa on which they ai'e 
sitting need not have been quite so long, 
as they are represented one at each end 
and a considerable distance between them. 
These two gentlemen were both of Perth- 
shire descent, and, if I mistake not, .'\lr. 
James Forrester was a freeman of the 
Gkjver city. 

The term " wine kjdges," as applied to 
the large wine stoi'es at \'illa Nova, 
requires some explanation. The word 
lodge is a literal translation of loja. which 
means a warehouse on the ground-floor 
and not below the level of the road. It is 
now used indiscriminately, but in firmer 
days loja meant any building constructed 
on the surface without any additions to it 
either above or below. And such are our 
wine lodges. The Lya, or lodge, of a 
Portuguese house was that part 
through which the carriages entered, and 
the word is derived from the Latin 
loireuiu. The British \\-ine merchants were 
of opinion that, such being the signification 
of the word, it would convey to the mind 




of the builder what they required in which 
to lodge their wines far better than the 
word Armazciu, which means any style of 
warehouse, either below or above ground 
and is derived from the Arabic Al-makhzcn, 
a store for arms or goods. This explana- 
tion is necessary, as many are forgetting 
the origin of the term loiiu lodge, and some 
are inclined to think it may have to do 
with masonry. All the Villa Nova wine 
stores are built on a level with the road. 
Messrs. Sandeman's lodges are not man^' 
feet above the level of the river Douro ; 

they are of opinion that it ensures every 
stave being carefully examined by the 
cooper before he starts planing and shaping 
it. The front part of the building, just 
over the arches, is reserved for the Oporto 
staff. On arrival from the Douro, the 
wine, if brought down by boat, is landed 
within fifty yards of the lodge, and, 
therefore, \\ithin sight of the manager, 
who is thus able to supervise from his 
private room the landing and shipping of 
the wine. The house on the left hand of 
the wine-lodges also belongs to the firm. 

,V«sis. Sai;,l,'iliairi r,it,ii.:r „l J'llla Xov.i. 

they are fifteen in number, and the stock 
kept averages all the year round about 
10, 000 pipes. At a low valuation this 
woLild represent considerably o\er a 
quarter of a million sterling without 
taking into account the \i\\ue of the stores, 
which neai-ly all belong to Mr. Albert 
Sandeman. Then, of course, we iiuist 
take into calcLdation the e\tcnsi\e 
cooperage and huge stacks of Baltic oak 
for the making of the casks. Iron and 
wooden hoops, c*\c. .Messrs. Sandeman 
prefer ha\ing their casks made by hand, as 

and is occupied by the administrator. .Mr. 
Joseph Jones. We are apt to think that 
our English brcwei-ies arc \ cr\' large con- 
cerns, and so they arc : but some of the 
Villa NoN-a lodges, both as regards the 
N'alue of the stock and the space thc\- 
occupy, arc not far behind them. 

It will be remembered that Colonel .lohii 
Cdas Sandeman, as Cornet in the Royal 
Dragoons, had the undying honcuu' of 
having taken part in the charge of the 
Hca\y Brigade at Balaclava. His descrip- 
tion of the scene is as follows: — "The 


Heavy Brij>ade was put in motion to 
advance down the \alley that a few 
minutes afterwards proved so fatal to the 
Light Brigade. The first line consisted 
of two regiments, the Greys on the right 
and the Royals fjn their left ; and this line 
had already broken into a trot in the 
direction of the battery facing it, when 
Lord Lucan galloped up on the left rear of 
the Royals, his trumpeter sounding the 
halt. On arriving witliin hearing distance 
he shouted, 'Haiti halt! the Hea\y 
Brigade. Tluj'vi dime tliciv duty. Let 
the Lights go.' Such words would 
hardly have been used by an officer of 
Lord Lucan's temper unless the regiment 
he was immediately addressing Inid done 
its duty. The line received the order to 
advance at a walk, and the Light Dragoons 
trotted forward on its left, soon breaking 
into a gallop ; the Greys and Royals, now 
forming the supporting line, resumed the 
trot, until met by the shattered remains of 
the brigade sacrificed to ignorance, 
dribbling out of the unequal encounter. 
The gallant Cardigan may have been first 
in, indeed, his A.D.C., Fiennes Cornwallis 
who was with him, told me he was, but he 
was also the first out, and addressed his 
brother-in-law \\ ith the words ' Good God, 
my Lord, you have destroyed my brigade ! ' 
" Daybreak of the morning of the 
memorable 25th October, 1854, broke 
dull and lowering over the camps of the 
hostile forces," says Colonel Sandeman. 
" A greenish rift in the Eastern clouds was 
the first light that reached the distant 
peak of the Tchatr Dagh, \isible some 
minutes before its surrounding ranges. 
As usual, the cavalry division had been for 
something over an hour in the saddle, and 
we were welcoming the signs of approach- 
ing daylight, in the expectation of being 
soon dismissed to our lines, some five or 
six hundred yards in our rear. But 
instead of the expected ' dismiss ' to a 
much-deser\ed breakfast, the Heavy 

Brigade received the order, ' Draw swords' 
and the word to ' ad\'ance.' " Colonel 
Sandeman, who was then the youngest 
cornet in the Ca\alry Di\isirjn, had his 
charger slightly wounded. But 1 will gi\e 
you the rest of the desci'iption as he 
narrated it to me : — 

" The Light r-5rigade had been on our 
left real- during the period of which I have 
jList told you, and were still in this relative 
position, occupying a place a little in rear 
of a line drawn between the Eastern 
corner of the Alexandra X'inej-ard and 
Redoubt Xo. 5, and about half-way 
between the two, some three or four 
hundi'ed yards on OLir left. They, pro- 
bablj', were in the same formation as our- 
selves — left in front — as the junior 
regiment, the 17th Lancers, appeared to 
me to form the first line, and was con- 
spicuous by reason of the bright red and 
white pennons on their lances, so much so 
that my attention was particulaiiy 
attracted to them, to the exclusion of the 
other regiments of the brigade. \\'hether 
the Light Brigade was posted on 
sufficiently high ground to see over the 
causeway into the valley on the North 
of the line of redoubts I cannot say, 
but I should think not. Lord Cardigan, 
with his staff, might easily ha\e obseiwed 
the Russian mo\'ements without separa- 
ting himself unduly from his command, 
although the left in front formation would 
ha^■e indicated his position on the right, 
or pivot, hand of his brigade, which would 
have hidden from him the view he other- 
wise might ha\e had of the enemy's 

" It must have been between half-past 
seven and eight o'clock when the division 
occupied these relative positions, and not 
many minutes elapsed when a considerable 
body of the enemy's cavalry debouched 
over the causeway between the third and 
fourth redoubts and advanced rapidly 
Southwards across the plain in the direc- 



tion of Balaclava, and 1 have an indistinct 
recollection of hearing an order that six 
squadrons were to be sent to the assistance 
of the 93rd Highlanders. Anyhow the 
5th Di-agoon Guai'ds, the Greys, and the 
Inniskillings vent off in columns of troops 
in that direction, and as they bore first to 
the right and then to the left, in order to 
avoid the tents and picket ropes of our 
camp, these regiments may have taken 
the opportunity of forming their columns 
from the right, but on this point I can get 
no precise information. 

" These three regiments had not pro- 
ceeded more than, perhaps, one-third of the 
distance that separated us from the High- 
landers, when we observed (and being now 
the leading regiment of the remains of the 
Brigade, and on rising ground, we had an 
uninterrupted bird's-eye view of the whole 
Balaclava plain), the Russian Squadrons 
on approaching the Highlanders came 
under their fire, and, s\verving to their 
left, made as if they contemplated turning 
Sir Colin's right by entering Balaclava 
between him and the position I described 
to you as being occupied by British 
Marines, who now opened fire with the 
guns they had in p(jsition, when the 
Russian Cavalry, wheeling again to the left, 
retreated towards the foot of Canrobert's 
Hill as rapidly as they had ad\anced. 

" We were watching this failure of a bold 
strcjke for obtaining possession of our base 
of supplies, when our attention was drawn 
to what appeared to us a much larger mass 
of cavalry on our left front, which must 
ha\e crossed the causeway some\\hat 
nearer the fourth redoubt than the force 
that hadJList been discomfited. This large 
column pursued a line parallel to the 
previ(His attack, but, if successful, would 
have passed to the left of the Highlanders 
on their way to the head of the harbour, 
and wer-e coming down on the left to the 
columns of the six squadrons sent to Sir 
Colin's assistance, the three regiments 

composing which were somewhat widely 
separated, but which, forming or wheeling 
into line to their right, went for the enemy, 
in «hat appeared to me, in very fine stjde. 

"The Greys and the Inniskillings were 
the first in by less than a minute ; then 
followed the 5th Dragoon Guards, and these 
three thin looking lines were as nothing 
compared to the densely-packed mass of 
the Russian column. Shouts were heard, 
and we saw a flashing of steel, the Greys 
being,of course, very conspicuous by I'cason 
of their difference of dress, as our Dragoons 
cut their way into the enemy's Hussars, 
who were numerous enough to completely 
envelop them. 

"The sight of this was too much for 
flesh and blood. A cry was raised by our 
men : " By God, the old Greys are cut off ! " 
No word, however, came from our com- 
manding officer, when, with one accord, 
the whole regiment, driving their spurs into 
their horses' flanks, swept down to\\ards 
where their comrades \^ere so hotly 

" But, before we had reached the scene 
of action, the enemy were in full retreat on 
a line more westerly than tliat by which 
they had advanced, which brought them 
across our front as we galloped pell-mell, 
and without any kind of order upon them, 
when the ' rally ' was sounded, and we had 
to do our best to check the impetuosity of 
our men. 

" On tLirning to look for a moment at the 
retrcatmg enemy, who oLight to have been 
followed at least as far as the causeway, I 
saw the 17th Lancers bringing their lances 
to the rest, as if preparing for a charge on 
the flank of the disorganised .Muscovite 
cavalry; but the lances were again raised, 
and yet again brought down, as if there 
were some hesitancy as to what to do : in- 
action, hcnvcver, again prevailed, and tbe 
lanccs were broLight up again to 'the carry.' 

" In the end the different regiments 
rallied on the spots where the termination 



of the charge found them, and some time 
elapsed, during whieh the squadrons were 
told off anew, and account taken of casual- 
ties, &c. At that moment we knew nothing 
of the losses sustained by other regiments, 
ours having been confined, I think, to one 
man, a sergeant, who was killed by a rico- 
chetting round shot under Canrobert's Hill. 
As soon as order was restored in the Heavy 
Brigade, we were advanced in line over 
the causeway, between the fourth and 
fifth redoubts, and found ourselves looking 
eastwards down the valley enclosed by the 
Fedioukhine Heights on our left, and 
Mount Hasfort on our right. The plain 
in our immediate front contracted between 
those heights as it approached the marshy 
ground on each side of the Tchernaya 
River, and in the centre of the narrowest 
part was an earthwork protecting two si.x- 
gun batteries of field artillery. The 
aggressive movement was undertaken in 
response to an order from Lord Raglan 
for the ' cavalry to advance and take 
advantage of any opportunity to recover 
the heights.' The order added that the 
movement was to be supported by 

"The open valley in our immediate 
front was free from the brushwood that 
covered the declivities of the Fedioukhine 
hill and the northern slopes of the cause- 
way, which were also open and fit for 
cavalry movements. Redoubt No. 4, on 
our right front, was not occupied by the 
enemy, whose sharpshooters were plenti- 
fully distributed in the scrub on both sides 
of the valley in our front, whilst a field 
battery was posted on a spur of the 

" The Scots Greys were in line some 
thirty or forty yards on our right (not, as 
Kinglake writes, on our left), and a pause 
of a few minutes duration took place. 
The Light Brigade was on our left rear, 
and this must have been the period when 
Lord Lucan received the celebrated order 

to ' advance rapidly to the front and try 
to prevent the enemy carrying away the 
guns.' Xow, it must be remembered that 
after the \ictorious charge of the Heavy 
Brigade, Lord Raglan imagined that he 
saw a disposition on the part of the 
Russians to retire from the positions on 
the causeway which they had wrested 
from the Turks; hut whether this was a 
genuine retrograde mo\'ement or a strata- 
gem to draw the allied forces from their 
almost inaccessible position on the 
Sapoune heights to try conclusions on the 
plains, has not since been made clear, 
although Canrobert held the latter to be 
the enemy's intention, which was probably 

" In that belief the I^nglish commander 
had previously sent the order to Lord Lucan 
' to advance and take advantage of any oppor- 
tunity to recover the heights; the cavalrj- 
will be supported by infantry, which has 
been ordered to advance on two fronts.' 
Now, it is difficult — nay, almost impos- 
sible, to conceive the meaning of this 
order, without a knowledge of the orders 
given to the 1st and 4th divisions, the 
1st commanded by H.R.H. the Duke of 
Cambridge, and the 4th by Sir George 
Cathcart, the latter having arrived late on 
the ground owing to a disinclination to 
march before his men had broken their 

" How the Iiciglits, b)' which word this 
order described the causeway, could be 
recovered by cavalry, supported by in- 
fantry, is more than I can conjecture; the 
redoubts had been taken by the Russian 
infantry from the Turks in the morning, 
and the idea of retaking by cavalry seems 
preposterous ; but although the move- 
ment of the British cavalry from the south 
to the north of the causeway may seem to 
have been undertaken in the attempt to 
comply with this extraordinary order, I do 
not recollect seeing any infantry move- 
ment in our support, but it must be borne 



in mind that now we were in thie North 
Valley, the rising ground along which the 
causeway ran intervened to prevent our 
seeing into the Balaclava Valley. 

" I may tell you that Kinglake mentions 
six redoubts as existing between the two 
valleys. He may be right, but 1 can only 
remember five ; be that as it may, the 
first line of the Heavy Brigade consisted 
of the Royals (my regiment) and the Scots 
Greys, drawn up on the sloping ground 
Northward of No. 4 Redoubt, facing on a 
line slightly diverging from that of the 
Woronzoff Road, when we received the 
order to advance. The brushwood on our 
right front was filled with the enemy's 
skirmishers, and No. 3 Redoubt, sometimes 
called Arabtabia, some 600 yards in the 
same direction, was held by them. A 
Russian field battery was posted on a spur 
of the Fedioukhine heights, half a mile 
distant on our left front, and more guns 
were posted behind it higher up the hill, 
whilst a cloud of skirmishers flanked these 
batteries, which were supported by six 
squadrons of Lancers, besides many 

"After moving forward about a couple 
of hundred yards, the trot was sounded, 
and most of us felt that if we continued to 
advance it was quite likely that but few of 
us would come out alive, and we began to 
experience a desultory fire from the sharp- 
shooters, when, as I told you before. Lord 
Lucan, galloping up on our left rear, called 
out, 'Halt, the Heavy Brigade! Tlicy 
have done their duty ; let the Lights go.' 

" We, thereupon, halted; Billy Hartopp, 
who was riding squadron serrcfilc next to 
me, observed, ' That's a let-off,' a remark 
that 1, being very short-sighted, did not 
appreciate, and, hearing trumpets sounding 
on our left, we looked in that direction 
and saw the Light Brigade trotting steadily 
down the valley, the flags of the 17th 
Lancers being particularly conspicuous, 
although they were the regiment farthest 

from us. As soon as they had got in 
advance of us they increased their pace to 
a gallop, and we, bringing up our right 
shoulders, broke into a trot, following them 
in a well-dressed line at a good pace. It 
should be remembered that this movement 
dmuH the valley was supposed to be in 
execution of the order to recover the 
heights, emphasised by the subsequent 
order to prevent the enemy carrying away 
the guns, which were on those heiglits, and 
not in the valley at all. 

"We now came under a very heavy fire 
from the skirmishers on our right front 
and on our left in the brushwood of the 
Fedioukhine heights, whilst the fire of the 
batteries, both there and in our front, that 
missed or tore through the ranks of the 
Light Brigade, plumped into us, and, as 
many men were falling and the first 
remnants of the Light Brigade already 
returning, we were rather injudiciously 
halted to cover their retreat. 

" At this moment we saw the Fourth 
Chasseurs d'Afrique execute a very brilliant 
charge in loose order over the hither slope 
of the Fedioukhine heights, which had the 
effect of driving away the batteries that 
were pounding our left flank, whilst the 
dare-devil charge of the Light Brigade and 
our steadj' advance parallel to the Arab- 
tabia Redoubt, had the effect of making 
the enemy evacuate that fort after blowing 
up the magazine, which created a ten-ific 
explosion close to our right as we halted. 

"The \\hole ground round us seemed 
literally torn up with missiles, and one 
wondered how it was that so few men were 
hit; just before we halted, a smart young 
ti-umpeter, named Aslett, if my recollection 
seiwes me, came up to the troop-sergeant- 
major, alongside of whom 1 was riding, 
and said ' What shall 1 do now, sergeant- 
major ? ' His right arm had been torn off 
by a round shot at the shoLildcr and was 
hanging down supported by the sleeve of 
his coatee. It was during the next few 



minutes that Yorke, Elmsall, Campbell, 
and Hartopp were wounded, and Robertson 
had his horse killed under him, whilst 
Charteris, of the Divisional General's staff, 
was killed and Lord William Paulet 
wounded. Lord Lucan thought that this 
was a needless sacrifice of life, although 
there is no knowing what might have been 
the result had the Heavy Brigade been 
launched down upon the already dis- 
organised enemy. Anyho\\', this was not 
done, and the word ' threes about ' was 
gi\'en by the Di\isional General himself. 

" Horses, as well as men, get excited 
under such circumstances as we were 
passing through, and I had some trouble 
to restrain the spirits of the impetuous 
little Arab horse I was riding, and as we 
were just going abf)Ut I had got — to put it 
in a slangy way — ' his nose in to my right 
boot,' in other words, his head was bent 
round to the right as far as it would go. I 
had just seen Robertson's horse bowled 
over \\hen down went my Arab on his 
knees, and nearly rolled over on me. My 
first idea was to extricate myself from the 
saddle, and I kicked my feet out of the 
stirrLips, when, to my astonishment and 
delight the little horse sprang on to his legs 
and, putting his head nearly between his 
forelegs, gave a shake, as a dog does when 
coming out of the water. 

" I had not quitted the saddle and, 
knowing he must have been shot, I looked 
all round him to see where it was ; the last 
place my eyes lighted upon was his neck, 
and there on the near side, halfway 
between his cheek and his shoulder, I saw 
a swelling as large as half an apple 
dumpling, but no sign of any blood. A 
closer inspection showed a patch of skin, 
the size of half-a-crown, taken clean off, 
quite red, but the f!esh not broken. At 
first I felt for the bullet, which I imagined 
must have penetrated, but I afterwards 
came to the conclusion that it must have 
been caused b)- a round shot which, fortu- 

nately, only grazed the skin. I had no 
time to think then, as I have thought 
since, that a deviation of a few inches 
might have made a considerable difference 
to the narrator of these lines. 

" It was at this time that Lord Cardigan 
galloped back from where he had certainly 
led to the attack, and, coming up to Lord 
Lucan, said in loud and excited voice : 
' Bv God, my Lord, voii liavc destroyed 
my Brigade ! ' I did not hear whether 
Lord Lucan made any reply. 

" The retrogi"ade movement was carried 
out at a walk, and, by the time we arrived 
at the position from which we had started, 
we were relieved from the fire from ^^hich 
we had been suffering, and, having dis- 
mounted, we had time to give the horses 
a feed and break our own fast with what- 
ever we had brought with us, or what our 
servants br(jught out from the camp, which 
was not more than three-quarters of a mile 
distant. The fare, however, that was 
brought from the camp was \'ery meagre, 
as our servants had told us that the officers 
of the Guards, who, on the march down 
from the front, had halted close by oui- 
camp, had devoured everything they could 
lay their hands on. We remained in this 
manner on the crest of the Western 
extremity of the Northern slope of the 
causeway until sundown, up to which 
time the Russians made no further 
movement, and, after dark, collecting what 
brushwood we cf)uld find, «e made large 
fires in front of our horses and retired to 
our camp, where, of course, we found 
nothing to eat, what little we had in the 
morning and for our daily ration having 
been consumed, as above mentioned, by 
our good friends in the Guards. 

"Next morning we observed the Russian 
vedettes on all the redoubts from Can- 
r(M-)ert's Hill to the Arabtabia, and the 
position of our camp being deemed too 
exposed, we were moved within the lines 
to a position on the Eastern slope of a 



spur of the Col, on the summit of which 
a large square redoubt had been thrown 
up, which was now occupied by Turkish 
troops. This fort was on our right rear, 
the village of Karani being in the adjacent 
Southern valley, and from our camp we 
had a magnificent view of the whole extent 
of the Balaclava Valley. 

" The accompanying photograph \\as 
taken in iMaj-, 1895, and represents a 
general view of the Southern Balaclava 
Valley from near the Woronzoff-road, 
about seven hundred yards south-west of 

crowned by the ruins of the Genoese 
Castle, on the left of which are the heights 
occupied by the Marines, at the foot of 
which is the knoll where the 93rd High- 
landers were posted. On the right centre 
is the stony hill, occupied afrerwards by a 
French Division, beyond which rises the 
upland, while behind the picturesque 
monaster)' of St. George stands snugly 
embedded in the centre of a little pre- 
cipitous rocky bay, charmingh' wooded 
and looking down on the deep blue waters 
of the Black Sea. Just over the French 

BaUidiiva Wilky. 

the Arabtabia redoubt. The dog-cart in 
the centre of the picture is dri\cn by 
Captain Murray, the British X'icc-Consul 
at Scbastopol, and stands on the spot 
where the successful charge of the Hea\)' 
Cavalry Brigade took place. The photo- 
graph is taken from the gr-ound upon 
which the flank charge of the Royal 
Dragoons and one scp-iadron of the 4th 
Dragoon Guards was made. On the left 
are seen the almost inaccessible hills 
which divide the Balaclava and Baidar 
Valleys. In the centre is the harbour, 

position is seen the \allcy where the 
British Ca\alry Di\ ision wintered in 1854 
and 1855. On the extreme right rise the 
spLU's of the Sapounc Heights, leading to 
the plateau upon which the allied armies 
were encamped; and Captain Mui-ray's 
dog-cai-t points in the direction of the 
railway, subsequently constructed, up 
the valley, past Lord Raglan's head- 
quartei-s, to the British camp." 

Tm-: l)is\'ii,s of Amaranth. 
it is genei-ally known among Oporto 
wine shippers that Mr. Albert George 


Sandeman bought two celebrated images ning into clnque-eento nork. Tiie entrance 

at Amarante. Why Mr. Sandeman bought on the south side is considered splendid ; 

them 1 know not, but it is a historical thealtai'is raised on ele\-en steps, andco\ers 

fact that some years ago this gentleman, tiie spot where the Saint had taken Lip 

for the sum of sixty shillings, did purchase his abode. As one of the finest examples 

two black, ugly-lo(jking, wooden statues, of sculpture in Poi-tugal, the effigy of the 

called devils, which, from their inception. Saint on a high tomb to the .Xoith of this 

had been the property of the Dominican crypt is deser\ing of a \ isit. The cloisters 

convent and church, dedicated to S. Gon- are very fine; the continuation of them is 

calo, at Amarante, and had them remo\ed now appropriated to the rearing of pigs, 

by rail and by sea to the premises at It was in the sacristy of this noble pile 

St. Swithin's Lane, London, for manj' that the Gentleman and Lady De\ils, as 

years in the occupation (if his firm, the)- were re\erently termed b)- the people. 

Were I one of these devils the change of found an asylum. For the instruction of 

habitation would decidedly please me, but the people these de\ils were periodically 

be it said to the honour of the good people produced in the sti'eets, and all the pai'ents 

of Amarante, they were so loth to part «ere under a deep debt of gi-atitude to 

with their Satanic Majesties that, to com- tliem for tlie good they wrought, through 

fort them, a kjcal scribe assured them that terror, on their offspring, who, like those 

tliey need cry no more as there were some of pai'ents in other countries, liad too 

fleshly demons left in the dirty old town. much of the man Adam in them. 

Amarante is of itself a place of n(j mean I do not pretend to any knowledge of 

repute among the Portuguese, for it is demonolog)-, not having had the privilege, 

recorded that it was reduced to a heap of so far as 1 know, of seeing Satan oi- his 

ruins either by the Goths or by the Moors, wife ; but bai-ring sculptural accidents and 

but that in the middle of the 13th century perhaps a too imaginative mind, the Ama- 

S. Goncido, regardless of home comforts, rante Devils are not such a bad-looking 

took up his abode here and succeeded in couple after all. She is clad in a sort of 

collecting a population aroLind him. He fin dc sieclu robe, or perhaps more so, 

was of such a fascinating turn of mind placing at the disprjsal of the admiring e\'e 

that he persuaded the inhabitants to a liosom such as any of the goddesses 

build a bridge over the Tamega, which was might have envied. But she is short of 

only destroyed in the time of the modern stature, and, therefore, not what is nowa- 

vandal, Laborde. days styled elegant. Her countenance is 

During the construction of the bridge more \-oluptuous than devilish, but of 

the builders complained bitterly of want complexion she is innocent. Her feet — 

of food, so S. Goncalo ordered large well, of course, she couldn't be supposed 

shoals of fish to enter the river from the to ha^e any — consist of four claws or 

sea, and, taking what was necessary for talons on each leg, and the claws are 

his labourers, he dismissed the rest to their grasping a globe oi- ball. If she is not 

native element. Although Saint Goncalo exactly a dark beauty, there is no doubt 

had been venerated in Portugal from time she would attract a crowd in Pall Mall or 

immemorial, the decree for his beatifica- at a crush. She is decidedly of Nubian 

tion in Rome was only procured in 1561. descent so far as we may judge by her 

D. Joao in. erected the sumptuous Domi- wool and her nose; but her horns denote 

nican convent and church in 1540. It is a no nationality in particular. Had it not 

very curious example of Flamboyant run- been told me, on the best authority, that 




she is a she-devil I might hiive thout;ht 
that 1 had come across some of this genus 
before. But she is not unique in her 
cievihsh cast of features, not entirely ugly, 
few pretensions to beauty, according to 
the fancy of the man of to-day. It makes 
one really -wonder «'hy the Devil was such 
a fool as not t(j get a better-looking wife 
once he was about it and had so \'aried a 
choice. But there 

is no accounting , 

for tastes, as we 
all know. 

The Gentleman 
Devil also deserves 
special notice. 
He is not \\anting 
in expression, and 
he is more deco- 
rous. His spouse 
has her tongue 
hanging out of her 
mouth, but his lips 
are closed. This 
may possibly be 
an artistic way of 
representing the 
loquacity of the 
one sex and the 
serious thought 
of the other. He 
is not (■;; grdinic 
Iciiiic, for he is 
garmented more 
after the fashion 
of the ancient 
(jael. He has but 
a short petticoat, 
and he can boast of no pumps and 
no silks, and no crush hat and no piiwc- 
iicz, but for all that he is none the less 
a devil, and was for many years the 
bug-bear of the single men and women; 
but, strange to say, much sought after by 
those wives who could not complete the 
measure of theii- husbands' happiness 
by filling their t|uivcrs. I must sav, on 


The Gciillaiuu: Ihril. 

behalf of the modern Sarahs, that the 
Amarante he-devil is not so faultlessly 
handsome as to arouse the green-ej'ed 
monster. In fact this peculiarity did not 
escape the critical eye of Mr. Albert 
Sandeman, bLit, then, dc giistibns iwii 
disputcndiiiit, and, according to local tradi- 
ti(jn those ladies who sought the devil's 
assistance were ne\'er disappointed. 

It seems that 
when the \irtuous, 
and good, King 
D o m P e d r o V. 
\isited the church 
he was so dis- 
gusted at the pre- 
sence of dexils, 
even \\ithin the 
sacristy, that he 
had them turned 
out, and the order 
of ejectment was(a 
most unusual thing 
in Portugal) imme- 
diately executed. 
H e m i g h t h a \- e 
remembered that 
fas est li ill) liostt' 
doccri. I am not 
in a position to 
a s c e r t a i n w i t h 
any amount of 
accuracy where 
this ungainly crew 
found lodgings, oi- 
ap.u-tmcnts, fi-om 
the time of their 
social ostracism 
to the day when Air. Sandeman rescLied 
them from an ignoble seclusion. But this 
1 do know, tluit the fail- sex ne\cr forgot 
their (-;/ dciiiicr ens, and. allegoricall\- 
speaking, there was the de\ d to pay w hen 
the dusky and dwarf-sized image of Pluto 
was remox cd fi-oi-n then-i. 

'I he press of all nations is always sup- 
posed to take up the cause of the defence- 

M^ajflfcaiai^^^ ._ 


1 63 

less injured, and so the Flor do Titiiui^d. 
published in Amarante, took Lip the cause 
of the De\il and his wife, and in a series of 
articles named " The Devils of Amarante, 
historical notes," tried to bring .Mr. Sande- 
man to task for depri\in« the good 
inhabitants of their " old hnes." As usual 
with all Portuguese journalists the pre- 

Ferreira was a stout man, strong in the 
arm and in the stomach, given to trite 

sayings and practical jokes, all of which 
procured him many friends at his house 
\shich became the rendezvous of all the lazy 
gentr)- of the town, and of some m(;nks of 
the Con\-ent of Samt Goncalo, whobetween 
matins and \-espcrs, whenever they had 

amble is long and has nothing to do \\ith leisuix-, sought relief, fi-om recitin<< the 

the case, but in 
d u e time the 
writer says: "The 
genealogy of our 
de\'ils, ex-l(jdger-s 
in the sacristy of 
the D o m i n i c a n 
Con\ent of Sair.t 
Goncalo, is traced 
to a \- e n e r a b I e 
chestnut tree of 
Alto Pidre, and to 
the hand)' w(ji-k- 
of the sculptor 
Antonio Fen-eira 
de Carvalho, and 
they are now in 
the possession of 
.Mr. Albert Sande- 
man, of the City of 
Oporto. This has 
produced serious 
annoyances, objec- 
tions, and sacri- 
fices, and has given 
rise to some absurd 
episodes. During 
the end of the 
latter century and 

The Lair Devil. 

Psalms, in the 
merry con\"ersa- 
tion of Ferreira. 
At one of these 
conversations the 
I-" r 1 o r s a i d h e 
wanted something 
to ser\e as a sup- 
port for the cross 
and another foi- 
the iiiiibclln in the 
sacristy. ' As for 
that, ' exclaimed 
one of the monks, 
' Ferreira is capa- 
ble of making the 
de\il 1 and it is he 
who can furnish 
the con^•ent with 
other devils similar 
to those burnt by 
the French.' The 
sculptor t o <j k 
charge of the 
order and, with 
two assistants, 
started for .41to de 
Pidre, where they 
selected a chest- 

the commencement of the present, in nut tree of the necessary dimensions and. 

the street of Sei.xedo of this town, in the cut it down. Of the wood he made two 

house to-day inhabited by Mrs. Agueda devils, and in all probability he endea- 

Ferreira, close to the fountain of the voured to copy two which had previously 

Bairro do Rego, there was a sculptor's been in the sacristy, and which the French 

studio under the management of Master burnt. The artificer, therefore, made the 

Ferreira, a good artificer, of whom there two figures of natural size — seated — black 

still exist some works which show his — each one with a hole in his head to ser\e 

skill in the art of the sculptor. This for the above-mentioned supports, horns to 


hang anything on and with the arms curved, the aforesaid guardian of the devils, and 
having a smaU ball between tlieir fingers, the entii-e population, took part, 
and claws instead of feet, securing a globe. "At last the embargo was withdrawn 
He (the de\ il) is represented with his chest and Jose da Pinha was ordered to produce 
bare, but \^ith a sort of short skirt round them in Court. They — the devils— had 
his loins, but so skimpy that it does not disappeared, and there was no doubt that 
answer its purpose ; while she, v^ith ovei-- Jose da Pinha had connived at the elope- 
sized breasts (copied from a neighbouring ment. He excused himself that having 
female's), with a necklet of oak apples, is so been bailee or trustee for two devils, these 
dccoUctcc as not to lea\-e any doubts as to being of the nature of spirits, were beyond 
her sex. But doubts did exist. When the his control, but that he was willing to repay 
womenfolk looked at her their curiosity Mr. Sandeman the three pounds sterling, 
was aroused and, much to their astonish- or, in ciefault, go to prisiMi. But the fact 
ment, they found that, although seated, was that Jose da Pinha had an accomplice 
she had not. as Barham politely puts it, dc in this transaction, one Jose Goncalves de 
ijitoi. " She is not like us," they exclaimed. Miranda, who assisted him in conveying 
Ferreira heard this from a monk, and, with Satan and his lady by dead of night and 
the addition of some more timber, the defect hid them in a disused o^'en in the convent 
was put right. of Saint Clare. The administrator at that 
"The two devils having been sold to i\li-. time was the Viscount da Tardinhade, a 
Sandeman for three so\-ereigns, they were most noble and just man whom all 
placed in a box to be sent to the purchaser. respected. He summoned Pinha, the 
The news of this sale pr(Aluced a very bad defaulting bailee, to appear and con\inced 
impression, and was much resented by the him of the importance of forthwith pro- 
majority of the parishioners of Saint ducing the devils in Court without a writ of 
Goncalo, who, led by the patriot Jose Pinto habeas iorpiis. This, to use a\ ulgar exprcs- 
da Pinha, took immediate steps to prevent sion, fetched Jose da Pinha.^^■ho went to the 
then- being sent awaj'. Jose da Pinha was con\entual o^■en and restored the devils to 
already much belo\-ed in that time (and their civic rights. They were immediately 
now he is nnich more so). He is an started on their journey to C)porto. The 
exemplary father of a family. These purchaser, Mr. Sandeman, accompanied 
excellent qualities, however, were not suffi- them, and Jose da Pinha lent him the pro- 
cient to allow him to be admitted to the tection of his presence to the railway 
I'lrotherhood of Misericordia. The people station at Cahide. As this groLip was 
of the town flocked to this patriot, who got leaving the town Mi-. Sandcmai-| assured 
Lip a petition signed by the people and pi-e- Pinha that if he bad not produced the 
sented it to a judge in chambers, who ' lady and gentleman ' he wduld ha\-e 
ordered an ep-ibargo to be placed on the obtained the assistance of an arn-ied force, 
devils. Jose da Pinha was gi\en the cus- On hearing this, Pinha ordered the coach- 
tody of them. Then Mr. Sandeman began n-ian to tui-n back, and told Mr. Sandeman 
to complain and laid his case before the to go and get his soldiers. Hut a niutual 
Civil Go\'eriior of Oporto, urging that the friend who was also present stopped the 
devils were his property by purchase. This thrcatcnetl row-, and the dcxils started by 
led to a Ic^ng correspondence between the train." 

said Civil Go\-ernor and the Adniinisti-ator This is the \ersion of the '■Flor tfo 

of Amarante, in w hich later on the petty Taiiu-i^a," but I believe Mr. Albert Sande- 

mayor, guardians of the poor, as well as man was not present at the removal of 


" Old Nick and his Wife " from Amarante, G. Sandeman could iKjt ha\e been made 

but that the business was mana.^ed by the durinj^ the lattei" end of last century to 

Portuguese confidential clerl; of tlie Op(jrt() I'eplace two (jther de\ils which wei'e only 

house, Senhor Bernardo Abes d'Ahneida iiurned, so the hist(jrian says, liy the 

Guimarjles, a well known and hij^hly Fi'ench in 1809. I am of (jpinion that the 

respected frequenter of the Rua N'o\a dos said writer, with the kuidable purpose of 

Inglezes. I believe that a detachment cjf pacif\-in^ his fellow citizens, tried to make 

Ciiaulorcs (sharpshooters) was sent from out that they were not so ancient as was 

S. Joab da Pescjueira t(j .\marante to generalh' imaj^ined, and that, in fact, being 

preserve the peace. For the ediHcation /-t/Z/cr;,^, they coLild only be looked upon as 

of my readers a c(jp\' of a photugraph spurious de\'lls. I grant that the French 

of the gentleman and lad)- is hei'ewith weix- icon(jclasfs, but any image of Satan 

gi\'cn. The images are about ,3 feet in ^\-ould, in all probability, have commanded 

height, and are decidedly not withnut their veneration. Fi'om the position in 

merit. wliich these images are seated it seems to 

Referring once more to the famous ,Ama- me that they were not intended to ser\-e as 

rante De\ils, I will remind ni)- readers that pedestals tor the suppoi't of the cross and 

the explanation as to their origin gixen in wubiihi. othei'wise the neck and head 

the Tloi- ilii Taiin\rra js contradictoi'S'. The would ha\e been bent, in order to convey 

writer states that these images were sculp- ti; the mind the idea of bearing a load, 

tured towards the end of the last, or com- Furthermore, the work is not after the 

mencement of the pi'esent, centurv, copied Portuguese school of sculpture, and the 

from two similar images «'hich had been conception is evidently not European. In 

destroyed by the French under Loison. many respects they remind one of the 

Once the historian vras so certain as to the images bnjught from India by the early 

name of the sculptor and the place where Poi-tuguese na\igators, and, although their 

the tree grew of which the images wera heads are represented as co\'ered by the 

made, he might have ascertained the date African's wool instead of long hair, I think 

of the French invasion of Amarante. they are the work of Bi-ahmins. It is highly 

This took place in 1809, ^^■hen the French, improbable that a Lord .-Vbbot would sanc- 

as usual, were guilty of the most horrible tion, and far less ordei", a sculptor making 

bai'barities. At that time there were two two devils for the support of the Cross 

de\-ils in the sacristy of the Church of St. and the iniibcllii. As works of art they are 

Goncalo, and these with the image of the decidedly not without merit, for they are 

Saint were no doubt roughly handled b)- almost as wicked-k^jking as could be 

the French. But it is very evident that imagined, and, therefore, answer the 

the de\-ils in the possession (jf Mr. .Albert purpose for which they were made. 





.MARTINEZ was iirst 
connected \\lth the 
port \\\v\e trade as far 
back as 1797, when he 
was shipping under his 
( ) w n n a me. S e h 1 1 r 
iMai'tinez, as the spellint; of the name 
denotes, was a Spaniard from the 
Northern Pro\'inces, and, until quite 
recently, was one of the few gentlemen of 
his coiinti-y who had e\er established 
himself on the banks of the Portuguese 
Douro. A few j-ears later he \\as joined 
by Senhor Lopes, a Portuguese gentleman, 
and the firm became Messrs. Mai'tinez, 
Lopes & Ccj. 

In one of my chapters I had occasion to 
mention tliat in 1804 Sehor Martinez 
joined the firm of Messrs. Christopher 
Smith & Co. in London, the st\le becom- 
ing Messrs. Christopher Smith, Son, 
Martinez & Blake, and continued a 
partner Lmtil 1810. From an old docu- 
ment 1 have before me I read that Mi-. 
Christopher Smith says that when he had 
attained manhood, which would be about 
1760, he drank wine at ta\erns at 8d. per 
quart, served up in curious pe\\ter 
nieasin-es. When a pipe of good poi-t on 
draught had become flat, "a hogshead was 
filled, and in time put on draught, and 
lastly, was put in a luilf-liogslicad ; and 

those casks \\-ere seldom clean, and there- 
fore It was often very bad in inns and 

About the year 1834 Mr. William 
^'armouth Jones went to Opoi to and was 
admitted a partner, the firm becommg 
.Messrs. Martinez, Jones, Gassiot & Co. 
The late -Mr. John Fleurriet Delaforce 
accompanied Mi". Yarmouth Jt)nes, and 
took up his residence in Oporto, in after 
years becoming the managing i-epresenta- 
ti\e of the firm of Messrs. .Martinez, 
Gassiot & Co. Mr. Delaforce was a 
descendant of the Huguenots, \\ho, in 
the I'cign of good Queen Bess, sought 
asylum in England from the oppression 
of Charles IX., son of Catherine of JMedici, 
of France. He was born in Toolev 
Street, which, in that time, was the 
locality most faxoured by these French 
refugees who, in com'se of years, not only 
identified themseUes with the English, 
but rendered great ser\"lces to the coLmtr\- 
of then- adoption b\' the pei'fecting of the 
lace industry. 

To the late Mr. Delaforce 1 may be 
allowed to de\()te a paragraph as I knew 
him from my earliest infancv. During a 
residence of oxer fifty years in Oporto be 
endeared himself to all his countrymen 
aiul to the Portuguese with whom he 
came in contact, by his strict integritx'. 
By his death the British comnumitx- in 
Oporto lost t)ne of their principal mem- 



hers, and although he was not a man to 
seek the glare of notoriety, his importance 
in the social scale was none the less, 
owing to the many excellent qualities he 
hrtjught to hear in the exercise of his 
important position as manager of so large 
and influential a firm. 

On Mr. Delaforce's death his colleague, 
Mr. Henry N. Rumsey, who has seen fifty 
years' service 
in the firm, 
succeeded him 
as manager. 
He is a gentle- 
man of great 
learning, and 
one of the very 
few English- 
men resident 
in Oporto who 
can speak Por- 
tuguese C01-- 
rectly. I admit 
that Portu- 
guese is a 
vary difficult 
language, but, 
as spoken b)' 
some of our 
c o u n t ]• y m e n 
who were born 
in Oporto, it 
is beyond the 
c o m p r e h e n - 
s i o n of the 
most astute 
p h i 1 o 1 o g e r . 
W h y this 

should be I know not; for it is a t(jngue 
worth knowing, with a grand literature 
and recording a history unsurpassed by 
that of any (;ther nation. Manj' years 
ago Mr. Rumsey started compiling a 
Portuguese dictionary, and I belie\e it 
was in a very advanced stage when he 
left off working at it. This is much to 
be regretted, as a reliable Portuguese 

Tlw lah Di. E. Rums 

and English dictionary would be a great 
boon to many. 

Mr. Rumsey is a s<jn of the late Dr. 
Rumsey, who for many years was the 
English physician at Oporto, a well known 
and highly esteemed luibitiu of the Rua 
Xova. One of Dr. Ramsey's daughters 
was married to Mr. Edwin Johnstone, late 
H.Ij..M. Consul at Oporto. I herewith 

gi\'e a portrait 
of the Doctor 
by the late 
Baron de For- 

It \\' a s in 
1826 that Se- 
hor D. Sebas- 
tian Gonzalez 
.M a r t i n e z 
j(jined Mr. C. 
Jones and 
Mr. John Pe- 
ter G a s s i o t , 
father of the 
present part- 
ners, but in 
18 3 9, the 
h o u s e \\- a s 
closed and 
reopened in 
1841 by Mr. 
John Peter 
Gassiot, jun., 
and Mr. W'il- 
I i a m A r m - 
strong iMar- 
tinez, grand- 
son of Sefior 
D. Sebastian Gonzalez Mai'tinez. Mr. 
John Gassi(;t, seni(;r, was a gentleman 
well known and highly esteemed, not onK' 
in Mark Lane but also in scientific circles. 
He was \'ice-President of the Royal 
Society, and in 1853 was asked b)- the 
late Mr. Benjamin d'Oliveii-a, M.P., to 
take part as one of the judges in studying 
the essays on Portugal submitted for the 



prize of fifty Guineas offered hy him. It 
will be remembered that this was in 
connection with the olijects of the great 
Exhibition of 1851, and the first prize was 
awarded to Mr. Joseph James Forrester, 
who was afterwards created Banjn de 
Forrester, in Portu.tjal. Mr. Gassiot died 
in 1877. His son, Mr. John Peter Gassiot, 
J. P., to whom 1 have ah-eady refei'red, 
was very well 
k n o w n a n d 
highly es- 
teemed in 
Oporto. He 
b e c a m e a 
part n e r i n 
1842, and re- 
tired from the 
business in 
1874, and died 
at his r e s i - 
d e n c e , t h e 
" C LI I V e I- s ," 
Carshahon, in 
S n r !• e y , o n 
the 26th July, 

His brother, 
Mr. Charles 
Gassiot, the 
present head 
of the firm, 
1") e c a m e a 
partner in 
1850, and has 
twice visited 
Oporto. The 
W i n e a n d 

Spirit Trades' Bene\i)lent Society has 
most eonspicLiously benefited b)- tlie 
generosity of this gentleman, who set a 
noble example h\ presenting the numili- 
cent sLim of £5, ()()() towards its fLmds, 
thereby enabling the eonniilttee to inerea^e 
tlieir list of pensions. Mr. Chai'les Gassiot 
is also a Past-Master of the X'intners' 
Company. His iirother, Conniiander 

vas admitted 

The I. lie l\i:h 

Sebastian Gassiot, R.N. 
partner in 1872. 

In the annals of our Douro life no man 
was better known than the late Padre 
Serodio, the Commissary at Regoa, of the 
opulent house under revie^\ . He was racy 
of the soil, and of him many amusing 
tales are told. Of the Catholic priest he 
had \ery little m common, but for size 

and strength 
he reminded 
one of Friar 
Tuck, of Cop- 
m a n h u r s t , 
who, accord- 
ing to Scott, 
had the hon- 
our of ex- 
blows with the 
Richard. On 
one occasion 
Serodio was 
hastily SLim- 
moned to the 
house of a 
who thoLight 
burL;lars had 
b r o ken in. 
The occupier 
of the house 
and the ser- 
\- ants \\' c r e 
afraid to make 
r.i. <;. Sinu/Ki a search, but 

Padre Serodio 
\\ent into the dinin^-rocmi, and, seeing a 
suLitt'-box on the table, noticed that a 
tiail of rappee led to a cupboard which he 
opened and discoxered the thief trembling 
w 1th fear, as he knew what to expect from 
the d<iLiL;lUy priest. Padre Serodio lived at 
Fermentoes, and at his hospitable board 
all lilngllshmen had a heaity welcome. On 
one occasion a friend of mine, who had 



been the priest's guest for a few days and 
was about to take his lea\e, ordered his 
servant to go to Regoa for his horse. 
" Your horse is in my stable, sir," answered 
Serodio, and, leading him into the cnva- 
nuu'i^a,he presented him with a magnificent 
animal, "worth a king's ransom." 

Other gentlemen who have been con- 
nected with the Oporto office of Messrs. 
Martinez, Gassiot & Co. are the late Mr. 
John Clementson, who, after a consider- 
able residence in the oici town, returned to 
the London office ; Mr. Hitchman, who 
succeeded Mr. Clementson and then joined 
the English Bank (jf South America ; the 
present Mr. Arthur Nugent, who at one 
time was ^\'itl^ .Messrs. Hooper Brothers, 
and, ni}' very old friend, Mr. George Searle, 
who, if I mistake n(jt, was born at 

It is many years ago since the schcjoner 
" Betsy," belonging to Messrs. Martinez, 
Gassiot & Co., used to ply between the 
smaller ports of Britain and Oporto. She 
was what )'0u would call a snug little boat, 
honestly built and splendidly found in 
those comforts which man, especially the 
mariner, so much loveth ; and these dapper 
little schooners used to put into snug little 
ports to discharge a few casks of the ruby 
port. Those were days when Dartmouth 
and Exeter and Weymouth knew not the 
noisy paddle steamers ; when the English 
farmer was able to buy good wine and 
would have it. Then came the " Maria 
Manuela," somewhere about 99 tons 
register, or less, and she sailed all the better 
when her hold was stowed full of the 
merry liquor of the Dounj, for she carried 
nothing but wine. If she staggered, 'twas 
under a heavy press of canvas, but her 
wine ballast soon brought her again to her 
bearings. These butterflies of the ocean 

have completely disappeared so far as our 
port wine trade is concerned, and the hat- 
money as well. I recollect the " Flora," 
the " Alarm," and the " Queen of the 
Taff," among many other schooners fre- 
quenting Oporto. The captain of the last 
named knew his Bible better than his 
ropes. On one occasion he was seen on 
the Rua Xova with the Book of Books 
under his arm, and he very appositely 
informed some of the \\ine shippers that 
he was trying to hire labourers for his 
.Master's vineyard. This man came to an 
untimely end : he ne\er reaped what 
would be called a good \-intage, but, as an 
ostentatious ganger in the Providential 
Ouinta, he was, as you may expect, an 
adept at picking the fruit before it 
was ripe. Some of these skippers would 
have benefited themsehes and others by 
being blended with colleagues who were 
not quite such extremists in the bi-oad or 
narrow way. The cabins of these tiny 
schooners were so many cosy homes. 
E\-erything was mahogany-faced, e\'en to 
the master. The bread-locker w as a reve- 
lation of creature comforts in the shape 
of bread, baccy and brandy. This was 
especially the case \\ith the model brigs 
of Newman, Hunt & Co., the " Terrier," 
" Beagle," " Harrier," and other sea-dogs. 
Now that ships carry the wind in their 
holds, as the Portuguese describe steamers, 
the bread-locker of a schooner contains 
but the hard biscuit, and, with the dis- 
appearance of the hat-money, the other 
luxuries have no longer a place among the 
chattels of our rougher toilers of the sea. 
I think the " Flora," belonging to Messrs. 
Croft & Co., and the " Maria Manuela," of 
Messrs. Martinez, Gassiot & Co., were the 
last sailing traders between Oporto and the 
West Country. 





.CCORDING to the records 
before me, this firm 
was established in 
Oporto about 1813, 
under tlie style of 
Messrs. Cockburn, 
Wauchope & Co. The 
' ~~ Cockburns and the 

Waucliopes were old Scottish families, 
and the latter were established in the wine 
trade at Leith lon^ before any <jf them went 
to Oporto. One of the partners of the 
Hrm, Mr. Alexander Cocliburn, married 
Aliss Caroline Pa.Lie at Oporto. Accoi'ding 
to the shipping lists the firm was altered 
to Messrs. Cockburn, Greij* & Co. in 1828. 
Air. Greig was a captain in the Mercliant 
Ser\ice, and was the brother of Sir Hector 
Greig. Mr. Greig was intimately connected 
with the Factory House, and on many 
occasions was the chief librarian of that 
institution. In 1836, Captain Hugh DLinlop, 
R.N., joinei-l the firm, -which then became 
Messi's. CockbLirn, Gi'eig c^- Dunlop, htit he 
retired fi'om business pursuits in 1847, 
when the Hrm again became Messrs. Cock- 
burn, Greig cV' Co. In the following year 
Mr. ,lohn Smithes was admitted into 
partnership, the style becoming Messrs. 
Cockburn, Smithes iS; Co., as at present. 
During his long r'csidcnce in ( )porto, Mr. 
Smithes was one of the most popular men 
in the place. I belie\'C 1 am correct in 

saying that he came from Lancashire. His 
brother, Mr. Henrj- Smithes, was long and 
honourabi}' known as one of the resident 
partners in London. The Ouinta do Campo 
Bello, on the road to Candal, one of the 
most beautiful properties in the southern 
suburbs of Oporto, will always be associated 
with his name. There is a small chapel 
annexed to the house \\here the 
British residents in days long gone by 
used to meet for worship. Mr. Smithes was 
one of the keenest sportsmen we had, and in 
Portugal you have to fag for your birds. 
Preserxes are unknown, and the red-legged 
partridge, the woodcock, snipe, wild duck, 
and plover require finding. In later 
years Mr. Smithes lived at Fonte da 
.Moura on the road to Foz and Lcca. He 
married Miss Cobb, sister of his partner, 
the late Mr. Charles Da\ ison Cobb, and 
of Mr. Frederick T. Cobb, manager in 
Oporto for many years of the firm of 
Messrs. Sandeman and Co. Some thirty 
years ago Mr. William Roope Teage, of 
Oporto, was associated with him, and the 
resident partner at the present day in 
t)porto is .Mr. John Land Teage, jlui., 
nephew of Mr. N\'illiam Teage, who has 
already retii'cd from the firm, and son of 
Mr. John Land Teage, late senior partner in 
the Oporto house of Messrs. HluU, Roope, 
Teage and Co., who died 1 1th .August, 1898, 
at l-^ettery Court, Kingswear, Devon. 


The foll()\\in,i; is, as far as 1 am able to 1892. Mr. Henr) Smithes retired in 1872 

discover, a list of the names of the partners and died in 1878. In 1881 the remainini* 

since the foundation of this important partners were All'. John Smithes, ^^ho re- 

flrm : — .Mr. Robert Cockburn and Mr. tired in 1887; .Mr. Charles Dax'ison Col-ib, 

Wauchope, of I^eitli, started the firm, as I who died in September, 1895 ; .Mr. William 

said before, Linder the style of Cocftburn, Koope Tea^e, who retired in June, 1893 ; 

Wauchope & Co. iMr. Archibald Cockburn Mr. Henry John Hadrill, \\ho had been 

and Mr. Alexander Cockburn, sons of Mr. for many years connected with the Hrm 

Robert Cockburn, were also partners, and retired in June, 1893; .Mr. I^ichard 

Then came Mr. Grei.^, brother of Sir Frederick Teaije, who became partner in 

Hector Greig ; then Mr. Henry Smithes 1880 and died in 1893; and the present 

and .Mr. Hugh Diinlop. In 1847 the three ,Mr. Moncrieff Cockburn, who was admitted 

partners were Mr-. Archibald Cockburn, his partner the pre\ious year. The present 

brother, Mr. Alexander Cockburn, and Mr. partners are the said Mr. .Moncrieff 

Henry Smithes, trading as Cockburn, Cockburn, .Mr. John I.and Teage, Jun., 

Smithes & Co. In the following year Mi-. who was admitted in 1890 and Mr. Edward 

John Sniithes joined the firm in Gporto. Winstanley Cobb, nephew of Mr. John 

In 1851 Mr. John Black was admitted into Smithes and (jf the late .Mr. Charles 

partnership in the London house ; he Da\ison Cobb. .Mr. Hdward W. Cobb, 

retired in 1867 and died in 1868, when who became partner in jLily, 1893, was 

Mr. Charles Davison Cobb and .Mr. William born in Oporto. The firm has two 

Roope Teage, who had been connected residences in the Douro, one close 

with the firni since 1863, became to the confluence <jf the Tua with the 

partners. Mr. Archibald Cockburn retired DoLiro, and the other, a smaller one, at 

f'roni the business in 1880 and died in I^<jbozim. 





UITE i-ecently I had 
occasion to refer to the 
arri\al of an HntjUsh 
gentleman at \'ianna do 
Castello, in Portugal, 
lon.n i-iefore raiiw ays and 
steamers were known, 
and I now present to 
my readers a Portu- 
guese gentleman — Senhor Bruno Evaristo 
Ferrerira da Silva (grandfather of the late 
Mr. Kdward Silva, senior partner in the 
firm of Messrs. SiK'a & Cosens who died 
in London on the 23rd May, 1899) 
arriving in London in the year 1798 forthc 
purpose of seeing what htisiness he might 
be able to open Lip with his native town 
of Oporto. In tjiose days there was a 
small Portuguese colony in almost e\ery 
principal town in England, some of the 
members of which were political refugees, 
while others, like Mr. Bruno SiKa, came 
on commercial pursuits intent. J-Seing 
well connected in his native country, he 
was, by the assistance of his friends at 
home, enabled to obtain consignments of 
wine from Oporto, as well as of other pro- 
duce, and later on he did a very extensive 
export business from England. 

In the early part of this century, when 
we were nearly always at war with France, 
Mr. BrLino Sil\a considered it adxisablc 
for the safety of his property, and that of 
his friends who had btisiness relations 

with him, to apply for letters af iiuinjiic 
and equip a pri\-ateer carrying nine guns, 
and in this ship cargoes of wine were con- 
signed to him, the basis being thus laid of 
a business destined to become one of the 
most important in the port wine trade. It 
does not require any very great stretch of 
the imagination to credit this nine-gun 
privateer with having had to show her teeth 
on \'ari()us occasions to the warships of la 
il'riiiuh- iiiitioii, and it is just as probable 
that at other times she has owed her 
safety to showing a clean pair of heels. 
In those anxious days pri\ateers, in leaving 
Oporto, stood out to the westward, and 
then struck a straight course for the 
Land's End, in order to a\oid being cap- 
tured by larger craft, and w ith a \ iew to 
falling in with some of the enemy's mer- 
chant ships without con\oy. 

It is creditable to our country-women to 
record that Mr. Bruno Silva, like some more 
of his countrymen, married an English 
lad\-, and took up his residence m England 
for good; and by many years of residence 
act]uired all the rights and pii\ilcges of an 
F'nglishman, although to the last he was 
not able to tlK)roughly master the langLiage 
of his adopted country. Among the Por- 
tuguese residents in London he was very 
highly respected, and for many vears he 
and his son, Mr. John J. SiUa (father of 
Mr. Edward Siha) were well known in the 
financial and commercial circles of London. 



Mr. Bruno Silva died in 1850 at an 
advanced aj^e, and his son Air. John J. 
Silva in 1867. Mr. Bruno Silva had three 
children, Mr. J. J. SiU'a aho\e mentioned, 
Mr. Bruno SiU'a, who settled in America, 
and a daughter who married Mr. Georj^e 
Bramwell, a yfjung harrister, who after- 
wards became Lord Bramwell of Hevei'. 
To Mr. John J. Silva was due the forma- 
tion of the 
present firm of 
Messrs. Silva 
and Cosens, 
w h i c h w a s 
started in 
1862, he being 
only a sleep- 
ing p a r t n e 1% 
and his son, 
the late Mr. 
Edward Silva, 
and Mr. Fred- 
erick William 
Cosens (who 
died in De- 
cember, 1889) 
being the ac- 
tive members. 
I have much 
pleasure in 
being able to 
give a portrait 
of Mr. John 
J. Silva, copied 
from the only 
one in the pos- 
session of his 

Beyond the partners I have already men- 
tioned are Mr. George A. Warre, only son 
of the late Mr. George Warre, of the firm 
of Messrs. Warre Brothers, who died in 
1851. The present Mr. Warre joined the 
firm of Messrs. Silva & Cosens in 1868. 
One of his sisters was married to the late 
General Sir William Kidstone Elles, K.C.B., 
eldest son of the late Mr. Malcolm Jameson 

The Idle Mr. John j . Silva. 

Elles, who, until recently was the oldest 
British merchant in Opoi'to and partner in 
the firm of .Messrs. W. & J. Graham & Co. 
.Mr. James Ramsay Dow became partner 
in 1877, when the firm of .Messrs. Dow 
and Co., of which he was the principal in 
England, was merged in that of Messrs. 
Sil\-a cv Cosens. The firm of Messrs. Dow 
and Co. was first known in the early pai't 

of last cen- 
tin-y under the 
style of Sam- 
uel Weaver. 
This gentle- 
man had been 
a wine mei"- 
chant in Eng- 
land before 
he went to 
Oporto. Later 
on the firm 
was Messrs. 
\' i a n n a & 
Wea\-er, then 
Messrs. Wea- 
ver & Dow. 
M r. J a m e s 
r3ow , father of 
Mr. J. Ramsay 
Dow, mari'ied 
Mr. Samuel 
W e a %■ e r ' s 
niece, and this 
lady arri\ed 
in O p o r t (J 
shortly after 
the siege, and 
1 i \' e d there 
about sixty years. Old Mr. Sanniel 
Weaver died in 1836. Mr. Philip John 
Cosens, was admitted into partnership on 
the death of his father in 1889, and Mr. 
Roderick Dow, son <A Mr. J. Ramsay 
Dow, became partner on the 1st July, 

The Warres are one of the most ancient 
and distinguished English families in 



Oporto, and, as 1 have already said, they 
are connected by marriage with the Pages 
and the Nobles. Mr. George Warre is the 
proprietor of the famousOuinta do Zimbro. 
He also owns the Ouinta da Senhora da 
Ribeira, opposite the celebrated Ouinta do 
Vesavio. His cousin. Canon Warre, of 
Salisbury Cathedral, is the owner of the 
well-known Terreirinho property in \'illa 
Nova de Gaya, 
on which stand 
the lodges of a 
few well-known 
shippers. The 
Warres were 
among the first 
English ]• e s i - 
dents to acquire 
land in Portu- 
gal. Dr. Warre, 
head master of 
Eton, is another 
of Mr. Warre's 
cousins, being 
b r o t h e r o f 
Canon Warre. 
Mr. Silvaleftno 
son to follow 
him in his busi- 
ness, b LI t his 
only daughter 
was married in 
1897 to Mr. 
C(jningsby Dis- 
raeli, M.P., who 
inherited the 
historical estate 
of Hughenden 

from his uncle, the late Earl of Beacons- 

All who take any interest in the musical 
world know that Mr. James Ramsay Dow 
is (_)ne of its most brilliant ornaments. At 
a very early age he took to Icarnini; the 
flute at his home in Oporto. His lather- 
told him at the start, " ^'ou are now pla\- 
ing the flLitc lor your ow n anuisement, but 

i-emember that I will only allow you to con- 
tinue doing so if you promise to persevere 
t(j learn the instrument until you can plaj^ 
it for mine." Having overcome the diffi- 
culty of fingering, &c.,hewas placed under 
the care of Ribas, the flautist, wh(.i at one 
time was first flLite at H.M. Opera House. 
Applying himself assiduously to music, he 
soon developed a latent talent, much to the 

p 1 e a s LI r e a n d 
admiration of 
his family, and, 
in later years, 
of an apprecia- 
tive public. We 
are naturally 
\ery proud of 
him in Oporto, 
becaLise to 
make a mark 
in the musical 
world of Lon- 
don is a position 
to which few 
a m a t e LI r s o r 

James Ram- 
say Dow is not 
only a brilliant 
e X e c LI t i o n i s t ; 
h e is a t h o- 
rough master 
of music, and 
heart and soliI 
dexoted to it. 
W h e n t h e 
Ro_\al .XmatCLir 
Orchestral Society started in 1872, he was 
selected as the first flLite, and as he had 
some experience in orchestral playing, 
ha\ing performed for three or foLir nights 
in the same capacity at the Italian Opera 
House, beyond acting as dcput\ for pro- 
lessional flute players on manv occasions, 
he soon electcLl on to the Committee 
of the Orchestral Society, and had the 

;i( Silv.T. 



honour of making the acquaintance of 
H.R.H. the Duke of Edinhurgh, now the 
Reigning Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, 
the President, at whose request he under- 
tfiok the post of honorary secretai-j' in 1875 
or 1876, and from wlnom some few years 
ago he received the HouselKjld Order of 
the Saxe-Coburg, tfigether with Her 
Majesty's commission to wear the same. 
In 1883 he was invited by Inis Royal 
Highness to take a trip on board H.Al.S. 
" Minotaur," flagship of the Channel 
Squadron then under 
his command, and 
spent three weeks on 
board visiting Vigo 
and Gibraltar. His 
Royal Highness had 
contemplated visiting 
Oporto on that occa- 
sion, and preparations 
were being made to 
receive him at Messrs. 
Silva & Cosens' house, 
but an accident to one 
of H.M. ships at Tarifa 
compelled him to leave 
Vigo suddenly to assist 
her, and the visit had 
to be postponed. His 
Royal Highness has, 
however, honoured on 
more than one occasion 
the late Mr. Edward 
Silva with a visit at 

his Hampshire seat, Testcombe. Roderick 
Dow has not followed the musical lines of 
his father, but has devoted most of his 
spare time to the Volunteer movement, 
and already holds a commission in the 
London Scottish Rifle Volunteers. 

All the Dow boys recei\-ed their 
education at Mr. Whiteley's, though not 
all at the same time. During my first 
year of school hfe, among my school 
fellows were W'eaver O. Dow, James 
Ramsay Dow, and Stuart L. Dow, sons of 

My. George A. Warr 

Mr. James Dow, who died in 1856. On 
one occasion, when Queen Donna Maria 
II. arri\ed in Oporto, accf)mpanied by her 
husband, Df)m Fernando of Saxe-Coburg, 
their two eklest sons, Dom Pedro, Duke 
of Alcantara, and Dom Luiz, Duke of 
Oporto, both of whom e\entualiy came to 
the throne, they visited our school during 
play hour. We were having an orange 
fight between Tories and Whigs, the 
foi-mer entrenched on the terrace skirting 
the wiHid, the latter concealed in the 
filbert walk, the space 
between the rival 
hosts being a cabbage 
field. The object of 
the Whigs was to 
dislodge the Tories 
from the heights, 
which could only be 
effected by making a 
dash up a flight of 
stone steps. At the 
most critical moment 
the young princes 
arrived, and, like boys, 
took an eager interest 
in the battle. Dom 
Pedro was of a retiring 
and pensive disposi- 
tion, but Dom Luiz 
was being trained for 
the sea, and lived an 
active life. Therefore, 
when he grasped the 
situation, he asked his father to allow him 
to join the attacking force, which per- 
mission was readily granted. Placing 
himself at the head of the Whigs, he bid 
them follow him, and in a most dashing 
style, armed with oranges, he led us to 
\ictory, completely routing the enemy. 
But he looked around him for some more 
fun, and, seeing a somewhat corpulent 
English mei-chant standing close to Mr. 
Whiteley, he, with the practised eye of a 
marksman, directed a hard green orange 



with so much effect at what I ma)' he 
allowed to term the Eni^lish merchant's 
" huU's-eye," that his victim was seen to 
withdraw his hands from his trouser 
pockets and apply them to the injured 
place. Geori>e Reid, of the firm of Van- 
zeiiers & Co., led the Tories, and, I helieve, 
Ramsay Dow the Whigs. 

One of the most important steps in the 
march of progress in the port wine trade 
is the railway placing the Douro in easy 
communication with the Villa Nova lodges. 
It is admitted that the steam horse has 
not added to the beautiful, though \\ild, 
scenery of Traz-os-Montes ; in fact, it has 
to a very considerable e.xtent diminished 
the nLimber of the picturesc|ue flotilla of 
wine boats so familiar to all who know 
that region. Custom dies hai'd, and in 
this case it has not yet completely yielded 
either to the argLiment of econ(.)m3-, or tiie 
advantage of speed and punctuality in de- 
li\ery. But we live in an age, as the late Mr. 
Silvavery appropriatelyput it, whenoldeus- 
toms, traditions and prejudices must gi'adu- 
ally, but surely, yield to modern require- 
ments produced by the keen competition 
observable in all branches of commerce. 
The consumer demands a first-rate article 
at a minimum (jf cost, and in these times 
of railways and fast steamei's pimctuality 
in delivery is not to be lost sight of. From 
an artistic point of view the constructors 
of the Douro railway are deserving of 
praise ; its tortuoLis path by the side 
of craggy hills, sometimes ovei- granite 
viaducts at huge elevations, while at 
others it disappears in tunnels bored 
through rock, does not produce the ugly 
effect which some of our English lines 
do, but the natural waterway is being 
abandoned, and the ri\cr pilots are fewer 
in number. The bulging white sails of 
the r'lwr boats with their long i-sf^m/i-UdS, 
which lend enchantment to the Douro, 
seem tlciomed to ilisappear. ()ur Pdi-- 
tuguese highlanders, whu but a few )'cai-s 

ago could not boast of so extensive a ward- 
robe as the gillie, is doffing his suit, com- 
prised of linen drawers and shii-t, and is 
donning the less picturescjue but more 
convejitional garment of the fin dc sicclc. 
When we consider that some of the wine 
stores at Villa Nova contain from 5,000 
to 10,000 pipes of wine, and that Messrs. 
Silva & Cosens consider it a quite 
abnormal state of affairs when their stock 
is reduced to 8,000 pipes, we can under- 
stand that preference is given to the rail- 
way, because at certain times the Douro 
is either too shallow to alkjw of naviga- 
tion from the wine country, while at 
(jthers the flcjods render it imperati\e to 
haul the boats on land out of reach of 
the impetuous current. 

The Quinta do Zimbro, to \\hieh I have 
alread)' referred, is so-called from the 
Junipei" tree growing close to the house. 
It is a \ery large specimen of its kind, 
and is so plastered up that it is wonder- 
ful how it has preserx'cd its N'itality. 
The production of this Ouinta has of late 
years been very limited, but .Mr. Warre 
has had it all replanted, so that in all pro- 
bability its former yield will again be 
noticeable. The railway runs at the hack 
of the house, through a part of the pro- 
perty. This Ouinta and that of Nossa 
Senhora da Rabeira are both in the Alto 
Corgo district. 

The \\ine vats which, in my boyhood's 
days, 1 considered enormous if the\' con- 
tained 60 pipes, have now simk into in- 
significance. They used to be of the 
shape of a pipe and were called toiieis, and 
were filled by the lodge hands, who cari'ied 
Cdiicciis, holding a few gallons on their 
heads, walked up a ladder and then poured 
in the wine at the luing. Now. the \ats 
arc more like what we use in iingland, 
and are termed iiihiis. Messi's. Silva c*v: 
Ciisens have a considerable number of 
them, ranging in capacity from 50 to 300 
pipes each. They are filled by pLimping 



the wine from the pipes through long hose, 
and thus the blends are effected on a 
smaller or larger scale according to re- 
quirements. The pumping of the wine 
into the vats represents a great saving in 
labour, and consequently in expense. 

In connection with the wine trade in 
Oporto I must not omit to mention that, 
whereas in former days all the casks were 

Oporto since I was a boy, always excepting 
the quality of the wine, \\-hich still main- 
tains, and \'ery easily so, its supremacy in 
the British markets. I recollect the first 
tug arriving in the Douro ; she was called 
the " ]roy. do Douro," then came the 
" Alendes Leal," and years afterwards the 
" V'eloz," which was bought in London and 
was known on the Thames as the " Scotia." 



Ouiiita da A'oisii Sciihoia cUi Rabaui. 

made by hand, the larger part of them are 
now constructed by machinery. Messrs. 
Silva & Cosens have one of the largest 
steam cooperages in Villa Nova, where 
they are able to turn out 25,000 casks a year. 
All the machinery was made in England 
and is placed in a large stone building 
close to their wine stores. 

But nearly everything is changed in 

Xow we have a number of tugs because 
many of the steamers load in the artificial 
port at Mathosinhos, and the lighters with 
the cargo require towing over the bar. 
Then again, up the steep and frightfully 
paved hill of the Freiras, leading up to 
Messrs. Silva & Cosens' wine stores, an 
elevator worked by steam power, places 
the upper part of Villa Nova, called 




the Devezas, in easy communication with 
the river side. If the Government is im- 
poverished, the people have not ceased 
welcoming progress In whichever form 
they may think most suitable. 

Owing to the kindness of the late 
iMr. Edward Silva, 1 have been placed in 
in possession of \'arious old, and most 
interesting, documents referi-ing to British 
trade with Portugal, and as I go on 
obtaining data, so 1 like to give publicity 
to them in the chapters devoted to the 
firms whence I obtain 
them, so that m y 
readers may award 
merit to whom it is 
due. The deciphering 
of these documents 
is no easy matter ; in 
some cases the ink has 
faded so much that 
the writing is barely 
readable, while the 
orthography is so vile 
that if I were to give 
way to conjecture or 
jump at conclusions 
I might easily fall into 

The documents to 
which I refer are the 
following : — " Ciirfti dc 
PriviUgio c fond ilos 
Iiigleses " (Charter of 
Privilege and deniza- 
tion of the English) dated 12th March, 
1700. " Capifulacociis das puses com 
Portugal c Iiigliitcn-a " (Treaty of Peace 
between l^jrtugal and England), dated 
1654. " Dccrclto sohrc iiao scrcni cxaiitudos 
OS Iiiglczcs sail iiiuikIo do Sen Coiiscrvador" 
(Decree as to not taking legal proceedings 
against the English without an order from 
their Conservator), dated K-lth September, 
]6(S5. " 5c/,s (irt/gos Pnliiiiiiinirs" (Six 
preliminary articles), dated 9th December, 
1 632. ". ( rtigo Sccnio oil re o Snilior Protector 

My. J tiiiiL':, R^uns.iy Dcu' 

dc Inglaterra, Scocia c Hibcrnia, de linina 
parte com o Serenissimo Rey de Portugal c 
dos j-llgan'cs etc., da outra com o condc 
camarcvro mor e o cinhaixador e.vtra- 
ordinario, Londres." (Secret Article 
between the Lord Protector of England, 
Scotland and Hibernia of the one part and 
the most Serene King of Portugal and of 
the Algarves of the other part, wdth the 
Count Chief Chamberlain and the Ambas- 
sador Extraordinary, London, dated May, 
1654.) These are official copies of docu- 
ments, as they are all 
signed by the parties 
mentioned in them. 
They are written on 
Dutch paper, num- 
bered onlj' on one side, 
and bound together in 
scjuare octavo form, 
vellum cover, on the 
outside of \\- h i c h 
appears the ^^• o r d 
FACTORY, while in- 
side is written the 
name Roberto Jacson. 
It will be remem- 
bered that Robert 
Jackson was British 
Consul in Oporto in 
1720. As, properly 
speaking, there is no 
K in the Portuguese 
alphabet, all foreigners 
living in Portugal 
whose names in some shape or other 
included the letter K had to omit the 
same. The manuscript book did, there- 
fore, in all probability belong to the 
said Consul, who naturally would like 
to possess authenticated copies of all 
treaties concerning the rights and privileges 
of the people imder his protection. If 
proof of this were needed the first docu- 
ment above referred to shows that 
Christopher Battersby, '■ Consul of the 
English nation at Vianna " in 1700, 



applied to the Portu,£<uese authorities to from the said conservator, under a penalty 
furnish him with an authoritative record of 20 cruzados . . . and other privileges, 
of the privileges enjrjyed by Englishmen in some doubtful and others of modern times, 
Portugal from the earliest times. This and as the petitioner desires to have a 
document is, therefore, of great value, as rec(;rd of these privileges under my royal 
It establishes the fact that Vianna was, manual, 1 hereby sanction the same." 
from an English point of view, of so much The Hrst charter of privileges included 

commercial importance that a Consul was in the said record was granted by Dom 
appointed, independent of the one at Fernando I., "The Handsome;" it is 
Oporto, for, otherwise, the request or dated " era de 1405," which corresponds 
petition would not have been made by to a.d. 1367. In it reference is made to 
him direct to Dom Pedro, the King, but the desire of the king to pleasure English 
through the Consul at 
Oporto, whose name 
was John Lee. In 
those days the King 
of Portugal appointed 
M a n o e I Lopes d e 
Oliveira jnis: coiiser- 
vador i!os inglezcs, 
judge conservator for 
the preservation of the 
immunities of the Eng- 
lish, and through him 
Consul Battersby's 
petition was attended 
to. This was in the 
reign of Dom Pedro II., 
surnamed " The Paci- 
fic," and the preamble 
of the royal decree 
states that "Inasmuch 
as Christopher Bat- 
tersby, English Consul 
at Vianna, sets forth in 

Mr. Philip J. Coseiis. 

traders, " nati\es of 
the kingdom of Inga- 
laterra fsicj and of 
the Principality of 
Wales," in the matter 
of buying and selling, 
i m porting c e r t a i n 
goods manufactured in 
England, &c. I will 
here state that D(m:i 
Fernando ^\as the last 
of the House of Bur- 
g LI n d y . The next 
charter v^as granted 
by Dom Joa/j I., of the 
House of A viz ; he 
married Philippa of 
Lancaster, of whom 
was issue Prince Dom 
Henric]ue, the navi- 
gator. The date of 
this charter, which con- 
firms all the previous 

a petition a claim to certain rights and privileges granted to Englishmen residing 

privileges which the kings of Portugal had in Portugal, is 10th August, but no year 

conceded to the English residing in mentioned. This King granted to the 

Portugal, among other privileges enume- English traders all the rights and pri\ileges 

rated that of carrj'ing offensive and enjoyed by the Genoese. The next charter 

defensive weapons throughout the king- is granted by Dom Affonso\'.,"theAfrican," 

dom and its dominions, by day as well as 
by night, before the ringing of the bell as 
well as after the sounding of it, before the 
lighting of fire and after the extinguishing 
of it . . . and that no officer of the law 
should enter their houses without an ordei' 

who, among his other titles, is described as 
Lord of Ceuta. That all these rights and 
privileges claimed by Consul Battersby 
wei^e confirmed by Dom Pedro II. to 
English subjects residing in Portugal is 
made clcai' by the documents before me. 


Dom Pedro II. stj'les himself, " by the and of other towns in Germany, desired 
graee of God King of Portugal and of to obtain leave to reside and do business 
the Algarves, on this side and that side in Portugal." Then the royal decree goes 
of the sea; in Africa Lord of Guinea and on to state that "in view of the honour 
of the Conquest, navigation, commerce of and humanity appertaining to these gentle- 
Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and of India, men, as also for their being Imperial 
&c." In the reign of Dom Affonso V. the citizens of my august Maximilian, Emperor 
decree of privileges states that the English of the Romans, our well-beloved nephe^\■, 
are to enjoy equal rights with the Flemings, ^\■e grant the petitioners their request for 
the Germans, the French, and the Bretons. pri\'ileges which not e\en to our subjects 
Then it goes on to recite that " inasmuch have yet been conceded." 
as Miguel Armam, a German shoemaker. The following is very interesting, and 
living in this our city of Lisbon, belongeth refers more to the English residing in 
to one of these nationalities so privileged Pt)rtugal than to other foreigners : — " The 
by us, and hath petitioned us to exempt merchants of the English republic, their 
him from the payment of certain taxes, clerks, sei'vants, families, factors, the 
the bearing of arms in defence of the masters of vessels and sailors, may do 
country, &c., we desire that he shall not btisiness in any part of our dominions." 
ser\'e, nor come to ser\'e, neither by land This pri\'ilege is granted even to those 
nor by sea, on om- behalf, and that he who did not profess the Roman Catholic 
shall not be obliged to maintain a horse, religion, and the English Protestants \\ere 
nor keep arms nor beasts (mules) for our allowed to acquire a plot of land in which 
service. Furthermore it is our pleasuie to inter their dead in accordance with the 
that he shall not he molested in his house, rites of their Church. 

nor any other of the people enjoying the Before proceeding to gi\e further 

same privileges; their cellars and their extracts IVom the " Ti'caty of Peace " 

stables shall be exempt from all search, entered into by the Lord Protector, 

and no levy shall be made on their \\ine, Oliver Cromwell and Dom Jt)a'o IV., I 

bread, clothes, &c., against their will. W'e must remind my readers that the King of 

furthermore grant to him (and to others Portugal was looked upon as a temporary 

so privileged) the right to ride through our monarch, and that even by the Pope he 

dominions cjn niLile back on a saddle, and was so regarded, for His Holiness reftised 

with bit and reins, &c., and we command to conseci-ate the Portuguese Bishops lest 

our chamberlain and that of the Queen, he should offend Spain. In 1580 the 

our wife, whom we esteem and lo\c above Cardinal King Dom Henrique "the 

all, and the chamberlains of the Princes Chaste " died, and the succession was 

and Counts, &e., tcj respect this our disputed by Philip II. of Spain; Antonio, 

mandate." Prior of Crato ;, Duke of Bragan<;a ; 

The petiti(;n of this German shoemaker Emanuel Philibert. Duke of Savov ; the 

seems to ha\e served as a basis for con- Prince of Parma; Elizabeth of England; 

firming all privileges granted to foreigners, and the Pope. The claimants, howe\er, 

The Germans were not slow to rcqLiire all rcsoKed themscKcs into Philip t)f Spain 

the rights and privileges granted to others, and the Prior of Crato. The Duke of 

for again I read that " Anthony, of ISelzar, Alva invaded Portugal and Philip was 

and Conrad Filim(?)in then- (iwn names proclaimed King. Dtn-ing the reign of 

antl on behalf of the company of noble this king commenced the decline of the 

merchants of the Imperial City Augusta Portuguese empuv. In 1598 Philip II. 



(third of Spain], " tiie Idle," succeeded to 
the throne ; the Dutch ruined the Portu- 
guese empire in Asia, and conquered 
nearly the whole of Brazil. In 1621, 
Philip III. (fourth of Spain), "the 
Desditoso," became king ; in 1640 the 
conspiracy, headed by the Duke of 
Bragan^a, for the emancipation of 
Portugal, broke out, and on the 1st 
December of the same year the Spanish 
Government left Lisbon for good, and 
Dom Joab IV., Duke of Braganca, was 
proclaimed king. For a long time, how- 
ever, he was so uncertain as to the 
security of his crown that at last, in 1647, 
he offered to resign in fav(jur of a French 
prince. Mazarin, writing to the Duke of 
Longueville on 4th October, 1647, says: — 
" The King of Portugal, after ha\ ing 
maturely considered the state of affairs, 
is disposed to resign his crown and retire 
to the Acores, and to offer his kingdom to 
anyone whom the Queen of France shall 
select, believing himself strong enoLigh to 
have such a person recognised as king 
and obeyed by all the people of Portugal. 
He only desires that the person selected 
should be a prince who may expect po-wer- 
ful help from France, and that he shall 
have the means to make such an alliance 
with his eldest son, as may eventually 
secure the succession of the kingdom to 
the latter. He proposes M. the Duke of 
Orleans and Madamoiselle, or M. the 
Prince, or you and your daughter." 
Strangely enough, after nearly 250 years, 
a daughter of the princely house of 
Orleans is the Queen Consort of Portugal 
and, her husband the king, Dom Carlos, 
is the son of Donna Maria Pia, of Sa\-oy, 
descendant of Emanuel Philibert, who 
disputed the succession in 1580. 

The war between France and Spain 
strengthened the position of Dom Joalj 
IV., as his neighbours had quite enough on 
their hands without entering into a fresh 
war with Portugal ; but Oliver Cromwell 

does not seem to have placed much faith 
in the tenure of the crown by Dom Joafj. 
In fact, ignoring the principles of inter- 
national law, he caused Dom Pantaleab de 
Sa, a youth under twenty years of age, 
brother of the Portuguese Ambassador, to 
be e.xecuted on a charge of murder and 
rioting. The extracts which I am about to 
make show that the treaty was dictated by 
Oliver Cromwell, and I will observe that it 
was drafted by. John Milton and written in 
Latin ; it savours of that despotism liorn 
(jf an unprincipled democrat whose 
ambition, notwithstanding his protestations 
to the contrary, tended towards the auto- 
cratic power to which he e\entually 
attained. The document opens as follo\\s: — 
" There shall be good, true and firm peace 
lietween the republic of England and the 
Most Serene King (^f Portugal." This 
peace is to exist by land as well as by sea, 
in all cities, towns, villages, hamlets, ri\ers, 
bays and seas. Clause 2 recites that no 
impediment shall be placed on English 
trading in Portugal and her dominions. 
Clause 3 provides that Englishmen shall 
enjoy all the immunities and privileges 
conceded to others under the clause usually 
styled " most favoured." Clause 4 treats 
about the loading and discharging of 
English ships in Portuguese ports — in fact, 
it places them on a far better footing than 
they enjoy at the present time. Clause 5 
refers to imprisoning the crews of, or levy- 
ing distress on, English ships "which is not 
to be attempted without danger of incur- 
ring the King's displeasure." Clause 6 pro- 
\'ides that even if the crews of English 
ships do not profess the Roman Religion 
they shall not be molested. Clause 7 
declares that the consuls who henceforth 
may reside in any port of the dominions 
of Portugal . . . shall, in future, be 
appointed b)' the Lord Pnjtector . . . 
although they do not profess the Ronuin 
Religion. Clause 8 provides, in case of the 
death of an Englishman within the Portu- 



guese dominions, his office, books and 
private papers shall not be seized by the 
Portuguese authorities ; the same applies 
to his goods and chattels, &c. Should he 
die intestate, two or more Englishmen, 
chosen by the deceased's countrymen, shall 
be appointed trustees, but they shall be 
approved of by the English consul, ClaLise 

9 admits merchant ships and ships of war 
belonging to the English republic to enter 
and leave all ports in Portugal and her 
dominions without any restrictions. Clause 

10 is as follows : — 
" That the people of 
the English republic 
may freely carry in 
their ships all things, 
property and merchan- 
dise of any nature 
whatsoever, even arms, 
food, or other similar 
things from the ports 
of the said republic, 
and from any other 
ports, but with the 
understanding that 
they be not embarked 
in the ports of Portugal 
a n d h e r d o m i n i o n s 
direct for conveyance 
to any of the ports or 
territories of the King 
of Castile, and that 
the King of Portugal 
and his subjects shall 

not impede by embargo, writ, or other- 
wise, the said ships, goods, and crew who 
may not be able to sail in safety to the 
ports and territories of the King of Castile 
and do business there, and that the people 
of this republic may fix'ciy carry to the 
ports and territories of the King of 
Portugal arms, bread, hsli, and all othci- 
goods and merchandise and sell tlieni at 
their pleasure, by wholesale or retail, to 
any men at any price which they may 

Mr. Rodtitck Dou 

obtain, &c." This clause is one of those 
windy ones for which Cromwell was so 
noted. The effect of it is that whereas he 
was not allowed to ship arms of Portu- 
guese manufacture direct from Portugal 
to Spain, he was at liberty to introduce 
arms into Spain through Poj-tugal so long 
as they were not of Portuguese origin, as 
this latter country feared that on the con- 
clusion of the war between Spain and 
France, Spain would once more direct her 
attention to Portugal. Clause 11 grants 
to the English the 
right of trading in 
Brazil and in India, 
&c. Clause 12 extends 
this principle to Eng- 
lish trading in Poi'tu- 
guese Africa. Clauses 
13 to 28 further am- 
plify' all these liberties 
granted to English- 
men, but a marginal 
note states: — "The 
translation is not in 
conformity with the 
original in Latin." 

The remainder of 
the manuscript book 
has already been des- 
cribed by me, but the 
documents no longer 
refer to Oliver, who 
seems to have taken 
delight in paining the 
(iiiic'iir f^raprc of the Portuguese by describ- 
ing the Catholic faith as the Roman 
religion. Reference is made to the Merry 
Monarch, Chai-lcs 11., and his ill-fated 
brother James ; but on arriving at the end 
1 can only conclude that the Lord Pro- 
tector, in his ct)nimcrcial treaties with 
Poi'tLigal, has been unsurpassed by any 
ruler of England for studying the interests 
of the people whom he deliberately took 
imder his chariie. 




W. & J. GRAHAM & CO. 

' ORTUNATELY, at my dis- 
posal 1 have most of the 
important archives of our 
Oporto vinous history in 
a more modei'n Torre do 
Toiitbo than that at Lisbon. 
Every nation is supposed 
to take an interest, in its 
history bj' causing to be 
deposited in some safe place docLiments 
tending to throw light on its birth and 
progress; but with some of our most 
important branches of commerce much 
obscurity surrounds their origin because 
those engaged in that wealth-giving 
pursuit are satisfied with the golden 
results, and care not to enquire into the 
why and the wherefore. Only when 
trades become old, and, therefore, vene- 
rable, does someone step out from the 
ranks to challenge its origin, and it too 
often happens that the scions of our 
intrepid commercial ancestors are unable 
to give a further account of themselves 
than the present comfortable position 
they occupy. I admit that a too inquiring 
mind often proves a nuisance, but research 
is indispensable to the historian. In a 
nation like ours, whose raison d'etre, as the 
oreatest empire on earth, is based on the 
commercial genius of her sons, it is a debt 
of gratitude we pay to our ancestors in 
showing the present generation what they 
achieved under comparatively adverse 

circumstances. Long before the Victorian 
age, in fact, long before the House of 
Hanover took up its residence among us, 
our forefathers were busily engaged in 
laying the foundation of the port wine 
trade, but, unlike our military and naval 
annals, those of commerce have been 
much neglected. 

There is an old book I have before me 
now, something like a long petty-cash 
ledger, in which 1 am able to trace for 
considerably over a century the names of 
the wine shippers from Oporto. Some of 
these gentlemen were old men in 1832, 
and we should have lost trace of all but 
their names had it not been for the prolific 
pen and pencil of Baron de Forrester who, 
with an almost prophetic mind, limned 
them so accurately that, thanks to him, I 
am now enabled to reproduce them in 
these pages. In this vellum-bound book 1 
discover a shipment of 27 pipes of port 
made by Mr. John Graham in the year 
1826. The firm of Messrs. W. & J. Graham 
& Co., had, however, been established 
long before in Oporto in the dry goods 
business, and it already had houses in 
Lisbon, Bombay, &c., the head office being 
in Glasgow as at the present date. The 
office in Oporto was next door to where 
Messrs. Offley had been for over a hundred 
years, only one house separating it on the 
west side from the church of S. Nicholas. 
I mention this fact because in the memo- 



rable picture of the Rua Nova dos Inglezes, 
taken in 1834, the office is seen with the 
late Mr. Malcohn Jameson Elles, who was 
managing partner of the firm, standing 
in the balconj' in conversation with a 

I am now enabled, owing to the courtesy 
of Messrs. Offle)', Forrester & Co., to give 
a portrait of the late Mr. Elles (who died 
at Bournemouth on the 12th April, 1899, in 
his 91st year) from a study made by Baron 
de Forrester for his picture. Although it 
is the work of 
over sixty years 
ago, all who have 
the privilege of 
having known Mr. 
Elles will be able 
to trace a likeness 
to him as he was 
when he retired 
a few years ago 
from business and 
Oporto. In after 
years the firm 
occupied the two 
houses next door 
to the British Fac- 
tor}', and are now 
established at the 
corner of the Rua 
do Almada and 
the R u a d o s 
Clerigos. Two of 
Mr. Elles' sons for 

many years distinguished themselves in 
the military service of the Queen. The 
eldest son was the late Lieut. -General Sir 
William Kidstone Elles, K.C.B., Bengal 
command. This brilliant officer married a 
sister of Mr. Oeorge \Varre, partner in 
the fii-m of Messrs. SiK'a & Cosens, and 
his so.i, Ai-thur Warre Elles, is a major- in 
the Yorkshire Regiment. Mr. Elles' 
second son is Brigadier-Cjcneral Sii' 
Edmond Roche Elles, K.C.B. Both of 
them have seen much aeti\e ser\ice in 

TIl- hill- l/f. V. J. F.llis. 

various parts of the world. Sir William 
joined the 38th South Staffordshire Regi- 
ment in 1854, and was present at some of 
the engagements in the Crimea ; and I 
believe that on the field of battle he was 
made lieutenant, becoming captain on his 
21st birthday. 

The firm was established by the two 
brothers, William and John Graham, 
under the present style. Mr. William 
Graham had three sons, the eldest of 
whom, William, represented one of the 
divisions of Glasgow for many ^-ears in 
the House of Commons. His second 
son, John, was the managing partner in 
Lisbon, and the youngest, Robert, resided 
in Oporto, where he was well known and 
highly esteemed. Mr. John Graham, one 
of the founders of the firm, lived in Oporto 
for some years, and married a daughter of 
Mr. Theophilus I. Smith, a port wine 
shipper, by whom he had no children. 
Some years after her death he married 
Miss Noble (Air. George Warre's aunt), 
by whom he had three sons, John, the 
present head of the firm ; Donald, and 
James, also partners. A son of .Mr. 
Alexander Graham, youngest brother of 
the founders, married a daughter of the 
late Mr. Charles Henry Noble, senior of 
the old Oporto firm of Messrs. Noble & 
Murat. Messrs. W. & J. Graham & Co. 
are among the merchant princes of 
Great Britain, their premises in Glasgow 
being on an exceptionally large scale. 
Their connection with the wine trade 
sprung from their often having to take 
payment in \\'ine for goods sold in the 
Douro, and now their port wine business 
is among the large ones of Opoi'to. 

It will be remembered that in the old 
days it was customary for the clerks to 
live on the premises where they were 
employed. Messrs. Gi'aham were the last 
of the Oporto firms to abandon this 
custom. All their employes came from 
the " land of cakes," with, 1 think, one 



exception, viz., Mr. Richard Dagge, the 
only man who succeeded in driving any 
sense into a Portuguese Custom House 
official. Mr. McNicol used to preside at 
the dinner table where McColls, Smarts, 
Muirs, Robertsons, and other sons of 
Caledonia did justice to the \iands. 

Like some of our other British firms 
established in Oporto, Messrs. Graham 
have acquired a vineyard in the Douro, 
the Ouinta de Mitlvcdns. The resident 
partners in the Oporto house are Mr. 
Charles Adam and 
Mr. Yates. S(jme few- 
years back the wine 
business of the firm 
in Glasgow was turned 
into a limited liability 
company, but the 
shares are all held by 
the partners and the 
Graham family. 

The Ouinta de Mal- 
vedos is not far from 
the Tua. The \'is- 
count de \'illa i\laior 
says of it : — " This 
Ouinta yields about 
sixty pipes of wine, 
considered to be of 
the very first quality 
among the best in the 
Douro. The kinds of 
grapes predominating 
there are the tourii^iu 

sonsao, tiiifii Iniiicira, and iiidiirisio for the 
red wines ; and for the white, the iriblgafo 
or estreito, codcgn or iiuilvasiii grossa, 
iiialvasia fiiio, iiioscatd and gouveio or 
vcrdcUio. The name of Malvedos is also 
given to some wine grounds, not so 
exteasi\e it is true, but which all produce 
tlie finest wines." 

Not only in Lisbon, but in Oporto as 
well, Messrs. Graham are great employers 
of labour. They ha\-e important works 
not far from Fonte da Moura, one of the 

Mr. Chaihs Adam 

suburbs of Oporto, in connection with 
their dry goods business, and throughout 
the country the name Grem, as the Por- 
tuguese pronounce Graham, is a household 
word. To carry on an industry of this 
nature in a country like Portugal, where 
protectionist ideas have almost succumbed 
to prohibitionist tariffs, is not easy sailing. 
How much more the Britisli Colony in 
Oporto would do for the nati\-es if instead 
of vexatious laws the Government would 
go in for a policy of " live and let li\'e !" 

In looking o\'er the 
old Oporto register 
of baptisms, deaths 
and marriages from 
1717 to 1834, which 
is to be found at the 
Bishop of London's 
Registry, Dean's 
Court, Doctors' Com- 
mons, I obser\'e that 
the first m a ]■ r i a g e 
sfilemnised by the late 
Rev. Edward W'hiteley 
was that of .Mi-. John 
Graham, described as 
a Merchant of Poi-to, 
with Elizabeth Hen- 
i-ietta Smith, spinster, 
of the same city. The 
date is 27th Sep- 
tember, 1826. I am 
indebted to o u r 
esteemed fiiend, .Mi*. 
Hai-ry O. ^'eatman, for the privilege of 
examining these documents under excep- 
tionally favourable circumstances. There 
are three books ; the oldest is a \elhim- 
covered quarto volume, without lines or 
the usual printed matter. The entries are 
written \ery neatly, and are all witnessed 
to by merchants resident in the localit\- 
\\here the registration took place. Some 
of the marriages were S(jlemnised in 
Coimbra by the Chaplain to the Oporto 
Merchants. The bo(jk can be conveniently 




stowed away in the pocket of an overcoat. 
On one page a declaration appears that 
for three consecutive years no baptisms 
had taken place for want of a clergyman. 
Some of the registers were made on loose 
sheets of paper, while on other sheets 1 
find declarations made on oath that the 
deponents were Protestants. In the case 
of Mr. Webb, of the firm of Bearsley, 
Webb& Co., he states on oath that whereas 
he had once belonged to the S(.)ciety of 
Friends, generally known as Quakers, he 
had severed all con- 
nection with them by 
making a declaration 
to this effect at the 
.Meeting House in 

These declarations 
h a d t o b e m a d e 
because the clergy- 
man, being of the 
Church of Rngland, 
probably I'efused to 
join any coLiple that 
did not belong to the 
Church, and as to the 
statement of the con- 
tracting parties being 
Protestants, this was 
required because of * 

non-interference with 
the Roman Cath(jlic 

subjects of the King .i''. /ri" 

of Portugal. Towards 

the end of last centLu-j- a proper book I'oi- 
registering baptisms, deaths and mania.i^es 
was sent out from Hngland, but only a \ery 
few entries were made, and in 1807 the 
book, for the sake of safety, was retLirned 
to England, and upt(j 1813 no official book 
was kept in Oporto. The third one under 
u'ltice has xarious entries made by the 
Rev. .Mr. Pcnnell. Of course the first and 
oldest of these registers is the most inte- 
resting, wher,- I come across the names 
Page, Roope, Alurat (also spelt Aluratt), 

Newman, Tidswell, Bell, Campion, 
Hesketh, Wye, and a few others. The 
value of this book consists in placing 
beyond "all possible doubt whatever" 
the antic^uity of some of our shipping 
houses ; in fact, like in the case of the 
Newman family, it carries them back, as 
residents in Oporto, to a remoter period 
than the books of the firm show. The 
Campion and the Heskeths, partners in the 
firm of Offley, not only lived in Oporto in 
the early part of the last centurj', but took 
unto themselves wives 
from the Page family 
or their relatives. Re- 
specting the English 
burial groLind, it 
appears that the mem- 
bers of the Factory 
passed a resolution 
fixing the size of the 
tombstones which 
were to be made of 
X'alongo slate and 
without anj- inscrip- 
tion. A number would 
designate the place of 
interment of any in- 
di\idual, and reference 
could be made to the 
register. No. 1 refers 
to a iMr. Stafford, one 
of the founders of 
'■'■'"•"■ the firm of .Messrs. 

(Hiai-lcs. Harris, l*v- Co. 
When the register was brought o\or to 
England the church plate also accompanied 
it, but was retLU-ned in 181,3 as per iccelpt 
mcluded among other documents. 

.Mr. b'lles, during his long residence in 
Oporto, was always connected with the 
British 1-actory House, In which he took 
the keenest interest, and the title deeds 
wei-e deposited In the offices of Messrs. 
Graham. He was also elected President 
of the Opoi-to Chamber of Commerce. 
I'or many years iMr. Elles lived in the Rua 



de Malmei-endas, but in after years he 
rented the beautiful Ouinta where Charles 
Albert, King of Sardinia, ended his 
unhappy life after the disastrous battle of 
Novara. A great portion of this Ouinta 
now forms part of the Crystal Palace 
Grounds. This Ouinta had also been 
rented by Mr. John Lambert, with whom 
the well-known Colonel Owen li\ed ; in 
fact the neighbourhood of the Kntre 
Ouintas is redolent of the perfume of our 
old wine history. The four principal 
Ouintas are the one under review, and the 
Ouinta do Meio, now occupied by .Mr. W. 
C. Tait ; also the Ouinta which has been 
long inhabited by the Dow family, and the 
one lower down, where in old days the 
Nobles lived, afterwards taken by .Mr. 
Grant, and now rented by .Mr. .Alfred Tait. 
The houses of these four Ouintas, especially 
of the three latter, deserve attention from 
an architectural point of \iew , as there 
can be no doubt that they were built by 
Englishmen, or to suit their con\enience. 
I believe in the tradition that the house 
of the Ouinta do Meio, with its fine oak- 
floored hall and good rooms, \^as liuilt by 
one of the partners in the firm of Messrs. 
Taylor, Fladgate & \'eatman. 

Having mentioned the well-know n name 
of Theophikis I. Smith, whose daLightei' 
was married to old Mr. John Graham, 1 
have now the pleasure of presenting a copy 
of a portrait of him by the late Baron de 

The first record 1 have of him as a 
shipper is in 1820 under his own name. 
.About thirty years later he was joined by 
his son George, and the firm became T. I. 
Smith, Son L^- Co., and in 1860, after Mr. 
Theophikis Smith's death, ,Mr. Johnston, 
who had been in 
the e m p 1 o y m e n t 
of the firm, was 
admitted into part- 
nership, the style 
:i d o p t e d being 
T. 1. Smith, Son 
and Johnston. In 
1864 it was changed 
to Smith &' Johns- 
ton, and after 1868 
1 lose trace of the 
firm. .Mr. Johnston 
was a native of 
Aberdeen ; he went 
to Oporto as a 
young man, and 
m a r r i e d a Miss 
Souza, a Portu- 
guese lady. .An- 
<i t h e r o f M r . 
Theophikis Smith's 
daughters is mar- 
ried to Air. George Hastings, of Oporto; 
another to a Air. Fletcher, late U.S. Consul 
in the same city ; and another, now dead, 
was the wife of .Mr. .Alexander Grant, 
father of our worthy \'ice-Consul, .Mr. 
Honorius Grant. 

.1/1, J. I. Smith. 





'HEN the founders of 
the firm of Messrs. 
Butler, Nephew & Co. 
first ^^ent to Oporto is 
now probably beyond 
the knowledge of any 
one. This remark, of 
course, applies to other firms engaged in 
the port wine trade, because although 
ledgers recount the history of commercial 
pursuits, they do not enter into details 
belonging to the partners before the 
founding of the business. Ledgers, books 
of correspondence, cash journals, and 
all other documents relating to this firm 
I have had placed before me, so far as 
it is possible to do so \\hen you have to 
deal with voluminous documents covering 
165 years of trading. From these and 
from information given me by the late 
Mr. Samuel Dixon, I discover that the 
firm was established in Opoito by Mr. 
H. Burmester, a gentleman of (Jei'man 
nationality, and Mr. John Nash, an 
Hnglishman, in the year 1730, under the 
style of Messrs. Bui-mester, Nash c*v- Co., 
and the brand chosen was that still 
used by the present firm, viz., the crow 's 
foot with the letters " B. N. & Co.," 
which refer to the initiators, Messrs. 
Burmester, Nash & Co. 

Like most other Oporto merchants of 
the peri(jd, Messrs. Burmester, Nash and 
Co., did not confine their operations to 

the shipping of wines, but traded largely 
in other produce, not only with the British 
Isles and the continent of Europe, but also 
with South America, where their opera- 
tions were on a very large scale. On the 
death of Mr. Burmester, his son was 
admitted into partnership with Mr. John 
Nash as senior. In 1784, Mr. James 
Butler, nearly related to the noble familv 
of Ormonde (the name of the present 
marquis is James Butler), ^\ent to Oporto 
as clerk to the firm. He was born in 1768. 
and was, therefore, sixteen vears of age on 
arrival. He was a man of high, social 
position and of great integrity, and w hen 
in 1789, Mr. Xash and Mr. Burmester dis- 
sohed partnership by mutual consent they 
both offered him a share of their business. 
This appreciation of his sterling qualities 
seems to have been qtiite unexpected. As, 
howe\'er, Mr. John Nash was the senior 
partner he accepted his offer and the firm 
became Messrs. Nash, Butler cS; Co. Mr. 
Burmester started business on his own 
account as Burmester i^v Co.. and had 
London offices in St. Helen's Place until 

This Mr.James Butler, although a Roman 
Catholic, was more instrumental than any 
one else in Oporto in erecting the Protes- 
tant Chapel at the Campo Pequeno. In 
his opinion his countrymen in Portugal did 
not dcN'ote sufficient time to religious 
thought, so he set aboLit the construction 


of the chapel in earnest, hy fjbtaining the 
necessary funds from the otfier residents, 
to which he also subscribed liberall)-, and 
the concession from the crow n. It ma\- 
not generally be known that the wage 
sheets and cost of timber and granite were 
all presented for payment at the offices of 
Messrs. Butler, Tyndale li Co., and the 
amounts paid were dulj- entered in a bo(jk 
kept for that 
p u r pose b y 
Jose Pinto 
C a r n e i r o , 
book-keeper of 
the firm, who 
died in 18b2. 

Mr. James 
Butler married 
Miss Nassau, 
daughter of 
M r. Will iam 
Nassau, of the 
firm of Messrs. 
Perry, Friend, 
Nassau c^- 
p o r t w i n e 
shippers. Mr. 
Nassau lived 
at Foz, in the 
house after- 
wards occupied 
by Baron da 
Roeda; it was, 
I believe, built 
bj-him at a cost 
of £18,000, in- 
cluding land. Of this marriage there was 
no issue. Mr. James Butler left Oporto 
for good in 1814, and, by a shipping list of 
the memorable year 1809, I see that the 
firm had already been changed to Messrs. 
Butler, Tyndale & Co. Mr. Tyndale was 
the nephew of Mr. Nash. The partners 
in the firm since its establishment ha\e 
been: — H. Burmcster, sen., John Nash, 

r/ii laU Mr. Saiiuiel Di 

H. Burmester, jun., James Butler, John 
Nash Tyndale, Daniel Najlor, Robert 
Butler, Charles Butler, Samuel Woodward, 
Arthur Butler, the late Samuel Dixon, and 
his sons, Robei't FitzMaurice, John Fitz- 
Maurice, and Harman FitzMaurice Dixon. 
L'p to 1789 the firm was Burmester, Nash 
& Ci.)., and then it became Messrs. Nash, 
Butler L^- Co. (Jn Mr. Nash's decease Mr. 

James Butler 
took Mr. John 
Nash Tyndale, 
nephew of Air. 
Nash, into 
part nersh i p, 
and the firm 
was Messrs. 
Butler, Tyn- 
dale & C (J . , 
and so it re- 
mained until 
about 1819, 
w" hen M r . 
Daniel Naylor 
(of Wakefield, 
\ o r k s ) ^\ a s 
admitted, and 
the s t )- 1 e 
adopted was 
Messrs. But- 
ler, Na\'lor & 
Co. Mr. Nayl'ir 
died in 1829, 
and -Mr. Robert 
Butler. Mr. 
James Butler's 
nephew, went 
to Oporto and 
the firm was Messrs. Butler, Nephew dv Co. 
Mr. Charles Butler succeeded his brother 
Robert on his departure from Oporto, and 
the power of attornc)' was gi\en to Senhor 
Manoel Jose Pinto Carneiro, who died in 
1862, having been all his life in the confi- 
dential employment of the house. Mr. 
James Butler also established a mercantile 
house in Lisbon, under the firm of .Messrs. 

bfS as Master of the Sailers' Company. 



Butler, Krus & C<i., which was dissfilved 
in 1826, and afterwards carried on bj' Mi". 
Francis Krus on his own account. 

On Mr. James Butler's retirement the 
business «'as carried on by Mr. Charles 
Butler, Mr. Arthur Btitler and Mr. Samuel 
Woodward. On the decease of the latter, 
early in 1854, Air. Samuel Dixon took his 
place as regards the Oporto business from 
December, 1856, and, until his death on the 
9th May, 1897, at his house, " Braganza," 
\Va ndsworth 
Common, was 
sole partner. 
He ^\■as then 
s e \' e n t y - f i \- c 
years of age. 
M r. Samuel 
Dixcjn, \\hosc 
portrait is 
gi\en in this 
chapter, \\-as 
a member of 
the Worshipful 
Com p a n y o f 
Salters, which 
r a n k s n i n t h 
a m o n g s t t h e 
great Li\-ery 
Companies of / 
the City of/ 
London. He' 
was elected on 
the Couit of 
Assistants in 
1876, and held 

the office of Master in the year 1879-80, 
receiving a handsome testimonial in siKei' 
plate on his retirement from the chair. 
His three sons, Robert FitzMaiuice, John 
FitzMaurice and Harman FitzMaurice 
(also Liverymen (jf the Salters' Company), 
now continue the business Lmdcr the 
same style. Mr. John FitzMai.u-ice Dixon 
married Miss Clara Gertrude Webb, 
daughter of J. P. Webb, Esq., of Heading- 
lev, in July, 1891. 

The laU hlr. Cluules Hiillr 

Mr. Samuel Dixon knew Mr. James 
Butler ^■ery well, for he only died in 1860, 
at the ripe old age of 92. it was interest- 
ing to hear Mr. Dixon relate many con- 
\crsations he had with old Mr. Butler, 
whose recollections of Oporto went far 
back into the last century. 

.Mr, Samuel Dixon handed me the docu- 
ments i-elating to the recapture from the 
French of a Portuguese full-rigged ship 
called the " Desejada l^az" by the British 
sloop-of-war " Heron." The following 
official docimient gives a short history of 
the affair: — " 1, John Alvey, His Britannic 
.Majesty's Acting Deputy Consul in the 
City of Porto and its Districts. These are 
to certify that Joaquim Jose Dias, second 
mate, and Luiz Joaquim, mariner, both 
belonging to the Portuguese ship ' Desejada 
I-'az,' appeared before me this day and 
\()hintarily made oath that on the 21st 
da)' of December, 1812, they sailed from 
Santos, in the Brazils, on the 21st day of 
March, 1813, came off Porto Bar and 
receixed a pilot on board, and on the 25th 
day of the same month, about a league 
and a-half from the Bar, were captured by 
' L'lnx ineible,' French Cor\ ette, of 16 
gLins, who put on board fourteen seamen 
and two French officers with orders to 
make the first port in France, but on 
the 7th day of April, 1 81 3, were recaptured 
b)- His Britannic Majesty's sloop 'Heron,' 
bLit dLiring the time the French had pos- 
session they threw away every article 
o\erboard from the cabin and steerage, 
and these deponents do solemnly declare 
that there was actually nothing more 
received on board the said ship at Santos, 
or since her departure from said place 
than the articles mentioned in the annexed 
copy of the manifest." 

The " L'ln\ ineible " was a privateer 
belonging to Messrs. Maissonare & Dcrout, 
of Bayonne, sailing under letters of marque 
granted in the name of his Majesty, the 
l-hiipcror of the French, King of ltal\- and 



Protector of the Rhenish Confederation. 
The " L'Invincible " was of 311 tons, she 
was commanded by Martin Jorlis, and 
carried a considerable crew. The Portu- 
guese ship \\as valued at about £950, and 
her cargo at £11,000, and of this the 
officers and crew of the British sloop of 
of war received an eighth part. Air. James 
Butler represented the recaptors, and the 
amount of the salvage was drawn in one 
bill on Messrs. Butler Brothers, of London, 
in favour of .James Wilkinson. The PortLi- 

boatswain of the said vessel, state that it 
is true that on the 25th day of March 
we were made prisoners by the privateer 
' L'Invincible,' and that \\-hile on board 
that ship we we\-e \e\-y well treated by her 
officers, and in proof of this we both sign 
this document." This certificate was 
found among the French docLmients, and 
in all probability was obtained from the 
Portuguese sailors when in sight of the 
British sloop. 

Messrs. Butlei' have had a i-esidencc m 

M), Robert Fit~Mavrice Dixon. 

Mr, yohn Fit:Mauricc Dix 

guese ship belnngcil to Senlioi-es Tliomas 
da Rocha l-'into & 1-ilhos, of Oporto. 
The \'aluation of the ship and cargo is 
sworn to by Messrs. Nicholas KJipkc c^' 
Son, Van Zellers & Co., Noble, Pei-kins 
c*i: C(j., and Samuel \\'ea\er. 

It would seem by the following docu- 
ment that the Portuguese were very well 
treated by the officers of the French 
privateer : — 

" .loaquim Jose Dias, second mate of 
the ship ' Desejada Paz,' and Luiz Joaquim 

F-'inh.K) f(jr a cinsidci'able mmiherof years, 
at which place the\' liaxc Adegas, where 
the fii'm stoi'es the bi-and\' necessar\' for 
the pi'eparatmn of wme tor shipment to 

At Villa No\'a they still occLip\- then' old 
premises at the Calcada das Ferreii-as, and 
these are of the ancient form, the roof 
being suppoi-ted b_\' arches formed of 

.Messrs. Biitler, like some other old 
Oporto firms, have their casks made by 



hand on their own premises, and invariably brand on a cask" which does not contain 

use Baltic staves, which is a most impor- wine that does not redound to the credit 

tant matter, as so much depends on the of the firm, 
quality of the wood 

used in the making of 

For m a n y years, 
Messrs. Butler ha\c 
bought the produce 
of some very well- 
lino\\'n Ouintas, so that 
they may keep up their 
stock of fine wines 
and they are decidedly 
amongst the m o s t 
Conservative firms in 
Oporto, a fact which 
1 desire to bring pro- 
minently before our 
British public, because 
in all my writings I 
have endeavoured to 
show the value of 
bi-ands as a guarantee 
for quality, and it must 

M>. liiinnan FifzMiiui ic^ I.U-voii. 

Mr. Robert Dixon 
is a great adept at 
photography, and my 
I'eaders will recollect 
that in one of the 
early chapters of this 
work a picture of the 
Opoi'to Custom House 
is reproduced from a 
photograph taken b)' 
him. All his work 
denotes talent and a 
eoi rect eye, as may 
e isily be obser\ed bj' 
j.n\ one acqLiainted 
with the art who has 
s en his collection. 
Some twenty years 
ago, or more, the late 
.Mr. John .McMiu-ray 
photographed man\- 
parts of Portugal, and 

be evident to all buyers and consumers a few collections of these magnificent works 
(if wine, whatevei- its i|Liality, that no arc extant. Al r. Robert Dixon is continuing 
pLit an ancestral in his footsteps, and \ery worthih' so. 

ti vm 

>i I'cpute will 

\\':n,L; of UlciSn. ISlllln, A'c^/lfii' ,_' Co.'s II 

Lf'J,^fS at I'Uhi NoVil. 






the founder of the 
present firm of Messrs. 
, Clode & Baker, started 
in 1797 in business as 
a wine merchant in 
Bishopsgate Street, in 
the City of London, and 
a year later Mr. Garrett Gould, an Irish- 
man, owing to the distressful times in his 
native country, sailed from Cork for 
Lisbon, and established there the firm of 
Messrs. Gould Brothers & Co., which, in 
after years, extended its ramifications to 
Oporto, and was eventually merged in the 
firm of Messrs. Clode & Baker. 

Mr. Garrett Gould was highly successful 
in his undertakings, and in conjunction 
with the important firm of Messrs. James 
Campbell & Co., Merchants and Bankers, 
of London, established in the early years 
of this century the Oporto house, under 
the style of Messrs. Gould, James Camp- 
bell, Jones & Co., and another house in 
Madeira, under the style of Messrs. Gould, 
Roope & Co. 

The business started in London by Mr. 
George Clode in the year 1797 traded a 
few years later as Messrs. Clode & 
Mathew, then Messrs. Clode & Son, and 
on the 16th January, 1846, became Messrs. 
Clode & Baker, when Mr. George Clode, 
son of the founder, retired owing to failing 
health, and Mr. George Baker, father of 

the present senior, joined Air. Nathaniel 
Clode. I have much pleasure in being 
able to gi\'e portraits of these two gentle- 
men. Mr. Baker was for many years, 
previous to joining Mr. Clode, a Surgeon 
at Guy's Hospital. One of his sons, 
the Rev. William Baker, D.D., is Head 
Master of Merchant Taylors' Scho<jl, 
where both he and the present Mr. George 
Baker, his brother, recei\ed their early 

In May, 1861, Mr. George Baker married 
Miss Elizabeth Jane Clode, daughter of 
Mr. John Clode, of Great Linford, New- 
port Pagnell, Bucks, niece of his partner, 
iMr. Nathaniel Clode ; and his two sons, 
Mr. George Clode Baker and Mr. Charles 
Edward Baker, have been admitted into 
the firm, and these three gentlemen are 
now the sole surviving partners. In Sep- 
tember, 1894, Mr. Charles Edward Baker 
married Miss Edith Hutcheson, daughter 
of Mr. S. S. Hutcheson, wine shipper of 

There is no doubt that, as compared with 
other British communities abroad, that 
which has for nigh on three centuries 
established itself in the North of Portugal, 
stands pre-eminent for the position many 
of its members have held, and still do hold 
in many of the higher walks of life. Pro- 
bably the wealth they have been able to 
accumulate has, to a A'ery considerable 
extent, assisted them in carrying out their 



inclinations In those pursuits most con- 
genial to them, but the fact remains that 
they have seized the opportLmity and tlius 
rendered signal service to their cocmti')-. 
Among these, Mr. George Baker, the senior 
partner, has secured for himself a most 
honourable record. In 1879 he was elected 
on the Court of the .Merchant Taylors' 
Company, and served as f?entcr Warden 
in 1879-80. In 1881-82 he became Senior 
Warden, and In 1888-89 he was elected 
Master of this ancient (nilld. To the 
advancement of education Mr. Hakei- has 
devoted most of his spare time, than which 
he could not \\a\c chosen a more Liseful 
and noble pursuit. He vas selected as 

School Board for London, the City and 
Guilds of London Institute, and the 
Drapers' Company with reference to 
manual training in elementary schools. 
He also holds a seat on the Committee of 
Management of the Leather Trade 
Schools, and is one of the representatives 
of the City Guilds on the Technical 
Education Board of the London County 
Council. His name also appears as a 
member of the I^ondon Polytechnic 
Council, Governor of Sir John Cass's 
Foundation, Governor and TrListee of 
f'aine's Foundation Schools, Lay repre- 
sentatKe of the East City Rural Deanery 
on the London Diocesan Board of Educa- 

7'A, Uilt Ml.,i::ul (l.nh. 
Haul VJIh M,iy, ISll. Ilu.l imii A/'iil, ISXli 

one of the rcpresentatl\'es of the .Merchant 
Ta^'lors' Companj- on the lixecLitnc Com- 
mittee, and on the Council of the Clt\' 
and GluLIs of London Institute, for the 
adx'ancement of Tecimieal Education, a 
member of the Sub-Connnittec for the 
Management of the Flnsbm-y Technical 
College, also of the Sub-Committee for 
Technological Examinations of the Insti- 
tute. He IS also \'ice-Chairman of the 
Sub-Committees for the South London 
School of Art, aiitl the l-inances of the 

l-)Lit his ser\'ices to ctlucation are not 
yet all recountci.1. He is also a member of 
the joint committee appointed b)' the 

J7u I. lie Vi. l.„oiif l:,ik,i. 

j'.diii iCiHi Aii,Kiisi, /,v(y;. itu'.i :iii M,iy. is.^:,. 

tlon, member of the ExecLitn-e Committee 
of the Bishop of London's l-\ind, a Life 
Go\-enior of the Corporation of the Sons 
of the Clergy, and a \'lce-Presidcnt of the 
I'orest School, Walthamstow. It would 
be diflicult to Hnd anumg the most ener- 
getic citizens of this F'mpire City, anyone 
that has fathered the cause of educational 
enlightenment more than Mr. Gcor<'e 
iKikcr. It IS the most honourable and 
Lisefnl hobby, if 1 may so term it. that any 
man can h.i\e. It not only rcdotmds to 
his credit as a citizen, biit abounds in 
e\idcnce of the very highest standard of 
philanthropy, and in this sense the follow- 
ing appointments also held by Air. Bakei' 



further emphasise that kindness of heart — 
charity in its most pleasant form — which 
has always clistinj^uished him. He is a Life 
Governor and Ahnoner of the Royal 
Hospital of S. Bartholomew, and a Trustee 
of lar}>e funds belongin,^ to that hospital, 
also a \'ice-President of the London 
Oi'phan Asjkun. 

During his Mastership of the Merchant 
Taylor's Company in 1888-89, Air. Baker 
took very great interest in the Patriotic 
Volunteer Fund, formed imder the chair- 
manship of Sir James 
Whitehead, Bart., 
Lord Mayor, for the 
pLirpose of eqLiipping 
the volunteer regi- 
ments of the metro- 
politan area. In 1892 
he was elected a Life 
Member (representing 
the .Merchant Ta)l(jrs' 
Com pan)-) of the 
National I'iflc Asso- 
ciation ; he is a Life 
Fellow of the Koyal 
Geographical Society, 
and a member of the 
Royal Geographical 
K o s m o s Club, & c . 
He is one of H.M. 
I..ieutenants for the 
City of London, and 
J. P. for the County 
of Esse.\'. 

Having referred to the distressful times 
in Ireland as the cause of Mr. Gould's 
departure from his nati\'e land, I \\ill 
remind my readers that, aftei' Mr. Pitt's 
accession to po«-er, Mr. Flood, a distm- 
guished memberof the Irish Houseof Com- 
mons, introduced a Bill for Parliamcntar)' 
Reform, which, after a long debate, «as 
negatived. But, though defeated in the 
House, it had jiumerous ad\ocates out of 
doors who were not east down ; they 
petitioned Parliament for the redress of 

,i;j . Georcc liakcr 

grievances, and .Mr. Pitt endeavoured to 
free the commerce of Ireland fi"om the 
vexations under which it lahc^ured. But, m 
so d(jing, he excited the jealousy of British 
merchants and manufacturers, and they 
induced him to considerahlv modif\' his 
proposition foi- the relief of Ii'eland. Peace 
was preserved until 1 791 , when the associa- 
tion of United Iiisliiiuii appeared in Bel- 
fast, and quickl)' spix-ad thr(n[ghout the 
island. Distiu"bances soon took place, 
and the UiiiUil Irishiiitii began to con- 
template an entire 
separation fr(jm Eng- 
land. Insurrections 
br(;ke out, and in the 
county of Wexford 
w e r e f o r m i d a b 1 e . 
Atrocious harbai'ities 
wefii practised on both 
sides, Lmtil the arrival 
of Lord C(jrnwallis, 
as Vicero)', secLU'ed 
tranc|uility. Shortly 
after, a French force 
of about ele\'en hLui- 
dred men landed at 
Ki Hal a, and were joined 
by a part of the pea- 
santry. The attempt, 
ho\\e\"ei', was in \'ain ; 
the French General 
sLU-rendei'ed, and his 
rebel auxiliaries were 
slaughtered. The rebel- 
lion failed most miserably: hut, unhappily, 
not imtil fifty thousand persons had 
perished. This revolution had the effect 
(if obliging many Irishmen to lea\'e their 
country, and many of them naturally sought 
the hospitable shores of Portugal, \\-here a 
large Irish colonj-alread)' existed. In Lisbon 
there was the Dominican Convent and 
College in the Livl^^o do Corpn Santo, estab- 
lished for the nati\-e insti-uction of Irish- 
men intended for the priesthood. It was 
the last eon\'ent in Lisbon where the monks 



continued to li\e according to rule. There 
was also, and I believe it still exists, the 
Bri<^ittme Convent near Sao Bento, 
remarkable as being inhabited by English 
nuns, the successors of those who were 
driven from Sion, the seat of the Dtike of 
Northumberland, at the SLippression of 
monasteries. During the Peninsular War 
the Monaster}' was taken possession of by 
the soldiers, part of the sisterhood fled to 
England and settled there ; others 
remained and kept possession, not only of 
their Lisbon home, but 
of the keys of the 
original monastery at 
Sion, in token of their 
continued right to the 

1 will revert to the 
firm of Messrs. Gould 
Brothers & Co., of 
Lisbon, to mention 
that, during the Penin- 
sular War, the partners 
amassed a considerable 
fortune, and, after all 
the foreign troops had 
been withdrawn from 
Portugal, Mr. Gould \ \ 
founded the house 
in Oporto Lmder the 
style of iMessrs. Gould, 
J a m e s C a m p b e II , 
Jones & Co. On 
the retirement of Mr. 

Jones from the Oporto firm. Air. Gerald 
Gould, son of Mr. Garrett GoLild, became 
a partner, and the tii'm was Messrs. (KUild, 
James Campbell & Co. 

Many years later Mr. Callanane (poi-- 
ti-ayed in l^aron de Foi-rester's picture of 
the Rua No\'a dos Inglczes) was admitted 
as the working partner. Messrs. Clodc & 
Baker's connection with the firm com- 
menced in the year 1851 on their being 
appointed agents for Messrs. Gould, 
James Campbell & Co. in the United 

Mr. GiorgiClode;,i. 

Kingdom. In the year 1853 Mr. Callanane 
died in London, after undergoing a serious 
operation, and Mr. Gerald Gould, who 
was then living in Paris, was a pcrsoini 
grata at the Court of the Emperor 
Napoleon IIL Mr. Gould's sons, not 
wishing to enter into business (his eldest 
son, Mr. Gerald Gould, jun., had joined 
the Diplomatic Service, of which he was 
afterwards a distinguished member), 
negotiations were opened for the sale of 
the business, and the stock and right to 
Lise the brand were 
purchased by Messrs. 
Clode & Baker. Mr. 
Nathaniel Clode, then 
senior partner, spent 
considerable time in 
Oporto in 1854, and, 
in ATarch, 1855, again 
went out, accompanied 
by Mr. George Baker, 
the present senior 
partner, who remained 
for the greater part of 
the succeeding four- 
teen years in that city. 
'ij Air. George Baker, 
' father of the present 
senior partner, died 
at Reigate, in ATay, 
1885. In the world 
of flowei-s in modern 
times in England, none 
was b e 1 1 e r k n o w n 
favourite, the study and 
delight of his life, was the rose. In his 
contriluition to the " Rosarian's Year 
Book " for 1885, he says that " It may be 
the last time 1 shall write. Having 
witnessed the return of seventy-nine 
w inters, it may well be supposed that the 
fire of life now burns so low that only the 
w hitc embers of memory remain ; still, 
the heart may be kept wai-m in the ehccr- 
tulness of those pleasures our gardens 
oftcr." The late Mr. George Baker was 

than he. His 



j^ifted with an intellect of no ordinary Balaclava, by which much damage was 

character, largely endowed with that most 
ex'cellent gift, as one of his biographers 
remarks, which does not always accom- 
pany intellect — common sense — and with 
the matured experience of a long life, he 
was one whose judgment might e\er be 
I'elied on. 

The present iMr. George Baker's first 

done to both. The disabled sailing sliip 
was towed into Kamsgate harbour. 

Many overland journej'S have also been 
made by liim, witli \-isits to other wine- 
growing districts. In the year 18.56, with 
anc^ther gentleman, a lady, and a courier, 
he went through France and the North of 
Spain to loarca d'Aha, where the party 

experience of a sea voyage from London shipped in a ri\'er boat laden with corn 

to Oporto was a very disagreeable one. for Oporto. 1"he railway service then 
He left London in a steamer named the ended at Bayonne, whence the journey 

"Queen" on 16th through Spain was 

March, 1855, and made by diligence 

landed in Oporto on ^^^^'lllHlK^ draw n by twelve mules, 

the 28th of the same / ^^^MHk^ ^-*"'^ interesting event 

month. The English 'i^mK/Hl^ happened at the town 

Channel and the Bay t^^ ^"^W^^^^H of Ronda, about twenty 

of Biscay were in most jm'^ W^^P miles from N'alladolid, 

found, provisions ran ^ ^ ^ery old lady, a holder 
out, and dirt was pre- «j -«*/*^^'%'i"' Mk of extensive vineyards, 
dominant. The danger '' I ^'" ,^^^M^W^ presented a remark- 
was great, everything M -^ X ..-/ ''^'''''' sp'-'cimen of 
battened down, bul- / ' M yT -^ ■*•*•* Amontillado character, 
warks stove in, and for I ^ / ^ ' saying, "This is the 

was doubtful if the M ' ^He^^P^ 'A- W ^'^''-'"'"-'"'"' ''''^'^'* *" 

steamer would weather « l^MSW' %^<^ much when here with 

then Mr. Baker has ^m^' ^^ t''"-' V^^'"' 'S^'^- "'^ 

crossed the Bay over 'i-'J « '^^itt of it 

„, . ■., • .Ui (htiiltsFil ani hill Li: shinned to Enoland 

fifty times with van- snippcu lo i^n^uuiu 

able fortune. Two afterwards for his own 

mishaps happened in the Downs in the use." At a small \illage off the diliiience 

year 1857, and within twenty minutes of routes, when travelling in a carriage, it 

each other. The first \\-as a narrow escape got about that the lady of the party was 

of being run down by a 74 frigate, the the Oueen (jf England. The windowless 

"Ajax,"just avoided by the presence of inn was besieged by the natives anxious 

mind of Captain Kavanagh (well-known t.j to see so illustrious a personage, and sleep 

all Oporto shippers), the only damage to that night was impossible. The floor of 

the steamer being that the bowsprit of the the inn was the bare ground, and there 

frigate took off the steamer's mizentop, was only a plaster partition between the 

which crushed down on deck close to the sleeping apartment and the pig-stye. 

wheel. The second mishap was a collision Railways have now changed the aspect of 

with a sailing ship bound from London to the country and brought civilisation w ith 



tlnem. In the pi-cscnt day ladies may 
travel all ii\ei" Spain and P(l^tu^^al \\"ith(iiit 
much discomfort. 

Respecting the rcmai-kahle specimen of 
Amontillado presented h\- the very old 
lady ahuve referred to, as heinij; the wine 
\\-hich Sir Ar-tinu- W'ellesley had so much 
liked, a somewhat similar instance 
occurred to me at Bareellos, in PortLi^ial, 
where the landlady of the inn presented 
me with the tumbler which the i;reat 
leader of hosts had left behind him, and 
from which he had tasted some viiiho 
vcrdc. It contains less than half-a-pint, 
and is so made that it aceommodates 
itself to the formation of the chest and is 
evidently meant to be carried in the 
breast pocket. In connection with 
England's great general, I will mention 
that the triangle which appcai-s as a mark 
on many port and sherry casks is supposed 
to represent a field-marshal's full dress 
hat, and is to this da)' called iiiiircd chiipcn 
in PortLigLiese. An anecdote, perhaps 
worth recording, hath it that dLiring 
the Peninsular War a PortLigucsc officer 
of high rank', ohser\ing that not a few 
of the British soldiers were continuall)- 
being placed under arrest for drunken- 
ness, \cry dlogicall)'. in speaking to Sir 
Arthur, ascribed this failing to their 

nationalitv. " Gunpowder, sir, not nation- 
ality, prodLices thirst," replied the 
Commander-in-Chief, "biting the cartridge, 
sir, and hard work; not nationality, 
sir." And to confirm this I will have 
recourse to Napier's " History of the 
PeninsLilar War," in \\hieh he describes 
oLir gallant troops at Bussaco : — " 'l"he 
l-rench bullets came whistling up in a 
sharper ke)-, and soon the British skir- 
mishers, begrimed with powder, rushed 
o\-er the edge of the ascent, the artillery 
drew back, and the victorious cries of the 
French were already within a few yards 
of the summit when Craufurd who, 
standing alone on a rock, had silently 
watched the attack, in a Lpilck shrill cry 
called on his two regiments to charge ; 
a horrid shout startled the French columns, 
and 1800 British baj'onets went sparkling 
o\'er the brow of the hill ; yet so sternly 
rcsokite, so hardy, was the enemy that 
each man of the first section raised his 
musket, and two officers and ten men of 
the 5'2nd fell beh.ire them : not a French- 
man had missed his mark." This engage- 
ment took place on the 27th September, 
1810; we all know what a \er\' hot month 
September is in PortLigal, but \ery few of 
us know how much thirst was engendered 
fi-om biting the cartridge. 





I 1:^ -^ URING the excep- 

j|ptig»-^/ \ tionally hot days which 
visit these isles at long 
intervals in the montlis 
of August and Septem- 
ber, I have spent a few 
jiours in the \-aults Linder 
the offices of this firm, 
sun-(junded by niListy 
old ledgers, correspon- 
dence books, bills of lading, &c., harking 
back into the commencement of the 
last century. Amcjng such an ciiibnrrds tie 
riclifsscs of ancient \-olumes crumbling to 
pieces, I felt disposed to ejaculate, as 
Domine Samps(m of old, Prodigious! 
S(jme of the ledgers were no longer con- 
trolled by the binding, which had disap- 
peared, and necessitated the tying of the 
pages together by means of twine. These 
musty old wine lexicons, these records of 
the early times of our ancestors in 
I^ortugal would be, if published, as inter- 
esting to as many now outside the trade 
as to those who still have the privilege 
of belonging to it. 1 find such names 
as Lord Onslow, D'Espie, Hankey, &c., 
and New River shares at £50 each. 
These are now worth considerably o\er 

The originator of the firm was Air. 
Haughton, who, having been a wine mer- 
chant at St. John's Gate, Clerkenwell, 
went to Oporto and started in business 
there as a shipper in conjunction with Mr. 

Testas, under the style of Messrs. Chalie, 
Testas & Haughton. Mr. Testas had 
already resided in the North of Portugal 
some thii-t)' years before the arri\-al of .Mr. 
Haughton, and had, in fact, been con- 
nected with the wine trade under the firm 
of Messrs. Caulet, Clarmont & Testas. 
In due course of time these two gentle- 
men were joined b)- Mr. Langston, a pre- 
decessor of the well-known Oxfordshii-e 
banking firm of .Messi-s. l^angston &; 
Towgoi^l. In fact it was ni a large 
nieasui-e due to the foi-tune that .\lr. 
Langston amassed in Portugal that the 
banking firm in Hngland was established. 

When Mr. Langston j(jined the fii'm 
the style became Messrs. Langston & 
Haughton, and must ha\-e so continued 
for man)' years. Mr. Charles Dixon, 
writing from Ci'utched Fryers, on the 
5th May, 1758, says: — " "\'ou doubtless 
remember my coming to the Jerusalem, 
which was in January, 1741-2, \\here 1 
remained till the latter end of 1747, when 
1 went t(j Oporto. During my stay there 
my worthy and good friend, .Mr. Haught<jn, 
died, and Mrs. HatLghton c(jntinued with 
the business. In 1748 1 returned fr(jm 
Oporto and staj-ed with .Mrs. Haughton 
ab(jut a yeai-, when 1 went to her brother, 
Ml". Langston's. In 1750 Mr. Langston 
died and in his will desired Mrs. Haughton 
would quit the business, and which she 
did do in the year 1751, though she «as 
unwilling to do it so soon, as 1 — \\ho by 



her husband and brother was designed to 

succeed in the business — was then two 

years under age, and what induced her 

to retire before the expiration of two j-ears 

was that she thought slie could at any 

time hereafter (if she found me deserving) 

transfer part of the business to me, so 

that, as the case now stood, it was requisite 

t(.) look out for somebody that she could 

confide in to 

manage the 

1") u s i n e s s . 

Mrs. Haugh- 

ton preferred 

Mr. Newell ; 


he was ad- 
mitted as her 

partner'. This 

part n ership 

comme need 

at Lady Day 


This letter 

is important, 

as showing 

that M r . 

H a u g h t o n 

married his 

part n e r ' s 

sister. Miss 

Lang s t o n. 

F u r t h e r ■ 

m ore, it 
pi'oves be- 
y (J n tl all 
doubt that 
the firm had 

been established in the early pari of last 
century. This Mr. Langston, as I ha\c said 
before, became a bankci", and his partnei', 
Mr. Tow.L;(jod, was latci" on joined by 
Samuel Rogers, the poet hanker, the firm 
m Oxlordshire becoming Messrs. Tow^ood 
c*i: Rogers, which style it preserved Lintil 
a lew years ago, when it became a joint 
stock- company-. Air. Charles Dixon was 

I'll,- liilr ,U,. (VmW.s n 

nearly related to the Haughtons, as may 
be gathered by this further quotation from 
the same letter : — " And as I have already 
said that my nonage was the step from 
which Mr. Newell leapt into the business, 
and that the first term of seven years was 
now expired, Mrs. Haughton thought 
naturally enough that she had a I'ight to 
dispose of her proprjrtion of business, of 

which the 
\\' h o i e is 
hers, agree- 
able to her 
family's first 
intention s 
and her own 
and that to a 
person ^^ ho 
had bee n 
many yeai'S 
in the trade 
and was, next 
her sons, her 
h u s b a n d ' s 
nearest re- 
latiiMi, she 
t h e r e fore 
declared her 
resolution on 
this head to 
Mr. Newell, 
\\' h o h a d 
not the least 
objection to 
make . 
Mrs. Haugh- 
ton had a right to dispose of a trade she 
was then possessed of, and which was 
r.nscd entirely by her family, tt) any person 
she thought fit." 

riic Icttei- from which I ha\e made the 
abo\e extracts is addressed to John 
Keelmg, Hsq., at ivingston, Surrey, and 
whose name often appears in the books of 
the firm. I ha\e a document before nie 



which does not belonff to Messrs. Moi'gan, 
but if correct \vould tend to pro\'e that the 
old firm of John Wye was merged in that 
of Messrs. Chahe, Testas & Haughton, and 
that it subsequently became Messrs. H. 
Haughton & Co., and then Messrs. Brett, 
Pearce & Co., and I beheve Mr. Brett 
married the \\ido\\" of Mr. Haughton. 

According to the letter from which I 
have quoted, Mr. Haughton died in 1748, 
at Oporto, and ne\er retired from the 
business which was afterwards carried on 
by his widow, a sister 
of M\\ Langston, and 
eventually the firm 
became Messrs. Lang- 
ston & Di.xon. The 
latter gentleman was 
a man of keen biisiness 
habits, and amassed 
a very large fortune. 
In course of time 
Mr. Aaron Morgan, 
who had been a clerk 
in the empkjyment of 
Messrs. Langston & 
Dixon, joined the firm, 
which became know n as 
.Messrs. .Morgan Bros. 
I ha\'e much pleasure 
in giving a portrait of 
Mr. Charles Dixon. 

The Morgan family 
is one of the oldest 
and most distinguished 

in iMonmouthshire. I have a document 
before me written, I should think, by a lady, 
as it bears no date, which reads as follows : — 
" Aaron Morgan \vas born at Sea .Mills, 
near Bristol ; his father was a ship owner 
and builder, and was related to Sir Charles 
Morgan, Bart., of Tredegar, Monmouth- 
shire; he died at an early age, leaving a 
young widow and four children, three boys 
and a girl. The widow was left with a 
good property, but unfortunately, it was 
entirely under her own control, and be- 

Mr. Albert C. F. Morgan. 

came soon dissipated by the extravagance 
of a second husband, and the children 
\v<i\'it in consequence obliged to rely on 
their own exertions for a maintenance. 
The daughter married a merchant of 
Bristol, the eldest son took to a sea-faring 
life, and on his first voyage was wrecked off 
the West Coast of Africa, he was picked 
Lip by a slave ship which was going to the 
West Indies, ha\ing some hundred slaves 
on hoard. During the voyage some of 
these poor creatui-es broke loose, and 
were in such a violent 
state of rage that 
the captain ordered 
them to be fired upon 
fi'om the hatchway. 
The d o c t o !• \- e r y 
imprudently \'entui"ed 
down among them 
hoping to pacify them, 
and Ml-. Morgan 
a c c o m p a n i e d h i m . 
They were both killed 
by the s 1 a \- e s — 
torn to pieces. The 
second son died of 
consumption, and the 
youngest, A. .M., 
was recommended to 
Sir Thomas Mannock, 
a Stiffolk Baronet, 
a Roman Catholic of 
ancient descent in a 
direct line from Henry 
VII. A. M. made out his genealogy and 
emblazoned it most beautifully, which de- 
lighted Sir Thomas ; indeed, he became so 
attached to my father that he would have left 
him a considerable property could he ha\e 
been persuaded to turn Roman Catholic, but 
my father was too firm in his Protestant 
principles to yield to the temptation. The 
benefit fell upon a Mrs. Bullock, who 
was not so scrupulous. I think it was 
Mr. Langston who married the widow 
Haughton. and not Brett." In this latter 

A A 



idea the writer of tiie letter must have 
been wrong. Somebod}' must have sug- 
gested that she had married Mr. Brett, 
who eventuall)' became a partner in the 
firm, and the writer suggests Mr. Langston. 
This, howe\er, was Mrs. Haughton's 
maiden name, and it is xevy probable that 
Mr. Brett was the chosen one, and thus 
became partner in Mrs. Haughton's busi- 
ness and private fortune. 

In July, of 1898, the business was con- 
verted into a Limited Liability Company, 
under the style of Morgan Bros. («ine 
shippers), Limited, the chairman being 
Mr. Alfred C. F. Morgan and the partners, 
Mr. ALigustus Morgan, the Honourable 
Ivo Bligh, Mr. Arthur T. Morgan and Mr. 
Aaron H. Morgan. 

Mr. Albert C. F. Morgan wrote a most 
valuable and instructixe paper on the 
phylloxcni and other insects, whose exist- 
ence and increase are undoubtedly 
dependent t(j a very great extent on the 
weakness of the vine. The article first 
appearecf in the yoiiial iJe Horticultnrti 
Practica in January, 1886, and has since 
been republished in pamphlet form. 

Respecting the appearance of the winged 
phfllo.verci in the Douro district, many 
anecdotes are extant, but among these 
one of the best is the reception by Baron 
da Roeda, from his commissary at Regoa, 
of a dragon-fly enclosed in a cardboard 
box, accompanied by a letter which at 
least did credit to the imaginati\ eness of 
the writei". To this playmate of the brook 
was ascribed the disease from w hich the 
vine was suffering. Even the stag-beetle 
was accused of ha\ing introduced the 

In connection with the firm of Messrs. 
Morgan Brothers, 1 will mention that, in 
course of years, Mr. John Allen, the 
founder of the museum in Oporto, became 
a partner. His ancestors had been con- 
nected with the firm of Messrs. Curtis 
L^' W'ettenhall, which was established as 

far back as 1726 ; it then became Messrs. 
Townshend & ^^'ettenhall, and eventually 
Messrs. Allen & Wettenhall. The Allen 
family is among the most ancient ones in 
Op(3rto ; the present head of the family is 
ViscoLuit de Villar d'Allen, who married a 
daughter of Jose Maria Rebello Valente. 
The Aliens intermarried with the Archers, 
and these with the Gubiansand Franklins. 
There was a firm at one time styled 
Messrs. Allen & Gubian, and another 
Messrs. Bowman, Franklin & Co. In 
connection with the Aliens, the terrible 
disaster which happened on the bar of 
the River Douro in 1851 will never be 
forgotten. In those days there was no 
communication by road between Oporto 
and Lisbon, simply becaiise there was no 
road. The distance had often been 
traxersed on horse-back, liut the path 
through pine woods and over hills was 
rendered dangeroLis, owing to the brigands, 
and the detestably dirty inns offered but 
scanty comfort to the wearied horseman. 
1 may here place on record that my 
father, in the company of a few other 
merchants, covered the distance of 185 
miles on foot in six days. 

In the absence of coach facilities, the 
journey to the capital was generally per- 
formed by sea in a small steamer pi'o- 
pelled by paddles. This steamer was 
called the " Porto," and it was by her that 
iMr. John Allen and part of his family took 
passage. The weather was threatening 
when thex' embarked, bcit they succeeded 
in crossing the bar in safety. When, how- 
ever, outside, and the rolling Atlantic made 
its irresistible force painfully felt, the 
passengers urged on the captain the 
ad\'isability of returning to Oporto. Un- 
fortunately the skipper listened to the 
protestations of the sea-sick-stricken 
passengers and made for the bar. 
The tide, however, was no longer on 
the flood, and after the steamer had passed 
the Felgueiras Rocks, just under the old 



Castle, it was discovered that she had not 
sufficient power to mal<e head against the 
strong ebb. 

I was then a mere child, but I shall 
never forget the awful sight. Thousands 
of people crowding the Meia Laranja, 
among them many relatives and friends of 
the Aliens. The tiny craft's engines were 
put to their utmost, but, instead of making 
any progress, the steamer slowly but 
gradually was backing on to 
the breakers at her stern. 
Ropes attached to empty 
barrels were floated, but all 
to no purpose; the current 
carried them pastthe ill-fated 
ship, and in a few minutes 
the unfortunate " Porto " 
and most of her passengers 
were buried beneath the 
surging sea that surrounded 
them. This happened within 
a hundred yards of some of 
the spectators, who could 
plainly hear the cries for help 
of the passengers and crew, 
but could render them no 
assistance. Owing to this 
calamity Mr. Allen, a partner 
in the above firm, lost his 
life, and Oportcj one of its 
most distinguished and 
favourite citizens. 

To this disaster was due the initiation 
of the Oporto Royal Humane Society. A 
building was erected, at the side of which 
was a shed for the lifeboat. This boat was 
selected by the firm of Messrs. Spencer 
iS: Osborne. She was built in America, 
and was at one time the finest lifeboat in 
Europe. But we have never had a proper 
crew to man her, and the Royal Humane 
Society of Oporto, to which all the English 

llw InU .Ml. jnlni Alle 

firms in Oporto contributed very liberally, 
has not been quite a success in rendering 
assistance to shipwrecked mariners on the 

Of the collection of curiosities be- 
queathed by Mr. John Allen, partner in 
the firm of Messrs. Morgan Brothers, to 
his native city, a few words from me are 
due to his memory. The curiosities are 
contained in a suitable building erected by 
the founder in the Rua da 
Restauracao. They repre- 
sent a large amount of money 
expended on scientific pur- 
suit ; they are not on an 
extensive scale, but embrace 
a great many subjects, 
ornithology, numismatics, 
lepidoptera,&c. John Allen's 
eldest son, Edward, was for 
many yeai's charged by the 
municipality with the care 
of the museum ; he was 
absolutely and essentially a 
scientist, and also held the 
post of chief librarian of the 
Bibliotheca. The present 
\'iscount .Allen, in conjunc- 
tion w ith Bai-on de F(jrrester 
and Count Moser, was 
instrumental in starting 
the Agricultural Exhi- 
bitions on the Torre da 
Marca, whei-e the Crystal Palace now 
stands, and, in fact, it is mainly due to the 
Allen family that this magnificent bLiilding 
and grounds were ever undertaken. 

During the e\'entful Peninsular War 
this fii'm retained their lodges at \'illa 
Nova, but placed their stock, like many 
other firms did, in the hands of their 
Administrador, \\hich lodges they retain 
unto the present day. 





^ H E Costa do R o n c ab 
is justly celebrated 
throiighoLit the Douro 
as being one of the 
finest re.gicjns for pro- 
d u c i n g \\- i n e . T h e 
Konc;io is a small stream 
rising not far from 
Favaios and falling into the Douro between 
the Ouintas de D. Roza and D'Area on 
the right side, and that of Senhor Pestana 
on the left. The Ouintas about here are 
comparatively old. The Ouinta No\a de 
D. Roza and others adj(.)ining wevn bought 
by Messrs. Robertson Bros. & Co., suc- 
cessors of the old firm of Rebello X'alente, 
with whom Messrs. Robertson had had 
transactions for many years previous to 
theii' acqLiiring the brand and their stock. 
It was poiif ciiciiityai^cr Ics unties that 
Messi's. Robertson boLight these Ouintas, 
becaLise, as 1 have had occasion to remark, 
there is not much profit to be made for 
some time out of a vineyard that requires 
replanting, and such has been the case 
with nearly all the Otiintas in the Douro. 
Beyond a house for the accommodation 
of the partners and their friends, Messrs. 
Robertson Brother-s ha\e large stores at 
this Ouinta to serve as a depot for the 
wines they buy in the Roncalj district. 
They also have a depot at Piiiha~), \\hencc 
their wines are shipped to Op()rto. This 
firm still fa\oursthc i'i\er carriage. Their 

lodges at \'illa Nova are situated at the 
Oueimados formerly occupied by Messrs. 
NV. & J. Graham c^ Co. Contiguous to 
the lodges is a remarkably fine house 
belonging to the firm and used by the 
partners on their frequent \isits to Oporto. 
A gentleman for many year's connected 
\\ith the firm in Oporto is my old and 
^■cry highly esteemed friend Isaac Newton, 
the most assiduous collector of Lusitanian 
alga;. 1 believe that Isaac Xewton and 
his brother Ai-thur are the only two 
American citizens I'esiding in Oporto. 
Isaac Ne\\ton's eldest son is one of Por- 
tugal's greatest African traxellers and 
contributoi's to the National .MLiseum at 
Lisbi in. 

The firm <i{ Rebello \'alcnte harks back 
to the last century, and is decidedly of 
northern descent. The Douro men, cilu' 
Portuguese Highlanders, are to this day 
called Rabellos, from the ancient word 
Rabel, Rebel or Rabil, a sort of fiddle \\ith 
three strings which they used to play, and 
their fa\OLU-ite insti-Lunent is still the 
\ iolin. Rabello and Rebello are synony- 
mous, and the qualificative N'alente would 
imply the " Strong or \'aliant Highlander." 
1 i-eeollcct old Jose Maria Rebello \'alente, 
one of the finest Portuguese gentlemen of 
the day ; with him were interested in the 
shipping of wines to England the very 
ancient families of Archer and Allen. 1 
was looking through an old book of ship- 

npouro, OLD and new 


merits from Oporto in the possession of 
Messrs. Offley, Forrester &- Company, and 
I trace tiie name back to a .Mr. Rebello 
who, in conjunction with Thomas Archer, 
was shipping wine to England before the 
heroes of Waterloo were born. The 
Archers, the Gubians, the Aliens, and the 
Rebello Valentes were all connected by 
marriage, and represented large interests 
in the wine 

I will now' 
bring back my 
readers t o 
England, to 
remind them 
that in the 
early part of 
this century 
there was a 
firm of Lon- 
d o n «■ i n e 
and shippers 
styled .Messrs. 
B u )■ d o n & 
G r a y. The 
firm continued 
as Burdon & 
Gray until the 
year 18 4 7, 
w h e n iM i' . 
James Nisbet 
joined the 
latter and the 
style became 
Messrs. John 

Gray & Robertson. I have much pleasiu'e 
in reproducing a photograph of Mr. J. X. 
Robertson, who was so well known in our 
commercial circles. 

In 1855, Mr. John Gray died and Mr. 
John Robertson was admitted partner, the 
firm becoming Messrs. Robertson Brothers, 
with offices at 149, Fenchurch Street, and 
everyone will recognise the portrait of this 

llu Idle \h. Jjmci Si'.hcl Roln-i'l;,:,, 

genial and warm-hearted gentleman given 
herewith. In 1873, their nephew, .Mr. Peter 
Robertson Rodger, joined the firm, \\hich 
was altered to Messrs. Robertson Brothers 
& Co., as at present. This gentleman 
has visited our Douro country many times, 
and I am happy to say that his apprecia- 
tion of our rugged and bold scenei-j' has 
furnished him with subjects for his skill 

in landscape 
Some of his 
water -colours 
are marvels of 
the great art, 
a n d p I" \ e 
that, while on 
business in- 
tent, he is not 
unmindful of 
the glories 
of nature. 
.Among other 
sketches of his 
1 will mention 
the \- a 1 1 e y 
of .Mendiz, 
w h i c h , f o r 
light and 
effect, leaves 
nothing Ui be 
desired. But 
it has the 
advantage of 
being so topo- 
graph i c a 1 1 y 
correct that 
1 thought it 
was reproduced from a photograph. 

In February of 1883, Mr. James Nisbet 
Robertson, the head of the firm died, 
and his brother, Mr. John Robertson, 
retired from the business in December, 
1891, and died in xMay, 1892. In 1897, 
Mr. Robertson Rodger took into partner- 
ship in the London house, Mr. D. Banks 
Thomson, and in the following year his 



nephew, Mr. P. E. A. Rodger was also 

The firm is also estabhshed at Jerez de 
hi Frontera, under the same style, but be- 
fore 1886 it used to ship sherries under the 
brand of Messrs. B. Vergara, Robertson 
& Co. It may be interesting to mention 
that the quantity of wine produced in this 
district of Spain is calculated in (U-robas, 
equal to about a quarter of a hundred- 
weight. Thirty (irrolxis go to a hutn, or butt. 
The word is derived from the Ai-abic and 
was introduced into 
Spain by the Moors. 
Jerez is about twenty 
miles from Cadiz and 
fourteen inland from 
Port St. Mary. A 
railway now runs 
from Cadiz to Jerez, 
Seville, Cordoba, &c. 
Of Seville, the 
Spaniards say : — 

El que no ha visto 

No ha \'isto maravilla. 

\\'hich being freely 
rendered is — 

He who hasn't seen 

May g(< to the Devil. 

The «inc lodges 
in Spain are called 
bodegas, a word also iheinUMr. 

known in Porttigal 

but applied to a low ta\ern. It is deri\ed 
from the Latin Apotlteca, signifying a wine 
cellar. The Spanish bodegas are very 
similar to the Poi'tugtiese <in)ia^u-»is. 
Shei-i'y was first known in Hngland in the 
time of Henry VII., when it was called 
Slicrris Sack or dry Jerez wine, the word 
Sail: being a vai'iant of the still okler 
Norman-English Scil;. It was with Jerez 
de la Frontera that Messrs. Htirdon t^- 
Gray, the founders of the firm of Messrs. 
Robertsdii Brothers c<: C<i., first com- 

menced business transactions as wine 

I am certain it will be said that once I 
get into a port wine lodge there is no 
getting me out of it. I accept the accu- 
sation with all its responsibilities. It is 
like our underground electric railway, the 
coolest place in summer and the warmest 
in winter, but beyond these advantages it 
layeth claim to others which are equall)' 
indisputable. Good wine is always wel- 
come, be it in the summer or when a 
biting nor'easter for- 
cibly reminds us of 
the severity of winter. 
The word " Ouei- 
mados " means " the 
burnt ones," and 
tradition hath it that 
political and religious 
hatred figured con- 
spicuoush' in this 
spot where Messrs. 
Robertson's lodges 
now stand. Tradi- 
tion, however, is not 
always correct, and 
there is just as mtich 
reason for saying that 
the appellation of 
Oucimados was gi\cn 
to it because where 
there is fire there is 
heat, where there is 
heat there is thirst, 
is thii'st there ought 
But, of eiHirse, this is only 
saving the fact that the 
wine is there and the traditional holo- 
caust is not obser\'able. This armazen 
stands in the centre of other large 
armazens, and is of the old stamp of wine 
lodge, with its stone walls and arches and 
wooden rafters and red tiles, and a 
eoopei-agc at the side where the casks are 
put up by hand and carefully gauged and 
cleaned by the assistance of steam power. 

and where 
to be wine 




When Messrs. Robertson Bros. & Co. 

took over the business of Rebello Valente, 

about 1881, the lodges weix further down 

stream, and not far distant frcjm the ruins 

of the old Castle of Gaya, whose last 

occupant was King Ramii-o. We must 

distinguish between 

Gaya and Villa Nova 

de Gaya, although 

both are on the same 

side of the Douro. 

Gaya p r f) per c o m - 

mences at the C(js- 

teiras, and is hounded 

on the south by Candal 

and the west by the 

place now called \'al 

d e P i e d a d e . T h e 

beautiful property of 

Campo Bello, where 

Mr. John Smithes li\ed 

for many3"years, is 

included in the ancient 

circumscription, and 

there are still some 

important wine lodges 

here. Opposite Gaya, 

on the north bank of 

the Douro, is the 

borough of Miragaya, 

in Oporto. Thei'e is a le.^end that Kmg 

Ramiro took his spouse across the river, 

and on landing on the spot where the 

Custom House now stands, called her 

attention to their residence which they just 

left by exclaiming Mini Gaya. " Behold 

,Uv. Petei Robertson Rodger. 

Gaya," and thus an exclamation was 
applied to a place. X'illa N'ova de Gaya, 
or the new town of Gaya, extends in an 
easterly direction along the river side and 
up the \ai'ious hills fijr about half-a-mile 
towards the south. It o^es whate\'er im- 
portance it possesses to 
the British meixhants 
h a V i n g built t h e i r 
lodges hei-e in the old 
days because the land 
was cheaper and there 
were no barrier dues. 
I notice that .Mun-ay 
places the Serra Con- 
vent to the West of 
\'illa X(jva instead of 
to the Hast. A i>reat 
pai't of the lands of the 
New Town belonged 
to the C a n o n s o f 
S. Augustine, as \\<t\\ 
as the Consent. " Its 
re\'enues were about 
£4,000 a year, and 
none but men of noble 
rank could enter the 
bi'ot h erhood . The 
c h u r c h w as r (j u n d , 
with a domed roof ; 
there were deli.ghtful gardens, with statues, 
fountains, and fish-ponds, and water was 
supplied by a fine aqueduct." The Con- 
vent is n(jw in a ruinous state, ha\ing been 
knocked to pieces in 1832 duiing the war 
between the two royal brothers. 





RAGA, the Bniciird Teresa, parents of Dom Affonso Henriques, 
Augusta (A the Romans, who sneceeded his father as Count of 
was at one time the Portugal in 1112, and was proelaimed 
eentre of the wine dis- King of Portugal after the battle of Campo 
trict of the North of d'Ouriqiie in 1139. In this old cathedral 
Portii.<;al. But three cit)-, towards the end of last century, was 

born Senhoi- xManoel Pedro GLiimaraens, 
founder of the present firm of Messrs. 
iM. P. Guimaraens & Son. Braga is the 
chief town of the pro\incc of .Minho, the 
smallest but tlie ricliest and most thickly 

himdred years in the 

history of a city as 

ancient as that which disputes the primacy 

of the Spains with Toledo are as nothing, 

for it had been known as a place of no 

Mr. Maiwel rnlro Cuiiiiaraci;.^, ,(ifi( IS5.'. 

My. MiUiOti Foitscc.i Guniuriacu.^. dud JSSJ 

small importance three hundred years populated of Portugal. It is a fine old 

before the coming of the Saviour, city, sadly barbarised, however, so far as 

Although Braga cannot boast of being the its ancient buildings arc concerned, by the 

birth-place of the first King of Portugal, villainous restorations perpetrated by its 

which distinction belongs to the sister city modern bLis^-bodies. But in this respect 

Guimaraens, it has the privilege of being it is not singular, for not all countries 

the resting-place of Count Dom Henrique have had a Ruskin to unmask the 

of BLU-gundy ami his consort, Dona ignor.uiee of the man who thinks he knows 



everything, either because he has succeeded posited, as I before said, the remains of 

to power, or attained to great wealth. Count Henry and his spcnise. hut they cut 

Senhor Alanoel Pedrcj Guimaraens some inches off the legs of the Coimt's 

sought the tropical shores of Brazil with effigy because the^' were too long for the 

a view to engaging in biisiness in connec- place assigned them. From Braga to 

tion with the firm of Messrs. Fonseca, (juimaraens by wa\' of the Falperra and 

iMonteiro & Co. The principal idea of the the Caldas das Ta\pas the scenei"y is only 

)-'ortuguese is to go to the land of the equalled in grandeur by that \\hich hes 

Southern Cross, that huge expanse of between Braga and .Arcos, oi- between 

country in South America which was dis- Braga and Ponte do Lima. All the trees 

cox'ered by one of their indomitable by the roadside are gi"acefLdly entw ined by 

navigators, Pedro Alvares Cabral. Brazil, the grape vine, and the autumnal tints are 

to them, is the El Dorado where wealth simply grand beyond e.\pressi<jn. 

is to be had for the 
going there, and e\ en 
now the principal mer- 
chants in Brazil are 
Portuguese. The house 
of Messrs. Fonseca, 
Monteiro &■ Co. ^\■as 
established in Oporto, 
and traded as general 
merchants ; and, after 
living some years in 
South America, Senho)- 
M . P. Guimaraens 
came to England, arriv- 
ing in London in the 
year 1822, the firm 
in subsequent years 
b e c o m i n g Messrs. 
Fonseca, Monteiro, 
Guimaraens & Co. 
I do not like to skip 

Mr. j'ciiro Gon(;al'ct-s Gui^niiiacin. 

P r(j babl y Se n h or 
Guimaraens left his 
nati\c country durmg 
the distressftd times of 
the Peninsular War, 
when not onlv l^ortu- 
gal, bLit the whole of 
Europe, was converted 
into so many battle- 
fields. It will be re- 
membered that in 1820 
the Constitution was 
proclaimed in Portugal, 
which D. Joao \'l. 
accepted on his I'eturn 
from Bi'azil, where he 
had been residing for 
some years. Senhor 
Guimaraens seems t(j 
have preferred the 
stability of the old 

over a place like Braga with a short English Constitution to the one of 

notice, for it \\v:\\ deser\-es chronicling more modern growth inti-odticed m 

among the important wine districts, Portugal, and which was not of long 

past and present, of the North of duration ; for when the usurper Dom 

Portugal. From the heights of Bom Miguel ascended the throne the Constitu- 

Jesus do xMonte it is best seen and tion had to go, and the people welcomed 

appreciated, with its cathedral and a restoration to the principle of divine 

many churches lying at the base of the 
oak-clad hill up which the pilgrims wend 
their way, slowly ascending the granite 
steps where, in the hottest day, the water 
from the fountain inde fluent aqua' viva is 
always cool. In that cathedral are de- 

right. It was then that Senhor .Manoel 
Pedro Guimaraens was able to assist his 
countrymen who sought refuge m England 
until the political storm had blown o\-er. 
His house at Northwick Terrace. Maida 
\'ale, was the irudcz-vnn^ of many promi- 

B B 



nent Portuguese political refugees, who 
found in him a most hospitable host and 
one who was ready to assist in the realisa- 
tion of the dream for liberty. When D. 
Maria 11. came to the throne he received 
the Commendam of the Order of Christ. 
In England he found a more practical 
people, among whom his time as a scientist 
might be more advantageously spent. His 
native country, conspicuously favoured by 
all the gifts of Flora, had imbued him 
with a sincere admiration for the study of 

lady, by whom he had three sons, Manoel 
Fonseca Guimaraens, who joined him in 
after years as partner, and was the son 
in the firm of Messrs. M. P. Guimaraens 
& Son ; Pedro Goncalves Guimaraens, 
the present head of the firm ; and the 
youngest one, Frederico Alexandre Gui- 
maraens, the other surviving partner; 
these t\\-o latter sons joining after the 
death of their father. 

In 1858 Senhor Manoel Pedro Gui- 
maraens died ; in the following year his 







\. "< 



4^' ' 



Mr. Frtilcrico Altwaiidtc Guinuinnns. 

Mr. redro F. F. Guimaraeii 

botany, which was further stimulated h} his 
residence in the tropics. But long after 
his arrival in London he made the 
acquaintance of some of the principal 
botanists and became one of the eai'licst 
members of the Royal Botanical SiK'ict) 
at Regent's Park. His favoLirite flower 
was the pelargonium, and from cxperi- 
mentahsing in tliis plant he succeeded in 
producing some splendid specimens. 

Shortly after his arrival in London, 
Senhor (julmaracns married an Hnulish 

second son, the pix'sent head of the house, 
started for India, but in 1862 this gentle- 
man rejoined his brothers in England, 
entering the firm, and proceeded to 
Portugal in order to take mer from the 
hcu-s of Senhor Carlos Alonteiro, the 
w hole of the business, inckiding the brand, 
and merge it in that of Messrs. M. P. 
Guimaraens c'^ Son, of London, and 
Messrs. Guimaraens & Co., of Oporto. 
Senhor Manoel Fonseca Guimaraens, the 
eldest son, died in 1885. 



Mr. Pedro Gonqalves Guimaraens and 
his brother, Mr. Frederico Alexandre 
Guimaraens, although of Portuguese de- 
scent on their father's 
side, are essentially 
Englishmen, having 
been born and edu- 
cated in England, and 
until they went to Por- 
tugal they had only 
heard the L u s i a n 
language spoken at 
their father's table. 
Mr. P. G. Guimaraens 
married, in Oporto, 
Miss Helen Florence 
Fladgate, daughter of 
John Alexander 
Fladgate, Baron da 

For considerably 
over sixty years the 
offices of the London 
House have been, as 
at present, in Crutched 
Friars, where in daj'S gone by all the 
principal wine shippers were established. 

Mr. F. ,1. Gin:iuuaei:s. '/ 

In Oporto, the wine lodges and offices 
of the firm are situated in the Rua 
do Rei Ramiro, close to where in former 
times stood the Castle 
of Gaya. I have much 
pleasure in presenting 
my readers with por- 
traits of the late 
Senhor Manoel Pedro 
Guimaraens, and of 
his sons, the late Sen- 
hor Manoel Fonseca 
Guimaraens, and the 
surviving pailners, Mr. 
Pedro Goncalves Gui- 
maraens, and M r . 
Frederico Alexandre 
Guimaraens, as well 
as of their two sons, 
viz., Mr. Pedro Francis 
Fladgate Guimaraens 
and Mr. Frederick 
Alexander G u i m a - 
rae n s, J u n r. , these 
latter gentlemen 
having been admitted partners since this 
work appeared in serial form. 





in 1817, thi 
Charlotte died. 

Esq., of 21, Queen Street, 
Cheapside, London, was 
the founder of the firm 
of Messrs. Smith, Wood- 
house & Co. He was horn 
in 1740, and, ha\-ing heen 
a lixeryman of the 
Drapefs' Company, he in 
due eourse heeame an 
alderman, and exentuaily 
Lord Mayor of London 
yeai' in whicli Prineess 
Tliere is no diaiht that 
he had been interested in the wine 
trade in some eapaelty, eitlier on his 
own aeeouiit or as elerli in some house, 
when he estahlislied tlie firm of .Messrs. 
Smith & i^a)'!)- in 1784, that is, when he 
was 44 years of a,u;e. The aeeompanyint; 
p(jrtrait of the alderman is from an oil 
paintini^ in the possession of his ij;reat 
nephew. Sir Walter Gilhey, Bart., at the 
Pantheon, Oxford-street, and the following 
is a eopy (jf the inseription on the frame: - 

i; 17 |0. Die.l i8j5. 
LOKli Al W'UK ol' LONDON, 1.S17. 
Head of the Housi- of Port Wine Shippers, 
21, (Uieen SUcet, <;heapsiile, I.cin.lcni, 
anil ( iporlii. 
Smith X I'.ayh' . 
Smith iV (Jheritcm 
Chrisloiiher Smith tv Cci. 
Chrislriplier Smith, Son, Martinez X HIake 
t hristoplier Smith, Son * ("o. 



1 ,Sr,4 

I N I o 

Christopher Smith, Son & Woodhouse .. t8iS 
Smith, Woodhouse, Bros. & Co. .. .. 1S28 

Smith, Woodhouse & Co. .. .. .. 1834 

Smith, Bailey & Co 1S36 

Smith & Co 1842 

Mr. Christopher Smith was uncle of Mr. 
James Church Bailey, one of the partners 
of the firm in 1839, and great-uncle of the 
late Mr. Henry Parry Gilbcy, Mr. Walter 
(jilhey (now Sir Walter Gilhey, Bart.), and 
the late Mr. Alfred Gilbey. .Mr. H. P. 
(jilbe)- entered the cotmtina-house of 
Messrs. Smith, Bailey & Co. in March, 
1 839. 

The Mr. Martinez mentioned aboye had 
been a port wine shipper for a consider- 
able number of years before joining the 
firm, and, on retiring from it in 1810, he 
took as partner a Mr. Yarmouth Jones, the 
style being .Messrs. Martinez, Jones ^5^: Co. 
in Oporto. In 1832, or thereabouts, he 
was joined by the late .Mr. J. P. Gassiot. 

In 1810 Mr. Newman Smith, eldest son 
of .Alderman Smith, was admitted a partner 
in conjunction with Mr. ^^'illiam Pitter 
Woodhouse and .Mr. James Woodht)use, 
but in 1828 Alderman Smith and his son 
Newman, retired from the firm, and the 
younger brothei-, Sebastian, was admitted 
— the style being tdtcred to Messrs. Smith, 
W'ooilbotise Bros, i.*^; Co. 

In 1818, the year in which Mr. William 
Pitter Woodhouse and .Mr. James Wood- 
house became partners, their younger 
brother, Robert, went to Oporto in connec- 
tion with the London firm, and. aecordlno 



to the shipping list of that year, he ex- 
ported 338 pipes r)f wine in his (jwn name, 
hut long before that time the firm had been 
shippers from Oporto as I am able to 
prove by doeumentary evidence. The 
Woodhouses originally came from Bath, 
in Somerset, and had been more or less 
interested in the wine trade before joining 
the firm under review. Mr. Robert Wood- 
house married 
a Miss Pinto 
B a s t o , of 
Oporto, and 
died in 1852, 
leaving two 
scjns and one 
daughter. The 
elder s o n , 
Robert \V. 
\V o o d h o u s e , 
w ho was 
never in the 
business, mar- 
ried the Vis- 
c o Li n t e s s cl e 
Balsem;io; the 
3'ounger son, 
E d w a r d Se- 
bastian, who 
succeeded his 
father in the 
firm, married 
a daughter of 
Field iMarshal 
Sir John Fox 
died without 
issue in 1887. 

The daughter married Air. diaries Bal- 
four, a wine merchant of Edinburgh and 
London, and then- youngest child, lately 
deceased, was wife of the late, and mother 
of the present, Lord de Clifford. 

All who have been acquainted with 
Oporto during the last fifty years must 
know Mr. James Bamford Flude, who first 
became connected with Messrs. Smith, 

Chnstnplui Smith, il.P.iind 

Woodhouse Bros. & Co., of London, as 
clerk in their emploj'ment in the )'ear 
1832. Sixty-seven years I'epresent moi'e 
than the axerage life of man, but the 
genial Mr. Flude has not yet severed his 
connection with the firm, and I am enabled 
to gi\e a porti-ait of him, taken a few years 
ago. On the death of old ,Mr. Robert 
Woodhouse, in 1852, Mr. Flude was com- 
missioned bj- 
the L o n d o n 
h(juse to pro- 
ceed to Oporto 
and take over 
the manage- 
ment of the 
business, foi- 
which pin'pose 
h e w as e n - 
trusted with 
power of at- 
toi'ne)', which 
he exentually 
made o\er to 
the late Air. 
Edward Atkin- 
son, whose 
son, Edward 
Latimer, now 
holds the 
position. Mr. 
Flude joined 
Mr. Sebastian 
Smith and 
Mr. Edward 
Wood house 
as partnei- in 
London and Oportci in the year 1862. 
He first \\ent to Oporto in 1845 in the 
" Royal Tar," an old trader between 
Dublin and London. She was one of the 
earliest on the Peninsular route, calling at 
Corunna, Vigo, Oporto, Lisbon, Cadiz and 
Gibraltar, and was subsec]uently bought by 
the Portuguese Government and fitted up 
as a man-of-war. While Mr. Flude was a 

tlM i' < agW»Hj ii W i mWV il'il " » 'W l*. ' ltl W B*t.rt Wj 


Lni.l M.ivn ,'f /.oil lor 1SI7. 



clerk in the service of the firm, he had as 
a colleague the late Mr. Henry Parry 
Gilbey, who entered his great-uncle's 
(Alderman Christopher Smith) office in 
1839, when the style was .Messrs. Smith, 
Bailey & Co., and it was here that he 
gained his first insight into the wine trade 
which was in the course of a few years 
destined to be of so much service to him 
as a partner in the colossal business of 
Messrs. W. & A. Gilbey, established by 
Sir Walter and Mr. Alfred Gilbey, in 
Oxford Street, in February, 1857. From 
its commencement, Mr. Heni-y Parry 
Gilbey took the greatest interest in it, 
being made a partner by his brothers in 
1860, three years after the business had 
been started. Sir James Blyth, Bart., 
and his brother, Mr. Henry Blyth, went 
into the business as youths, and were 
eventually taken into partnership, together 
with the other members of the family, viz., 
Mr. Charles Gold I now the sitting Member 
of Parliament for the Saffron Walden 
Division of Essex), Mr. Henry Gold, and 
Mr. Henry Grinling. 

In 1830 Mr. John Shorter, a grand- 
nephew of Alderman Christopher Smith, 
went to Oporto as clerk to Messrs. Smith, 
Woodhouse & Co. ; he was there during 
the whole of the siege of the City by Dom 
Miguel. Some relics of that eventful time 
are still kept in the lodges of the firm at 
Villa No\-a. Mr. Shoiter became partner 
in Opoi'to very soon after his arrival, but 
retired in 1842. He married a Miss 
Cousens, of Sidcup, Kent, and Mr. Henry 
Smithes, of Messrs. C(xJ<i-)urn, Smithes 
and Co., married her sister. 

In 1837 Mr. John Richard Race Godfrey, 
nephew of Mr. Robert Woodhouse, went 
to Oporto and entered his uncle's office. 
He W-; ; admitted into partnership in the 
Oporto firm in 1844, and retii'cd in 1853, 
having been connected about sixteen years 
with the firm. 

1 must not omit to mention Mr. I'r-aneis 

Valentine Woodhouse, a younger brother 
of Mr. Robert Woodhouse. He never had 
anything to do with the business, but was 
called to the bar, and is now living at an 
advanced age at Albm-y. He is the last 
of the apostles of the persuasion calling 
themselves the Catholic Apostolic Church. 
Having given you the generations of the 
Smiths and Woodhouses, I may be allowed 
to introduce a few extracts from old 
documents kindly lent me by Sir Walter 
Gilbey, as they refer to the port wine 
trade nearly 200 years ago. These 
documents are of 
such importance to 
my history that I 
may be excused if 
I once again offer an 
introductory notice. 
It has always been 
a tradition in our 
Oporto history that 
our ancestors were 
first established, in 
the Northern parts 
of that countrv, as 
factors or commission 
agents between the 
P o r t u g Li e s e w i n e 
f a r m e r s and the 
merchants residing 
in Britain. This 
Ml. Ri'hrit Wiu'jhcs, tradition 1 am able 
to place on an indis- 
putable foundation, and, therefoi-e. his- 
tcirical facts must now replace ti-adition. 
The first document I ha\e selected from 
many others handed me by Sir Walter 
is an in\oice of 41 pipes of wine shipped 
from Oporto on the 12th October, 1709, 
by Messrs. Dow ker c*^- StLd<ey (founders of 
the firm of Messrs. I.ambcrt, Kingston & 
Co.), to Robert Wilmott, mei'chant, of 
London. 1 have submitted these docu- 
ments to the appreciation of Mr. William 
(^ffley Forrester, who has no doubt in 
affirming that they have a \ery important 



bearing on the early history of our 
ancestors in Portugal : — 

" Iiivoice 29 p' Red 12 p' white wnne 
Viz' on the Porto Galley 'jif Clarke 

1 i p' 2 p' white — on the Three Crowns 
Capf Tucker 4 p' red 1 p- white— on 
the Dolphin Capt" Pearson 4 p' red 

2 p' white — on tlie Stephen Capt" Digi;s 
7 p' red 3 p- u'hite — on the Loveing 
Brothers Capf Smith 70 p- red 4 p- 
white for Aee' of Mr. Robert Wihwt 
of London inerehant. 

To 29 p Red all eharges 

downe at 28sn0 ... SlJsTjO 

To 12 p white '.^'ine at 

2.3$790 28:]>i,I.S0 

To 41 empty p' at 4S ... 164^000 

To duty at ?,864 S.5i:^424 

To Iron Hoops~224 at S24U .■J.3S760 
To Primage and P. usc.'i 

at $350 14)^350 

To Provissinn at t^iperp 41$000 

Porto y' 12th Oetolj 1709. 
E E.vecpted. 
Now, although the above document 
cannot be considered in the light of a 
revelation, it is to all intents and purposes 
a confirmation of that creed which has 
been handed down to us \'erbally, for it 
has never before been exemplified in the 
f(jrm in which it is m}' privilege to present 
it to my readers. But it requires dissect- 
ing in order to gi\'e it that value which it 
deserves. This invoice, 1 suggest, is not 
as between merchant and merchant, but 
it is evidently a commission agent's invoice, 
because, in the first place, the wine is 
invoiced at a price including "all charges 
downe," which may be, to a certain extent, 
equivalent to " free on board," but when 
confronted with the following items in the 
invoice and the correspondence, it can 
only mean that the wine was bought from 
the Douro farmer for the London mer- 

chant, the intermediary being the factors, 
Dowlier and Stul^ey. In the second place, 
the casks are charged foi" at the rate of 
4S000 each and the iron hoops at 224 
reis. Then we must obsei"ve that the 
export duty is charged, which destroys the 
hypothesis of the wine being sold f.o.b. 
And to proN'e that Dowker & Stukey wei'e 
factors or commission agents, they charge 
a " provission " or commission of 1 SOOO 
per pipe. 

These documents in my hands are 
examined with as much cai'e as the 
Israelite devotes to any article on which 
he is asked to make an advance. Judge, 
then, of my surprise, when, on submitting 
the paper to the light of a gas-jet, I dis- 
co\ei-ed the familiar brand as a watermark! 



w '■ 

'I'his is the (jld crow's foot which figui^es 
right thi'oughout our great vinous history ; 
this is the (at least to me) mysterious 
mark, and when I find it on the paper on 
which an invoice is made out, bearing the 
same mark as the pipes, the mystery 
becomes all the more worthy of notice. I 
know that in those days oui' London 
merchants had their private marks which 
they stamped on their plate, as may be 
seen at the Merchant Taylors' Guild, but 
I was not prepared to find it as a water- 
mark on paper, especially where the 
initials correspond with those of the 

Above the Crow's foot there is a sort of 
shield surmounted by a coronet, and on 
the shield a hunter's horn, which makes 
one wonder if this Robert \\'ilmott. mer- 
chant, of London, was a descendant of 
Lord Wilmott, the bosom friend of 
Charles II., who married a Portuguese 
princess. That many of our nobility were 
interested in trade is a well-known fact. 

I now present you with copy of a 
letter addressed by the same factors to 
the said London merchant : — 



" Porto the 13 Septr 1710." 
" Mr. Robert Willmott 

S' The above of the iGth past is copy of 
o' last since we have not any from )0U. In the 
above we gave yon the prospect of y'' succeeding 
Vint' W'' now may begin for the reds in 10 d"- 
time, liut ha\eing had fur more y" j «ceks past 
holt weather, & someu' too warme on w' was 
before fresh, the Grapes require some Showers, 
before they are gathered, to refrfsh \' , that 
the AVines may prove to Exjiect^ in quality as 
well as quantity, tho' one cannot be truly reJide 
on till they are fitt to be tasted, the other will 
be known as soon as y^- Vint'' is o\er, of both 
you shall have y^' need- 
fuU advises in due 
time the quantity will 
alwa)S be much metre 
than last year but we 
doubt if y<= Proprietors 
will suffer any to come 
down till y^ prices are 
settled, & it must be 
time alone that must 
bring y"' to submit 
to reason w'-'' may 
probably not be till 
ab' Mar., and as there 
are several ships ex- 
pected from N I,'' f(.^r 
this Ri\er, God grant 
y'" to arrixe safe, theie 
will not want flr^*' : we 
expect y- Kawson Cap. 
Tickner thence i ui 
whom we shall be able 
to spare you iiO \ if 
the Owners di\ert her 
not, some other wa) 
but we suppose she can- 
not meet an)- jiro.spect 

of a Ijctter ffri'^ than for Lmid". AN'heat of tliis 
country is at 75(j to 800 '^ , l-iarley 4.10 rs V, l\y<.' 
400 f-, &. these prices must rise or f.dl as snppl)' 
are more or loss, fi'om p' ■, w' cniucs 
first will ha\ e the best T'^xpence)-. \>n\ will jilcise 
to impart y needfull, w'i'our dne resiiects to 
Mr. Chaplin. Webaxc this ila\ drawiu'-in urn 
a small Bill T3||f6i7 rs d s" Ivx' at 3.^.', p to 
Mr. Moses I le Medina's order in acc" to w '' be 
pleased to gi\ e jnur accusliimnrx cmpl v . 
We have not elsv but nur dne respects as S'. 
Your most hum : S' 

V. fHiW IvER 

iw sT^l\l■.^^ 

I gather from the above letter that in 
those da)-s it was customary for the wine 
farmers to meet tiie British factors in 
Oporto and tiiere sell their wines, ancf that 
tiiey were not disposed to allow any to be 
sent to Oporto tintil a price for the year's 
prodtiet had been settled. The letter is 
cxident!)' written to a principal, and the 
writers arc intermediaries between Mr. 
Willmott, the principal in London and the 
wine farmers in Porttitjal. Mr. Willmott, 
or Wilmot, did not confine his transactions 
to Dowker & Stukey, 
for 1 find him doing 
business with other 
firms in Oporto, 
Vianna, and Lisbon, 
the firms charging 
him a commission. 
In an invoice from 
A'iaiina, it is stated 
"The pri me cost 
of 11 p s . \' i a n a , 
.-£106 ISs. 2d.." which 
w-orks out at less than 
.£10 per pipe. 

The following let- 
ter is another proof 
of this, for it -will be 
n otic c d that the 
writers remark " we 
intended but cannot 
send y(-)ii in\-oice of 
yotn- wines, haveing 
y-et son-ie disputes 
with y' l'ro|ineloi-s. but hope may in 
o' next." Tl-iis ren-i.irk would not be n-iade 
b\- shi|i|-iers of their own wine, for the 
ptu'cliaser in Lnglai-id could have no 
interest in a disptite betweeri thei-1-1 and the 
hirmers. 'flic disptite is e\ idently between 
Messrs. Dowker c"x- Stiikey, the writers of 
the letter, as represcntii-ig their eliei-it. 
Ivobert Willmott. ii-i Lngland. and the 
Doin-o l-itrmer. Before qtiotii-|g the letter 
i will ,|tist mei-ition :is a coincidence, that 
Sebtistian Smith, son of ,Aldern-ian Si-nith. 

/ 111,1 1,1 



married a Miss Wilmot, but I cannot say 
iF there was any c(jnnection between her 
familj' and that of l-vobert Wiihiiott, or 
Wilmot. 1 am inchned to believe there 
was, because, as I have before said, our 
wine families intermarried to a very great 
extent. F^. Dowker and R. Stukey were 
the originators of the firm of Messrs. 
F.ambert, Kingston & Egan. Mr. Charles 
Kingston married a daughter of the Rev. 
Edward WoodhoLise (a brother of old All-, 
l^obert Woodhouse) by his wife, a daughter 
of Alderman Christopher Smith ; there- 
fore the Smiths, the Kingstons and the 
Woodhouses were all connected by mar- 
riage, and what could be more natural than 
that Sebastian Smith should marry into 
the family of the Wilmots with whom his 
sister's friends were so intimately inte- 
rested in business. 

" Pnrto the 25th Ocf, 1710." 
" Mr. Robert Willmott." 

" S' The above of y^^ ijth past is Copy of 
o' last, since have not any of yours -Our 
N'intaji^e is o\'er, and the wines will be more 
plenty than last year by 1/4 to 1/3'' and 
y- Proprietors say they will prove very good, 
w'^'' will be best knowne w" they are tasted 
but we may presume no one will be forw'' in 
goeing into y" Country to taste them, perhaps, 
for some m"", and should any, it is more than 
probable that y" Proprietors will not come to 
a price, it is said the Vianas, & allsoe y= I,ix* 
wines prove good & we doubt not but 
y= Ports may be y- same, but their prices will 
not be settled, at least we dont see they can 
till after Xmas, w" anything offers worth your 
notice you shall have it— Wheat, Rye, and 
Barley are like to keep up their demand if too 
much come not from fforreigne marquets,— 
We intend'' bat cannot send you Invoice of 
your wines, haveing yet some disputes w"' 
y= Proprietors, but hope may in 0' ne.xt —We 
have sold your hose, and but 10 p^ of your 
C'olch'' and y= Ace" Sales we hope soone to 
send, and allsoe Acc° Curr' y<= ball, of last year 
due to us and your 35 p'^ wine w"'y= charges 
on your Martha Cap. Kinkhed will make about 
2300^. Your remittances on Mr. Renels two 
bills are iiool, 0' draughts y<^ 16 June and 
13 S' were for 434I6 1 6 ; your hose and bays 
w^'sold, and y" m° in May make ab' 570I. 

Thus we shall be obliged in a i" or two to 
draw on you 3 : or 4006 our shopkeepers will 
not meddle w'^' any Colch'"', at least \'- best 
piaymas"" will not meddle with an)" but the 
very best and the}- must ha\'e an equal good- 
ness from one end to y'- other— You ha\-e 
assortments by you of Colld Bays -We have 
not else but o' du Respects as 

S"" )-our most hum : S^- 


Another letter dated from Lisbon in t le 
year 1712, and addressed to the sariie 
merchant, thi'ows some light on the 
political affairs of those days : — 

" Lisbon y'- 24 May, 1712, Mr, Robert 
Willmott — S' (Jur last was the 5th April when 
sent you bill of Lading for 6 pipes of wine on 
board of the New Society Xin\on Masters 
Comd^' Since we have Shipt on y'- Same two 
pipes of whitte of which inclosed you have 
bill of lading — & p ne.\t you'l have Inxoice of 
the whoUe, y= Porto Ships are att last arri\ed 
here and y= Knglish and Dutch Conxoy are to 
Saile to-morrow, wind and weather permitting, 
it consist in 10 men of warr, would ha\-e been 
glad to ha\-e heard how- you foui-|d the wines 
per y" Portugal (,ally for our Goxernm' — 
what now offers from 

Your most hum : ser\-'- 

I will remind my readers that the 
expression "for otir Gfjvernment" means 
" for our guidance." Respecting the 
Convoy of Ten Ships of War, it will be 
remembered that we were at war with 
F^ouis XFY. of Frai-ice, who claimed the 
crown (jf Spain for his grandson, after- 
wai'ds F^hllip \. England supported the 
rival claims of the .Archduke Charles, and 
Germany and Holland united with her in 
the Grand Alliance against the ambitious 

But to return to .Messrs. Garniei-'s 
in\-oice. F find that F^isbon wine was moi-e 
than double the price of port, for in 1712 
port is invoiced at 23S,5()0 per pipe and 
Lavradio (spelt Laverdia) is charged at 
49$700 per pipe, f.o.b. In Lisb(.)n the 
commission was 5 per cent, and not 1 SOOO 
per pipe as in Oporto. Of course, it may 

C G 


be argued that the quahty of the Lisbon bei\ 1712, and signed by Dowker, Stukey 

was superior to the port, but I have it on no and Stutt, I observe that four pipes of port 

less authority than that of iMr. John Croft, were forwarded from Oporto to Viannafor 

a member of the Factory at Oporto, that shipment to London by the " Betty," John 

port wine at the commencement of the Moore, captain. The charges for doing so 

last century "was 10 mil. reis or about amounted to 2)^150 per pipe, and the wine 

£2 15s. per pipe." The hrst record we was conveyed in a boat. The distance by 

have of the shipments of port from Oporto sea is about 40 miles. The cost of a pipe 

is as follows :- - of port wine in th(;se days was between 

Year. Pipes. Year. Pipes. £5 and £6, but I cannot do better than 

lfi78 .^. 408 1698 ... 8,003 give a copy of the invoice. 

I fi79 1,(S10 1699 6,234 ■* In\oice ul ten p!^ red and fi\e p" white, 

1 poA yic 1700 7 '^S7 f '■'^^ i^arah John VIoxham, & four p- red sent 

'" '" ^'7f 1 '" ^'iana p 1)'-'at to be shipt ab' of Hester 

"^'^^ ■■■ '■'- '^^' ■■■ *']•'"["* |ohn Vincent, say the Betty John Moore & of 

1682 ... 700 1702 ... 3.930 two p- red and four p- u-"= p the Hester John 

1683 ... 1,251 1703 ... 7,567 \'incent, ace'. Mr. Robert ^Villmott, of 

1684 ... 538 1704 ... 10,078 London, Merchant (The Mark is W' ) 

1685... 393 1705... 6,188 To 1 6 p^ red all charges 

1686... 253 1706... ,5,732 ^''™"^'^' „•• • • ^3*5io . . 370»i6o 

I o o p'- w"^'' all charges 

1^87... 315 1707... 10,706 ,, J^, ^^ ., \. .3*360 .. .10S240 

1688 ... 1,096 1708 ... 7,419 To 25 emptx- p- .. .. 4^000 .. lootooo 

1689 ... 1,730 1709 ... 8,406 To Consnlado A Sacca 

1690... 4,988 1710... 8,994 on n, red .. .. ^720.. 11^520 

,|.,,j j^-jyy ]^,, e)072 To Consulado .V- Sacca 

1692... 12^465 1712... 6^949 ■,- "V "w . ' '■ r ' ' *''° ' ' '*''° 

I o f znal lV bucculio, a 

1693 ... 13,011 1713 ... 11,705 new duty on 23 p- .. lifooo.. -11*500 

1694 ... 10,514 1714 ... 10,757 To charges sending 4 p- 

1695 ... 9,221 1715 ... 8,807 to Viana, as Boat, 

1696... 10,295 1716... 13,990 tilling up e.-' . . .. 2».3o.. .s*6oo 

,,,,,_ o j^-/> 1-1-7 1 r, .> I - I'o Ciza et^ ' on 21 p- 64 '" 

169/ ... 8,6o0 1/1/ ... 10,34,-1 ^ . 

p \ on 4 p" 250 reis .. 25344 

l-rom 1 718 to 1727, I 7,692 pipes perannimi "to Iron Hoops- 150 .. ^240 .. ^6*000 

1728 to 1737, 19,234 ,. ,, To Primage and Pious 

,. l738to 1747, I8„5,56 ,. „ , "*" ••. •• •■ ^^5^^ ' ' ^'*75o 

I o C ommission .. .. itjooo .. 2c;ii'000 

„ 1748 to 1756, 16,354 .. ,. ^ 

In the following year commenced the ^23*874 

mK|uitous Oporto Wine Company moin)- 1 11 the aboxe mxoicc wc are con- 

pol\. trontcd with a few charges which rec]uire 

It seems b_\ some old books I ha\ e before cxplanaticni. For instance " Consulado e 

me that in 1 780 there were 100 pipes of Sacca" liter.tlly transl.itcd would mean 

Factor)' wine, and 2,824 pipes of lowei' Consulage and b.ig. but the "bag" was a 

grade wine shipped from Oporto for the collection made b\ the British community 

British Na\'y. Why doesn't the First LcM'tl for \arioits purposes, apparently more 

of the Admiralty resuscitate so good and being charged in respect of red wine than 

invigorating a practice ? He would receive of white. " Uztial " was a tax levied on 

the hearty thanks of Jack Tar and the pixwisions, and " suceidio " is e\'idently 

port wine shippers. meant for " subsidio." or subsidy. "Ciza" 

In an imoice datetl Porto, I9tb Septcm- was an impost levied by the Excise. 



I have before me an invoice of 12 pipes 
of Vianna wine. The shipment tooli place 
in 1709 on board the "Sparrow" Gaily 
from Vianna. The insurance is the first 
item, being at the rate of 16 guineas per 
cent, on £75. This would naturally include 
the war risk. The prime cost of the 12 
pipes was £90, for which amount a bill was 
drawn for 300S000 at 30 d/s, exchange 60d. 
to the mllreis. The duty paid in London 
amounted to £147 1 Is., and the freight was 
at the rate of £8 10s. per tun, working out 
at £51 4s. Among the petty expenses 
i find the following: — Broakerige to .Ino. 
Green Cooper, 8s. ; paid Surveyor, 2s. ; 
Land W alters and Watching, 7s. 6d. ; 
Gaugers, 10s. 8d. ; Lyterige, ^\'harf and 
Portge., 17s. 

I often come across the expression 
" Eager wine," and at first 1 was much 
puzzled to find a reasonable explanation. 
1 searched a great many books, but dis- 
covered no mention of it. Then I care- 
fully examined an old ledger lent me by 
Sir Walter Gilbey, and I noticed that 
"Eager" is always invoiced at a lower 
price than other wines. In July, 1711, 1 
pipe Red Eagei-, duty paid, was sold at 
£11, which would not leave much for the 
prime cost. I ha\'e now arri\ed at the 
conclusion that Eager wine is Viiilio vcrdc, 
corrupted from the French I'iii aiirrc. In 
this same ledger the pious merchant 
returns thanks for a lucky year in the 
following terms : — " To Proffitt and Loss, 
for advance this year, God be praised." 
In the invoices from Oporto it was cus- 
tomary to make the following charge : — 
"To Primage and Pious Uses" at the 
rate of 350 reis per pipe. Aly ingenuity 
cannot explain what primage has to do 
with pious uses, or the latter with the \\ine 
trade in general, or in particular. 

In an account rendered by a Mr. 
Michell Phillips, cooper, in 1708, I find 
the names of the following vessels then 
trading with Oporto and X^ianna : — The 

" Providence," " Boney\enturc " (Boa 
Ventura)" " Ordinade," " Two Brothers," 
"James Swan." " ^'(Jrk .Merchant," 
" \'iana .Merchant," " Porto .Merchant," 
" .VatJTaniall," " Diamon," ".Abraham," 
&c. Among the items are: — "ffor foixeing 
and filling ; ffor extraordinary forcing ; 
ffor duble forceing : ffor Racking 1 Aulm 
Cask; ffor half Cupperidge for 6 Butts; 
ffor parting 2 Butts ; ffor forceing and 
\\hitening 2 Butts." Another item is:- - 
To vault hier i of 10s. a week for 7 weeks, 
£1 15s." 

It will be in the memoi-y of all that to 
one Paul Methuen is attributed the 
blending of white and red port, so the 
story goes, whence the term Methuen 
port ; and, of course, everyone has heai'd 
f)f the Methuen Treaty. In the old ledger 
to \\ hich I have already referred, I find an 
account opened under the heading — His 
Excellency Paul Methuen — in which it is 
shown that he either consumed wine on a 
large scale or had a small business. His 
account is a varied one, from money 
advanced to frait^ht paid. 

A document of great xalue from an 
histoi-ical point of \'iew, and probably 
imiqLie, has been entrusted to my care for 
reproduction by Sir Walter Gilbey. Some 
feu advertisements of sales by the candle 
are still to be found, but the\- do not 
present to us the details of the sales of 
those days. Furthermore, the accom- 
panying fac-simile of the catakjgue issued 
in September, 1713, by Thomas Tomkins, 
broker, described as of Seething Lane, in 
Tower Street, is some forty or fifty years 
older than any advertisement I have yet 
come across. This catalogue, as will be 
noticed, was used at the sale which took 
place 186 years ago at Lloyd's Coffee 
House, for the prices realised are noted on 
the two pages. The reserve price for the 
ports was £24, advancing 5s. each bid, and 
the purchasers' names are noted. As it to 
impress authenticity on the face of it, the 


" '"".^r '■•-''r^'''''^^'r"1^T!^^'^':''"'S^^^h ';'^^w' 



r- o R. 


ON Iburf.ldv iic:o.p rlie L:+rli 
ofSeptcmkr 1 7 n^; cit L-^j'/^ 
Cortl;c-hou(e in Loinlurd-prcct, 
at 6ix a Cluck intbc After- 
noon lonlyone Cask ot IVine 
in a Lotc) Fxcelkpc hew Rec^ 
Oporto, Red harvaliim, -arid new 
XyWwi: Cnrcronlla Whines, neai-. 

Wrnc*, dtvj', ijiij'iu, iuon^, IruTi, 
and ncac --. . — - 

W'''%i^^^-^i^'^(y^^y '^'g^ Gage) of Excellent 
new ^^'^ ri[;hc bjrr.ilur l.uhoit VViiK'S, 
deep, I'righr, Tcron^, of rhc rrur 


Leat, and nejt. 

cry large Cage) oi ricw 

;- Pipci and (white C.ncJ'uaUj l.iiiwi 

6 nogflieads r VVines, very lirong, extra- 

\ ordinary good, and near. 





Red 0/)or/o \\ 


» UCt[ 


- 1 

i?y .<' 1 at 


. ad\ 

. ^ ;, each 

- : 

r.- _ . p. 





- 4 

i'r t 

;■; ':x+. 


■-'< ■■ ~ 1 

-. ^ Zj 





1 1 

'.'V -^ 1 

'- - , 

1 : 

- ?,"'.. '"l 


rheitfT-otjoi Rtccllcfu/cw Red 0/w;j Wu)i.> 
^rc m a Vault under a Surgeon's, iht /'«-w/', 
jgainil the Arclj in (.finh'-i-Frnn. 


I ij9 i-Sj. .jv. ;j 

Vew Wi.i'c CA'\.r.'.:i!.i /,;,/..■'; \Vinc5, very ilrong 
L^ i..o.-L!inui-y good, and near. . 


I etc !■■ 

■ ,. , .y ^'hi -/f, ,T- 




I Pipe 
1 Htid 

I ditto 



as , 

■at I ^ /. 
at v'jt. 
at 2i A 
at 1 J /. 

:.t :6/. 
.1 I ■; /. 

ai 1 ; /. 

Tl'j^: l..ij hA^i;;le!jt n-.v^- U-.:^'. !ijrraLir 2;;d ntu 
V. f.!!t Ci'-.-i-. :.?j/,;; -(W.i^ri?, re in a Wj.'^huuic 
K^' !- I i.j; I':!!- Pulrol S;ifr5, at tfi,a Hn'.! ofiliu 
G:lc-.vay if firing l!c /-^j.-j,.-; at Gji'.i-iC-j, bt 
(ViL'-ii llic t:/;'u.« /-■(/... '( .;r.J V^t7't3i>ii: 

lijr.r f.'Oiti -^ ;r:t;:!:\!ornin!'lo.i,,injjrom'»>t«j'' ^W«. 
') w tl-tCv ni.^2. -nJ ■»!' ItinfuAj, t)ie J4th, nil 
tfit rrnc otSaii. 

Cata'l■'KUt^ 10 I* I13.I m1',l-c VW laiJ ■.'- ■.■■:; \\ :. 
LornliiU, ;/i-/<,.N .Coiltii-houli; in .\jtri«rtjr.ji4'>in 
W'i'y '-'ftJ if, ht.(t:tnr!}-lit<.:T, til? r}:iiC'C{Uii C u;1lu- 

houfc tiLar th-- C"ii- r-hou^r^ a id, .u'^^tw^i v.x.'Ti:^^ 
houfc nt;xv rlic C«? /,n./j[w/:. 

Ptiwd (or Ibyifiiim, 8io!icr, in .''.r/ixiA '*^ 


tTjrricd o\'ci. 




catalogue is stained with wine from the 
tasting board, and it does not require a 
great stretch of the imagination to picture 
the quaint old coffee house with the 
assembled merchants, and the auctioneer 
with his inch of candle by his side which, 
on being lighted, marked the time during 
which the bidding might take place, for at 
its expiring wink the buyer's name was 
declared. It will be observed that the 
pipes are stated to be of " very large gage," 
and on referring to some old documents I 
find that it was not an unusual thint; for a 

pipe of port to contain 140 gallons. The 
qualificative " neat " signifies genuine. 
Barrabar Lisbon wines are the Barra-a- 
barra wines, and Carcavalla means Carca- 
vellos. Xow comes the difficulty ; what 
does '■ — Leaf" mean? This gave me 
something to think about, but at the last 
moment a friend suggested that as in those 
days the preparing of a dye or engra\"ing 
was \'ery expensive, the " — I^eaf " is 
meant t(j con\'ey the idea of the well-known 
mark — a \ine leaf with a dash (jr balance 
across it. 




ORD Beaconsfield once 
said, in the House of 
Lords, when replyint; to 
a question about the 
encroachments of Russia 
in Asia, that in that con- 
tinent there was plenty 
of room for Great Britain 
and Russia. Tiie same 
remarl\ applies to the port wine trade, 
where there is scope for all \'\ho ha\e the 
necessary means and knowledge of the 
business at their disposal. \\'ithout 
ample means the day has gone by when 
beginnei-s can expect to succeed ; they 
may struggle on for a short time on credit, 
but they will soon run to the extent of 
theii- tethei-. Although Messrs. Gonzalez, 
Byass & Co. ha\e quite recently opened 
up an office and wine lodges in Oporto, 
they have been connected with the old 
city and its principal export trade for the 
greater part of half a century, and ha\e 
thus acquired an intimate knowledge i>l' 
the port wine trade in all its branches. 
But their advent to Oporto was welenmed 
by the Portuguese, as they possess the 
sine ijiiii mill t(] eonchict a large export 
business. Messrs. Cjonzalez, Bjass cv Co. 
have ni \', to all intents and pui-poscs 
identilied themseb'cs with Oporto by be- 
coming shippers of their own wines. 

In the annals ol' the wine trade in 
Londun they are better known as shcrr\- 

shippers. The firm was established by 
Don Manuel Gonzalez in 183S, at Jerez- 
de-la-Frontera. In the course of a few 
\ears he was joined by Mr. Dubosc, and 
latei- on by Mr. Robert Blake Byass, of 
w horn a portrait herew ith, and afterwards 
by his son, Mv. Robert NichoU Byass, 
who materially assisted in developing the 
business. The present partners of the 
firm are Don Manuel Crispulo Gonzalez. 
Don Pedro Nolasco Gonzalez (sons of the 
founder), Mr. Robert Nieholl Byass and 
his son, Mr. Robert William Byass. 

The surname Gonzalez represents in 
Spain all that is noblest and grandest in 
the Christian history of that coLuitry. 
Count Fernan Gonzalez was the foLuider 
of the Castilian monarchy, and every trLie 
Spaniard bearing that name claims descent 
from the hero of Caseajarcs, in the same 
way that all the Campbells are siqiposed 
to be related to the Duke of Argyll. 
I obser\c that Richard Ford, in his 
" Handbook to Spain," says : — " Messrs. 
Gonzalez i!^ Co., have a model l>0(ft'gd on 
the .lliiiiiiihi ]'ujii. t)f their 'twelve 
apostles.' try the w uie contained in cask 
No. Ii from the entrance door; their 
olornso limy vicjo ; theii- ■ nutliiis<tliiii .' 90 
years old ; their Hast Indian sherry, so 
called because it has maLle the \oyage to 
liulla, for the sole pui-pose of improving 
Its quality; their N.P.U. (;/r t^Ius ultra) 
w inc. 50 ye;irs old and valued at £300 per 



butt, and last, but not least, their viun dc 
ycsii Cliris/n, n vintaf^e oi the year 1811, 
should all be tasted. Upon the oecasion 
of the e.\-Oueen Isabel's visit to this bodcc^n 
in 1862, Messrs. Gonzalez chj-istened aftej- 
lier a new butt of 1832 wine. A silver 
padloeli guards the bunghole, which is not 
to be removed until her death." This 
took place nearly thirty-lour years ago, 
and the e\-ciueen is still very much alive. 

This wine of Messrs. Gonzalez, Byass 
& Co., called the TweKe Apostles, 
reminds one of the celebrated liquor in 
the Bremen cellar, where twelve lart;e 
casks were kept, bearing the names of the 
Apostles. It was said that the wine called 
after Judas was the best. Of 
course, eveiyone knows that 
the Rosenwein, nearly three 
centuries old, was the finest 
in the cellar, and as a few 
bottles wei-e drawn off the 
casks were filled up with 
Apostle wine. The Rosen- 
wein and Apostle wine are 
only sold to the citizens of 
Bremen, and the burgo- 
masters have the privilege 
to draw a few bottles and to 
send them as presents to 
crowned heads. With their 
adniirati(jn for genius the inhabitants of 
Bremen Lised to send a buttle of Rosen- 
wein U> Goethe on the annixersarj- (jf his 

These twelve Apostles, to which Richard 
Ford refers, are twelve huge \'ats called 
Los Apostolcs, each holding 1,700 gallons 
of old sherry of different types, such as 
the pale, gold, fino, Amontillado, Oloroso, 
Pedro Ximenez, and muscadel varieties. 
Richard Ford, in calling attention to No. 
3 pipe as you enter the bodega, shows that 
he had as keen an appreciation of what is 
fine in wine as he has always had for what 
is divine in architecture. Andalucia, not 
the whole of Spain as some erroneousi)' 

Mr. RiJji-li Iil,:ke Ii)asi 

suppose, is the Tarshish of the Bible, and 
it was in this old kingdom that Ford 
foimd a greater field for his scientific and 
artistic reseaixh. The word Andalucia is 
deri\ed from Bclnd-al-Aiiddhish, the land 
of the West, as it was called by the Moors. 
This is p(U' c.vct'llciicL' the land of procrasti- 
nation, of iiiiiiiniiii, piisiiihj iiiiiiiiiiiit , and an 
Hnglishman who intends to take up his 
abode there should bear in mind that his 
stock of patience will ha\e many calls 
made on it. In no part of Spain is work 
more avoided than in Andalucia, but in com- 
pensation for this love for natui-e's comfort 
the people are \ei-y polite and their tnitu, 
social intercoiu'se, is most agreeable. 

The principal hodcgns of 
.Messi's. Gonzalez, Byass &■ 
Co. are situated at Jerez-de- 
la-Frontera, and comprise an 
area of sixteen acres. On 
the 27th February, 1882, the 
late King Don Alfonzo XII. 
and his consort Dona Maria 
Chi-istina wei-e entertained 
hy the firm at a banquet in 
the Lii Coiu'liii Bodega. The 
founder of the firm, Don 
Manoel M. Gonzalez, of 
whom a porti'ait is gi\en 
was still ali\-e, he died on 
the 6th Januar)-, 1887. I canncjt do better 
than reproduce the following description 
of the liodcgds oi the firm : — " Thei'e are 
S(jme twenty hodcgas, the a\"ei-age stock <jf 
wine being from 16,000 to 20,000 butts. 
The largest and most important hndign is 
called the Bodegu dc lixtroccicn, in which 
the \^ine destined for shipment is lodged. 
In thiibodega about 7,000 butts are stored. 
The Bodega Los Gigaiifes, " the Giants," is 
the one in \\hich fifteen large \ats used for 
blending are kept. In La Union the twelve 
Apostles stand, each one containing 1,700 
gallons of \ery old sherry. The original 
establishment of the firm now constitutes 
a set of bodcgiis, known as La Constaneia. 



The Bodci^ii Rcscrviuhi contains, as the 
name indicates, a collcctidn of \-ery fine 
\vines of ui'cat aije. In the lart^e stone 
wine-press 22,000 i^allons of niosto can be 
pressed daily. There are cxtensi\e 
cooperage \\'orliS and a branch railway 
connecting the wine stores of the firm «lth 
the main line. A loading platform, inclined 
plane, lifts, and other accessories to facili- 
tate the work of mo\ing the bntts are all 
in evidence. 

In these huge hnihgas nothing is wanting 
to render them worthily representative 
of one of the most important national 
industries of Spain. Naturalh' in such an 
establishment we would expect to Hnd a 
distillery where brandy is 
made and refined, tool and 
machine fcnmdry, cask \\ash- 
ing and scouring sheds, 
bottling departments, houses 
for the accommodation of 
the labourers, &c., but it is 
much to the credit of Messrs. 
Gonzalez, Byass & Co., that 
in addition t(j these they ha\e 
established schools where 
the children of their work- 
people are educated free. 
There are five steam engines, 
each of about 30 h.p., and 
a considerable t|uantity of other machinery 
on the pi-emises, where 240 men find daily 
employment. On their large vineyards at 
Carrascal, Balbaina, Macharnudo, Ducha, 
Torrox and Valdepajuela, yielding aboLit 
3,000 butts each year, and including then- 
branch establishments at MontiUa, San- 
kicar. Bonanza, and Ptierto Real, they 
employ about 400 more hands. 

Jerez is a well-beiilt town, and, as com- 
pared \\'ith some other places in Spain, is 
tolerably clean looking. It was taken 
from the Moors by Alfonso el Sabio in 
r2(S4. The public promenades are \ery 
pleasant places; the Jliiiiwdu \'iiiii, as 
the name suggests, is \'ery old, and here 1 

am again reminded of the proximity to the 
hotlcL((is of the firm under notice. Jerez 
has alwa\-s been famous for its Majus, 
which might he translated " mashers." 
These Majus are seen in their finerj' at 
the hull-fight on Assumption Day at 
Puerto Santa Maria. It is from them 
that 3'ou can learn the langLiage of the 
bull-ring and grackially appreciate all the 
qualities necessary to a perfect bull. The 
Ciirrida tic Tores is the sight of Spain and 
all Englishmen visiting the coLmtry should 
attend one. Andalucia is the head- 
i.|uarters of the ring, and Se\ille the 
capital. As a rule eight bulls are killed at 
each fiiiuioii, but sometimes a ninth is 
called for and he is st^ied a 
/oro lie grdcid. The bull 
dashes OLit from the toril 
and is received by the pien- 
ilorc's mounted on sorry- 
looking horses. As the bull 
I charges, the piciulai-, holding 
the lance undei- his right 
arm, pushes to the right and 
tLu-ns his horse to the left. 
The bidls, which develop 
great activity, are designated 
by the ntujus as iilcgirs, ion 
iiiiicliiis pu'niiis. or in our 
slang, festive, trick^•, many- 
Tc bull which tries to escape 
his fate is called iiii tiiiniiitc lobunle puiiro. 
a contemptible cow ai'd. In Portugal the 
bullfights ai-e far tamer than in Spain, but 
not w holly devoid of exciting features. 

Sanlucar, or San Lucar de Barrameda, 
IS deserving of notice, as it was from here 
that the gieat Portuguese navigator, 
1-ernando de Magalhaes, embarked on the 
10th August, 1519, on the first circum- 
na\ igation of the w orld. Montilla has the 
honour of being the birthplace of the 
Great Captain Gonzalvo de Cordova, who 
retired to Loja from the suspicions of the 
ungi-atefid Ferdinand. Bonanza is so 
called fidm a hermitage erected to Our 

'W .)/. Gouuilr. 




Lady of fine weather. Puertf) Real lies 
at the head of the Troeadero on an inner 
bay of Port St. Mary. It was at this 
place that Ma^o moored his fleet, and 
Cffisar his lonj^ galleys; the treasure 
^(alleons, called the " Twelve Apostles," 
belonging to Philip were anchored here 
when they were taken by Hssex ; and in 
April, 1587, Drake "singed the King of 
Sp^iin's whiskers " by defeating more than 
100 French and Spanish men-of-\\'ar with 
a fleet of 30 small ships under his 

The traveller in Spain who has not 
visited Andalucia knows nothing worth 
knowing of the land of the Cid Campeadoi", 
of whom it is said that " he was born in a 
gooci hour " — " He who, in an auspieioLis 
moment, girded on his sword," and who 
said of himself, " Soy cl Cid, Hnnra dc 
Espdiiii," although on one occasion he 
was guilty of filling with sand a trunk- 
clamped with iron and pledging it to 
the Jews as full of gold for a 
loan of 600 marks, which amount, how- 
ever, he afterwards repaid. But to return 
to Andalucia. Can it not boast that, «-hen 
the Sun of Raphael had set in Italy, 
painting here arose in a new form in 
Velazquez, Murillo, Zurbaran, and Akjnzo 
Cano ? Can it not justly boast of Granada 
and Ronda, the former with its world- 
famed Alhambi-a, the latter with its Casa 
del Riy Mom, built in 1042 by Al Motahed, 
who drank his wine out of jewel-studded 
aoblets formed from the skulls of those 
whom he had slain ? And may it not be 
proud of Seville, with its fine cathedral 
tower — the Giralda — built by the famous 
Abu-Jusuf-Yacub, in 1196? The cathedral 
is one of the largest and finest in Spain. 
Andalucia is specially famous for its 
beautiful women, fine wine, and good 
horses. An authority on matters equine 
gjiys : — " The Andalucian horse is round in 
all its quarters, though inclined to be small 
in the barrel ; he is broad-chested, and 

always carries his head high, especially 
when running; his length bears no pro- 
portion to his height, which sometimes 
reaches to sixteen hands; he is, to make 
use (if a Spanish tei"m, iiiuv rccdi^idn, ' well 
gathered up,' especially when tearing 
along at full speed ; he never, howe\er, 
stretches out with the long graceful sweep 
of the English thoroughbred, and his 
action is apt to be loose and shambling." 

Speaking about pf)rt and sherry reminds 
me of the importance Sir Thomas More 
attached to good wine. On one occasion, 
when on a foreign mission representing 
Henry VHI., he was just about starting to 
present his credentials when the idea struck 
him that a few glasses of good wine might 
give him nerve, and thus assist him in the 
approaching inter\iew. When his ser- 
vant had helped him to a third glass, he 
persuaded his master not to take a fourth; 
but, when Sir Thomas returned from his 
audience, he thus admonished his man : — 
" You rogue ! What mischief have you 
done me ? 1 spoke so to the Emperor on 
the inspiration of those three glasses that 
I drank that he told me 1 was fit to govern 
three parts of the world. Now, )'ou dog ! 
If I had drLink the fourth glass 1 had been 
fit to govern all the world ! " In an old 
poem, Pasquit's " Palinodia," we find the 
following lines: — 

Give me sack, old sack. Boys, 

To make the muses merrj- ; 
The life of mirth and the joy of the earth 

Is a cup of old sherry. 

There are a few Spanish wine sayings 
worthy to be recorded : Mas vale viiin 
iiiiildifo que tigiiii hcuditit — " Damned wine 
is better than holy water." The Spaniards, 
as a rule, are a sober people ; they say, 
At;ua coiiio huey,y vino conu> Key — "Drink 
water like an ox, and wine like a king." 
They still use the hota in which to carry 
wine, and it is very amusing to see them 
drink out of each other's leather bottles. 
The Catalonians and the Aragonese ne\'er 

D D 



touch the bold with their lips, hut hold it 
at a distance ahove their mouths, andthtis 
imbibe the precious liquor. They ne\'er 
mix water with their wine, as they very 
wisely opine that by so doing you spoil two 
good things. 

Viiio Mora is so called because, like the 
Moor, it is unbaptised. " Drink not bad 
wine to please the fairest ; Hrst of all 
regard thy stomach." "Good wine is a 
gentleman; treat it as such." "Your 
enemy's wine is no worse than your 
friend's." " A cellar without «'ine is like 
a home without woman." 

It is always of interest to record the 
opinions of celebrated scientists respecting 
the different kinds of wine. Of port, Pro- 
fessor Bi-ande says: — "When old and of 
good quality it is one of the most whole- 
S3me of vinous liquors ; it strengthens the 
muscular system, assists the digestive 
p:)\ver, accelerates the circulation, exhila- 
rates the spirits, and sharpens the mental 
energies." Of sherry, the same authority 
says: — " It is a fine wholesome wine, and 
when of due age and good condition, and 
possessing a dry aromatic flavour and 

fragrancy, it is rendered a \aluable 
article of the Materia Medica." Dr. 
Richardson says that he must advert to the 
beneficial effects produced by the use of 
good port, as it resists the exciting causes 
of cholera. " The use, then, of good wine, 
and particularly of generous port, is 
imperatively called for and absolutely 
necessary, not only f(jr the cure of the low 
diseases now pre\'ailing, but for their 
prevention, and for the preservation of 
health. God help those who cannot afford 
it, for neither porter, ale, nor gin will 
supply its place. 1 would urge upon those 
who are prejudiced against the use of port, 
or those ^^'ho imagine it does not agree 
with them, to make an unbiassed trial of 
its effects, and if thei'c be any who find by 
experience that it really does not answer, 
1 tliink it my duty to warn them that, 
generally speaking, when this is the case, 
there is something far wrong in the system 
that ought immediately to be corrected. 
The iisl' of part i.wiic is, tlu-rcforc, ,i good 
criterion of Iictiltli." Professor Cullen 
goes still further, for he says, " Wine is of 
little service unless taken pretty largeh'." 





S far back as 1718 this 
old firm was started by 
Mr. John Clarl{, who was 
married in Oporto to Miss 
Prudence Biirgoyne, but 
I have no further record 
of him. In 1723 the firm 
\ became Messrs. Clark & 
"hornton, and in 1729 
'Mr. William Warre was 
admitted partner, when the stjle was 
Messrs. Clark, Thornton & Warre. This 
Mr. Warre married Miss Elizabeth White- 
head in 1745, but I cannot say if she was 
related to Mr. John Whitehead, who was 
appointed Consul in 1756. It was this Mr. 
Warre who, of the Bi'itish residents, first 
commenced accjuiring land in Villa Nova. 
In 1734 the firm was changed to Messrs. 
Clark, Warre & Newby. In 1749 Air. 
Thomas Trollope, as well as Mr. Daniel 
Lesueur, joined the firm, when it became 
Messrs. Warre, Lesueur & Trollope. Mr. 
Trollope married Miss Amelia Page in 1750, 
and next year Miss Mary Trollope, sister 
of the above, was married to Mr. Tynn 
Nash, of Messrs. Burmester, Nash & Co. 
(now Messrs. Butler, Nephew & Co.). The 
following is a list of the alterations in the 
firm from 1718 to 1777:— 

John Clark 1718 

Clark & Thornton ... 1723 

Clark, Thornton & Warre 1729 
Clark, Warre & Newby ... 1734 
Warre, Newby & Bowman 1743 
Warre, Lesueur & Trollope 1 749 


Warre, Lesueur, 

i!v Co. ... ... ... 1755 

\\'an-e, Lesueur & Cahert 1759 

Warre & Calvert 1 7(S2 

\\'arre & Cal verts ... 17(S9 

Warre & Sons ... ... 1777 

I will at this point state that 1 very 
much regret that I am unable to obtain 
any further informati(jn respecting this 
old firm than that which a few docmnents 
ha\'e rendered me, but although it is still 
w(jrthily known as Messrs. Warre & Co., I 
believe I am correct in stating that the 
brand is the property of Messrs. N(jble & 
Murat, of Oporto. The accompanying is a 
portrait, by the late Baron de Forrester, of 
the late Mr. Charles Heni-y Noble as he -was 
in 1834 after thetroublous timesof 1832-33, 
in which he played a more important part 
than he would naturally have desired. 
Political feeling ran very high in those 
days when the followers of the usurper, D. 
Miguel, were at war with the levies of D. 
Pedro. It was a civil war, and the con- 
tending parties were fighting for two 
roj'al brothers, therefore it was called the 
war between the two brothers. During 
these dark days many gentlemen of 
position in Oporto were arrested on the 
slightest suspicion of being in league with 
the enemy, and on one day in May, I 
believe in 1832, ten persons •\\'ho were 
charged w'lXh having been connected with 
the provisional Liberal Government were 
executed, among them being Senhor 
Antonio de Brito e Cunha. iMr. Charles 



H. Noble narrowly escaped the same fate; an expedition not to be undertaken with a 

he suffered imprisonment for a consider- Hsht heart. As a Portonian, I regret their 

able time in the C(jmmon gaol, and if my absence, for they matei'ial!)- contributed to 

memory serves me he \\as allowed to keeping up the traditional " happy times " 
escape from prison the day before these 

gentlemen were hanged. For this arbi- 
trary incarceration he was indemnified 
to some extent by the Constitutional 
Government. He was not the only 

f the oldest British community abroad. 
But even so the heads of these large com- 
mercial JKjuses are not oblivious of the 
claims \\-hich the ancient colony still has 
upon them, and if we do not see them as 

sufferer, for dui-ing the siege of Oporto, often as we should like, they make them 
Mr. J. R. Wright, manager of Messrs. selves remembered by their liberal con 
Croft & Co., had one of his arms ampu 
tated owing to its having been 

struck by a shot which entered 
the house in the Bandeirinha. 
Mr. Noble lived for many years 
in Oporto \\-ith his family and 
then retired to England, where 
he intended ending his days, but 
such is the irony of fate, that 
on re-visiting the old city about 
ten years ago, he ccjntracted 
the terrible Oporto scourge, 
small-pox, to which he succumbed, 
much to the regret of all the 
British residents and of many 
Portuguese merchants ^^•ho had 
the privilege of knowing him. 
I recollect heai'ing him toasted 
at a dinner table as " Noble 
by name and noble by natui-e." 
For a few years his son-in- 
law. Major Lyon-Campbell, was 
partner in the firm of Messrs. 
Noble & Murat. One of Mr. 
Noble's sisters was married to Air. W'arre, 
father of the present Mr. George W'arrc, 
^^■ho died in 1851. Mr. Noble «-as con- 
nected by marriage \\ith some of the oldest 
British families in Oporto; among others, 
the Grahams, the Warres, and the Pages. 
In these da)'S of easy communication by 
sea and land between Hngland and 
Portugal, there are \cry Few resident 
partners in Oporto, as compared with the 
old days, when a sea voyage across the 
landsman's teri-or, the P^ay of Biscii\-, was 

Tliel.ite M,.C.H.Nobl 

tributions to the maintenance of some 
of oLu- venerable institutions and 

The Murats are a very old 
Oporto family ; the first record 
I have of the name is the marriage 
of Mr. Joseph Muratt, described 
as of Oporto, merchant, who, on 
May 8th, 1723, married Mrs. Ann 

In 1745 Mary Muratt, daughter 
of the aforesaid, was married by 
the Rev. John Nicols, Chaplain 
to the Fact(jry of Oporto, to 
Christian Smith, but ^•cry shortly 
afterwards 1 observe that the 
surname was spelt Murat. 

Respecting the present firm of 
Messrs. Noble & AUu-at, I am able 
to gi\-e you the folio-wing history 
from documents I ha\-e before 
me : — 

Harris, Page & Pratt 1723 
Page c^ Pratt ... 1729 

'h)hn Page 1730 

John Page & Son ... 1754 

John c*;- Charles Page c^ Co. 17b() 
Page. Campion c*l- Co. ... 1761 
Chai-les Page ... ... 1 77 1 

I'^'gc c^- Co 1800 

Page, Noble & Co. ... 1802 

in which latter year Mr. Charles Page 
dissociated himself from the firm and 
continued trading under his own name. 
In 1831 I first come across the firm of 
Messrs. C. H. Noble & Murat. 





rAMBURG, the lai-j^est 
'Vicomnicrcial city in (ler- 
many, was incorporated 
with the French Empire, 
and declared the capital 
of the department of the 
mouths of the EH-ie in 
1810. In that ever 
memorable year Herr 
Bartels was the first Burgomaster of 
Hamburg, and his nephew, Diedrich 
Matthias Feuerheerd, then about nineteen 
years of age, was on the commissariat 
department. Burgomaster Bartels was a 
lawyer much beloved by his fellow 
citizens, on whose behalf he interested 
himself most materially when the old city 
was being invested by the f(jrces of 
Napoleon, under Davoust. Recognising 
that it was imp(jssible to save Hamburg 
from falling into the hands of the French, 
he endeavoured to free it from being 
saclied, so with five million Marks Banco 
about him he sallied forth to meet Napoleon 
and succeeded in prevailing on the French 
Emperor to take charge of the city \\lth- 
OLit making himself further objectionable 
to the inhabitants. His nephew, Diedrich 
Matthias Feuerheerd, son of one of his 
sisters, would not wear the uniform of the 
'' petit Caporal" and, therefore, he seized 
the first opportunity of lca\ing his native 
city in 1S13, one year before the French 
evacuation, when Hamburg regained its 

Air. Diedrich Matthias Feuei-heerd, the 
founder of the Oporto wine shipping firm 
of .Messrs. D. ,M. Feuej-heerd, Junr. & Co., 
was born in Hamburg on the 20th Decem- 
ber, 1791, and, therefore, he was 22 years 
old when he arrived in Oporto, to which place 
he emigrated, as he had man\- Friends inter- 
ested in hLisiness \\ ith Bi'azil and Portugal. 
On the 1st April, 1815, e\er memorable 
in Germany as being the birthday 
of the great I^rince Bismarcli, .Mr. D. .M. 
Feuerheerd established himself in Oporto 
as a general merchant, and one of his first 
important shipments was 150 pipes of vin- 
tage 1815 to the Scotch Wine Company, 
of Leith, which, in after years, was merged 
into the business of .Messrs. BalfoLu-. 

In 1823 Mr. D. M. Feuerheerd married 
.Miss Sophia Bieber, of Hamburg, cousin 
of the partners in the merchant-banking 
firm of Messrs. Bieber & Co., which owed 
its existence to .Mr. Feuerheerd's enter- 
prise in having his wife's cousins trained in 
Oporto, and then ad\-ising them to start in 
Brazil. The result was the establishing 
of the firms of .Messrs. N. O. Bieber & 
Co., in Pernambuco, in vv'hich, in after 
years, .Mr. Franz Dedlof Feuerheerd, son 
of old Mr. Feuerheerd, became partner, 
and of W'ilhelm August Bieber, in Bahia. 
The Biebers amassed large fortunes in 
Brazil and retired to their nati\e city. 

By his marriage with .Miss Bieber, ,Mr. 
D. .M. Feuerheerd had three sons and 
thi-ee daughters ; the eldest son, Diedrich 



Mattliias Fcuerhccrd, jun., was born in 
HambuPL^, but lived ncaiij' all bis life-time 
in Oporti), and e\cntually beeanie the bead 
of tbe firm. He died in 1881. Tbe second 
son, Franz Dedlof Fetierheerd (already 
mentioned) \vas nex'er in the wine busi- 
ness, but looked after tbe mining interests 
of the fii-m at Bracal. He married Miss 
Duhrssen, of Oporto, and died in lS7(i. 
The third son is my fi-iend, Mr. Hermann 
Lorenz Feuerheerd,tbe present bead of tbe 
firm, who was born in Oporto in 1831, and 
married his eousin. Miss Sophia Bieber, in 
1860, in Paris. The eldest dautjhter, Miss 
Madeline, married the Prussiar, Kammer- 
berr (Cbaniberlain) \-on Oeitzen ; tbe 

tions at ISracal. For this reason he was 
called tbe father of the mining industry in 
Portugal. He was decorated with the 
Commendas of ConeeicM and Aviz, and 
from tbe German Emperor, William I., be 
received the Prussian Order of tbe Red 

Mr. [). M. FcLierbeerd, junior, reeei\cd 
a part of his education at the Re\-. Mr. 
E. \Vbiteley's school in Oporto, and had 
as colleagues, among otber-s, Richard 
Browne, Armiger Sealy, Charles and 
William Kingston, and James Dunlop. 
In after yeai's all the time he could spare 
from business be spent at his shooting- 
box at P^.rafita. 

Till laU- Mr. I). .U. Ffucrhcci d, Snir. 

second daughter, iMiss Marietta, mariied 
Colonel Hocb, of D]-esden ; and tbe 
youngest. Miss Emilj', mai-ried Frelheri- 
(bjaron) Feodor von Prittewitz und 
Gaffron, of Silesia. 

1 remember bim well— old iMr. l-'ciier- 
heerd — toi' he only died on tbe 17tb April, 
1874. He was a powerfully bLiilt man, a 
brilliant conver-sationalist and be knew 
what be saying. It was, however, 
long before my time when he ix'stuned the 
minmg enterprise of tbe Romans in 
Portugal; for, so far as tbe PortLiguese 
were concerned, mining v\'as an mdinown 
branch of mdustry mitil. In 183,S, Air. D. 
M. Feucrbcerd, sen., commenced opera- 

Thc l„lf ill n. .U. Fciinluxrd,-j,iiir. 

I have already mentioned, and described 
in another chapter, the antiquity and the 
origin of the Order of Christ. I will now 
tell you what I know respecting tbe Order 
of S. IV'nto dWviz. The word Aviz is 
supposed to be derned from nws (birds). 
The origin of the order Is traced to the 
union of some Knights who, lieforc tbe 
famoLis battle of Canipo d'Ouiaque, swore 
to li\'e together and to die, if neces- 
sary, for their counti'y and their faith. 
1-i-om the end of tbe twelfth centm-y to 
the time of Dom Ouarte their Knights 
were subject to tbe C)rder of Calatra\a. 
Tbe last Master of A\ Iz was Dom Joali 1. 
It will be remembered that m 1385, on 



St. Mark's Day, the Master of Aviz gained 
a complete \ictory over the Spaniards at 
a place called Trancoso, where )'ears be- 
fore Dom Affons!) Henriques had been 
equally successful o\'er Albucazan, King 
of Badajoz. The Master of Aviz \\as, 
however, assisted by St. Mark, who 
appeared on a white horse, fighting on the 
side of the Portuguese, and the shoes of 
this horse, or of sf)nie later one, are still 
to be seen in a church near the place. 
According to the best authorities, the first 
Master of Aviz for 
Avis) was Dom Affonso 

Henriques and the -: ' ' - 

military order was con- . " 

firmed by Innocent 
IV. in 1254. The 
Knights wore a black 
Cistercian habit, and 
bore for their arms a 
cross fleur-de-lis in a 
field or, having for 
their crest two birds 
sable. There is a 
ruinous old town in 
Alemtejo called A\'is, 
which at one time was 
walled round. 

Old Mr. Feuerheerd 
was one of the first 
merchants in Oporto 
to engage in steam 
na\'igation with Hng- 
land, and in those 

days a very fine business \\as done in 
expoi'ting cattle. The Portuguese o.xen 
are not, as a rule, reared on meadow land, 
but in stalls. As soon as they are able to 
draw carts, or a plough, they have to worl;, 
and this develops their muscular pmver 
without in any way interferiiig, or neces- 
sarily so, with their marketable \alue. 
They are not, however, permitted to woi-k 
for long, and the fattening process then 
commences. Some of these splendid 
animals have turned the scale at 18 c\\ t. 

Mr. H. L. Fciierhccd. 

The captain of the steamer was allowed so 
much head monc}- and one beast at in- 
voice price, less the freight. Strange to 
sa\', the captain's ox ne\er died on boai'd, 
and on arri\-al in England fetched the 
highest price. Of course, this was simply 
a coincidence. Messrs. Feuerheerd shipped 
nfj less than 100,000 (jxen in the course of 
a few years, representing a total value of 
over £2,000,000. Their first steamers 
were the "Rattler" and the " Oueen," 
and one of them, the " Bacchante," was 
wi-eckedonOpoi'to bar. 
The present partners 
in the Oporto firm are 
.Mr. Hermann Lorenz 
Feuerheerd, .Mr. Theo- 
dor Sachse, and .Mr. 
Ferdinand Matthias 
Feuerheerd, who 
resides in Oporto and 
married .Miss Drake, 
daughter of Major 
Drake, of the North- 
umberland Fusiliers. 
■Mr. H. L. 1-eucr- 
i# hcei-d's elder daughter 
is married to Mr. 
HLigh r^onsonby, son 
of the Hon. Sir 
Spencer Cecil Bra- 
bazon Ponsonbj'-Fane, 
K.C.B., Comptroller 
of Accounts in the 
Lord Chamberlain's 
Depai'tment. Fiom the establishment 
of the firm up to about 1850 the port wine 
shipments were confined principall\- to 
the Continoit, and m particukii" to the 
Baltic ports; in fact, it was only when 
.Mr. D. ,M. Feuerheei'd, jun., became 
partner that the de\'elopment of their 
trade with Britain commenced. In 

1860 a bi'anch office was opened in 
London, and .Mr. H. L. Feuerheerd, the 
present head of the business, took charge 
of it. 




C. N. KOPKF, cl- CO. 

O forei«n family in Oporto 
can boast of havinj< 
preserved its name 
witiiOLit interruption for 
i'"£' ".■aB""'- ' '■'^'^ best part of three 
ra^U^^^^'f centuries excepting the 
mmW''''^4 Kopkes. In 163 6 
Nicholas Kopke went 
to Lisbon as Consul- 
Genei'al for the Han- 
seatic Towns upon the conclusion of the 
first treaty with Portugal, and spent the 
remainder of his life there. He was a 
Protestant, and was married to a German 
lady of the name of hZmei-enciana Crock- 
man. His son. Christian!) Kopke, the 
founder of the present firm, went to 
Oporto in 1638 and established himself in 
general business in a liouse in the Rua da 
Rehcjleira, which the firm occLipied until 
1882, \\hen a fire destroj-ed e\'erything. 
Portugal was still Lmtler tlic domination of 
the Spaniards, and Charles I. was King of 

It will be remembered that at this time 
many Bnglish families, who wouUI not 
embrace episcopacy, had to lea\c their 
country, and among tlicsc was Mr. ,Iohn 
Moring, a Lancashire gentleman, whose 
wife IukI been a Miss Dorothy Ignatia 
W'hittingham. They took tip their resi- 
i-lenee in Lisbon, and their daughtei* 
Dorothy became the wile of Christiano 
Kopl;e. Tlie Morings and W'hittinghams 

were families of very high standing in the 
County Palatine of Lancashire. Christiano 
K()pke lived and died in Oporto, but, as he 
was a Protestant, he was buried in a piece 
of unconsecrated grcnmd on the south side 
of the Douro, set apart fe)r the interment 
of infidels, and where many of W'ellington's 
soldiers were in aftei- years buried. 
On this " God's acre " a factory now 
stands ; not a slab remains to record 
\\herc some of Britain's bravest sons lie 
buried, but when the Portuguese Go\ei-n- 
ment consented to the English having a 
Protestant cemetery and chapel, it is said 
that all the bones that could be found were 
collected and were re-intcri-ed in some 
spot now no longer remembered, but pro- 
bably close to the former chapel at Campo 

The notes from which I am compiling 
this chapter were dictated as recently as 
the 3rd June, 1895, by the late Baron de 
Massarellos at the request of my friend 
Mr. (/eoigc Harder Mason, senior partner 
of the firm. In all probability it was the 
last work which the \\orthy old Baron 
undertook, and, therefoi-c, it will be all the 
more Interesting to his man\' fi'icnds and 
adnurers In Portugal and l-'ngland. It 
was a most fortunate thing that Air. 
Mason fiiuud the Baixin sufficiently well 
to be able to call up in long rexiew the 
history of the Kbpkcs, because all the old 
books (if the firm were destroyed in the 



fire which gutted their fifticcs, in the 
Reholeira, in 1882. Until then they had 
preserved all the documents since tine 
estabhshment of the house in KSSS. 

The first akeration in the name of the 
firm was to Messrs. Kopke, Schlow l^ Co., 
but when this took place 1 do not know. 
Johann Christian Schlow amassed a con- 
siderable foi'tune and then returned to 
Germanv, his nati\e counti-y. 1 think, 
h<]we\-er, this must have been after 
the death of the first Christiano Kopke, 
and probably in the 
eighteenth century, be- 
cause on Mr. Schlow's 
retirement the firm be- 
came .Messrs. Xieolau 
& Joaquim Kopke, then 
spelt Copque. as the 
Portuguese alphabet 
does not include the 
letter K. Then the 
style of the firm be- 
came Messrs. Xicolau 
Kopke & Co., about the 
commencement of the 
present century, and 
e ^• e n t u a 1 1 y .Mess r s. 
C. X. Iv>pke L^- Co., as 
at present. 

.M\' Oporto readers 
will recollect that there 
were two branches of 
the Kopke family, tlie 
Villar Kcipkes and tlie 
Massarellos Kiipkes. Of the fijrmer branch 
ne\er more than one child survived to 
continue the family traditions, but the .Mass- 
arellos branch was al«"ays \-ery numerous. 
It is on this account that the large fortune 
amassed by the X'illar branch eventually 
passed to the\'an Zellers through Dorothea 
Kopke, only surviving daughter of Chris- 
tiano Kopke, Baron de\'illar, who mai'ried 
Robert \'an Zeller. Baron de X'illar died 
in 1840. The \'an Zellers -were a Dutch 
famih'. who settled in Opoi'to during the 

TliL hitt Bciroii Ji Massarellos 

last eentuiT, and the present head of the 
family Is .Mr. Christiano \'an Zeller, who 
resides in his beautiful property at X'illar. 
This gentleman is the proprietor of the 
famous Quinta de Rijriz. which took its 
name from the wild and lonelv situation. 
This \'ineyard is situated in the parish of 
Kr\-edosa. The official statistics state 
tlnat •• this parish does not produce more 
than 1,100 pipes of fine wines, which are 
fin-nished by twentv-four properties, 
amongst which the vine\'ard of • Roriz ' 
IS certainly the most 

■' .At the close of the 
last century and the 
beginning of the pre- 
sent, the wane culture 
on this part of the left 
bank of the Douro had 
made but little pro- 
gress, and then it was 
only ' Roriz' which was 
noticeable for its pro- 
duction, its gO(jd treat- 
ment and the excellent 
quality' of its wanes." 

This property was 
acquired in the se\en- 
teenth century by a 
Scottish gentleman 
named Robert .Archi- 
bald for the purpose 
of hunting wolves and 
wild boars, which, 
according to tradition, were very abundant 
in the locality. He had been accustomed 
ti> hunt on the hills and in the wilds of 
Scotland, and he considered these moun- 
tain sides of the Douro vei-j- suitable for 
the same kind of shooting which is to be 
obtained north of the Tweed. It was this 
shooting-box wdiich originated the " Roriz" 
vineyard. .Archibald examined the ground, 
and it appeared to him suitable for vine 

The ground belonged to the Order of 

E E 



"Das ti'i's Minns dn Ordeiii dc Christo," 
and from them Archibald leased the 
ground round the shooting-box, the posts 
for marking which are still to be seen, and 
which ground was then called the " Prazo 
de Roriz." 

It was, tlierefore, the Scottish sports- 
man, Robert Archibald, who was the 
founder and first planter of this Quinta, 
or vineyard. 

After liis death, the vineyard, being in 
the possession of his son James Archibald, 
passed to the Baron of 
Villar, and at the pre- 
sent time the " Roriz" 
vineyard belongs to Mr. 
Christiano Van Zeller. 

The area of the 
" Roriz " Estate is 
about 100 hectares 
(250 acres), of which 
one-f(]urth is now 
planted with nc« \'ines. 
The splendid appear- 
ance of the vines 
shows a satisfactory 
state of ti'eatment, and 
gives the lie to rumours 
which a few years ago 
said that the \-ineyard 
showed signs of ex- 
haustion and abandon- 
ment. W'e cannot say 
for certain if these 
r u m o u r s h a d any 

foundation ; but the vigorous appearance 
of the \ines shows the ct)ntrai-y ; or, 
at least, of late years there has been 
no want of the necessary tix-atmcnt for 
their proper conserxation. Anyho\\', it 
Is undeniable that, after the mvasion 
of the oidium, this vincyai'd had years 
of disastrcais prodiiction. The \incyard 
produced about 200 pipes of Hnc wine; 
but after the appearance of the disease, 
its prodtictiveness was so i-cduced that 
m the worst year of all it hardly yielded 

Till lair Vr, J. 7. M.i 

three pipes of wine, but, owing to the 
great care and attention which the vines 
have received, it is once more in a high 
state of cultivation. 

The first planter at " Roriz," Robert 
Archibald, obtained from Burgundy a 
large quantity of cuttings of a red grape 
called " Tinta de Franca," which after- 
wards became common all over the Douro, 
and which is to-day generally known 
under the name of "Tinta Francisca." 
At this vineyai'd one does not see a 
multitude of varieties 
of vines without rjrder 
and without selection. 
Here the}' ai-e few in 
number, all of fine 
Liuality, and all red 
grapes. The principal 
ciualities are "Tinta 
Francisca," " Alvaril- 
hao," and " Tinto 
Cao," besides such 
others as " Touriga," 
" .Mouriscii," etc. 

In its early days the 
"Roriz" vineyai-d pro- 
i.hiced about fiftv to 
sixty pipes of wine, 
and it was onl\- after 
the impi'o\"ements and 
fresh plantations made 
by the Kopkes that it 
got to produce the 
large quantity already 
mentioncLl nf 200 pipes. It takes two 
days to fill a " lagai" " equal to t\\enty-fi\e 
pipes with grapes before commencing to 
ti-ead them, as all ha\e to be examined 
and picked oxer, those being rejected 
which show- condition. 

.At " Roriz " tliere are two groups of 
buildings containing the " Lagars " for 
makmg the wine, and the " toneis " or 
vats for storing it in afterwards. The 
older of the two bears the date of 1768 on 
its doors, which makes us think It must 



coincide with the founding of the vineyard The accompanying portrait is from a 

as it now exists, although the property had photograph of the late Joaquim Augusto 

for many years pre\"iously furnished the Kopke, l:>aron de Massarellos, who was 

EngHsh marl<et with its wines. The other born on the 25th April, 1806, and died 

group of buildings bears the date of 1852. July, 1895. He was the eldest son of 

Mr. G. If. Mason. 


41*250 stone and organic fragments. 

2oij'j5 mica and silicic 

o-o8i soluble silica. 

o"057 magnesia. 

0-057 vestiges of lime. 

1-829 sesquioxide of 

0-787 aluminium. 
( 0-231 organic and 
volatile materials. 

0-759 alkaline salts. 
26-888 argillicinsoluble. 

0-261 soluble silica. 

0-261 vestiges of lime. 

o 279 magnesia. 

3-752 sesquio.xide of 

2-830 aluminium. 

2.830 vestiges of phos- 
phoric acid. 

23 730 sand. 

looofsoil.; 0990 solublCj 

34-010 argil 
lius soil. 

Mr. Stephai Masrn. 

JoaTj Christiano Kopke by his w ife Donna 
.Maria Dorothea de Se\erim. .At a \-ery 
early age he was brought over to England 
by his grandparents who deemed it prudent 
to lea\e Oporto while it was in the occupa- 
tion (jf Soult ; they took up their abode at 
Plymouth, where they remained for about 
seven years, and at which place the Baron 
went to school, and did n(jt return until 
after the battle of Waterloo. At the age of 
twent\- the late Baron joined the ranks of 
the Pedroits. or Liberal party, against the 
usurper, D. .Miguel; in fact, he served 
thj-oughout the whole of that terrible 
ci\-il war. For the man\' services he 
rendered Portugal he was created Baron 
de Massarellos, and received the followmg 
orders : Commendam of Our Lady of the 
Conception of \'illa X'icosa, Grand Cross 
of the Order of Christ, Knight of the same 



order, Officer of the Imperial Brazilian Holland and Germany, but vastly superior 
Order of the Rose, Fid<dgi> CavnUuiro to the nati\'e houses, which consisted of a 
(patent of nobility) of the Royal House, few lar;4C rooms with windows and a great 
and Colonel of the Reserves. number of dlcuvas, or small rooms, where 

Baron de Massarellos was highly the light could barely penetrate, 
esteemed by all the inhabitants in his To this day, although these two families 

native eit}' of Opcjrto. He took an acti\-e ha\c intermarried with the Portuguese, 
part in e\-ery commercial undertaking or theii- Teutonic origin is as plainly notice- 
improvement likely to benefit Portugal, able as it probably was in old Nicolau 
He was the initiator of one of the first K ipke \\hen he landed in Lisbon in 1636. 
foundries in Oporto, and was for many In coui-se of years these families, owing 
years the deeply revered President and to their intermarrying with Portuguese, 
guiding spirit of the 
Oporto Chamber of 
Commerce, from which 
post he had to retire a 
few years ago owing to 
the increasing weight 
of years, but in recog- 
nition of his life-long 
services he was unani- 
mously elected Hon- 
orary Life President, 
the resolution of the 
Chamber being pre- 
sented to him en- 
grossed on vellum and 
enclosed in a handsome 
casket. Until the daj / 
of his death he was ' 
Consul for the Otto- 
man Hmpire in the 
North of Portugal. 

Although the Dutch 
colony in Oporto is 

Mr. Gfuii^c B. Hoof-ir. 

old Hollanders who settled there some 

three centuries ago hold a \ery high 

social position. Long before the British 

residents had thoLight of building houses 

for themseh'cs these indListrious people 

were doing theii' Litniost to render life 

abroad as cond'ortable as possible. In the 

Ueboleira, a narrow street in close 

proximity to the Rua Nova tlos Inglezes, of llie lirni of Messrs. Mason l*C.- Cattlev 

the Van Zellers and Kopkes built some London, repiesciited Messrs. Kopke in 

houses somewhat after the fashion of Orcat P,ritain, and eventually acquired the 

embraced the Roman 
Catholic religion, and 
one of them, Arch- 
deacon Van Zeller, was 
for many years con- 
spicuous among the 
P(jrtuguese hierareh)- 
for his eminently 
Christian and gentle- 
manly bearing. Had 
he been an ambitious 
man his deep learn- 
ing and considerable 
wealth woidd have 
e n s u r e d h i m t h e 
Bishopric of Oporto, 
w h i c h , ho w c \" e r , 
although it was offered 
to him, he would not 
accept. His nephew, 
Chrlstlano \'an Zeller, 
the pi'esent owner of 
the Ouinta de Roriz, is 
IS a man of great culture, a splendid i-ider, 
and a crack shot, and although he is one 
of the wealthiest men in the country he is 
nc\er negligent of his business a\ocations. 
The present senior partner in the old 
Mrni (.r Messrs. C. \. Iv.pke .*v Co., Mr. 
(ieorgc Hardc)- .Mason, has li\ed inOp(H-to 
maii\' \'eai-s. In da\s gone bv his father 

\'cry small, the descendants of the an .Alderman of the City of Oporto. 



business of the firm, retaining, however, 
the serviees of Baron cle Alassarellos. 
The other partner is liis hrtjther, .Mr. 
Stephen Mason, honcjurahly known and 
esteemed in London and Oporto. 

I must not omit to mention the name of 
Wilham K'opke, one of the ele\erest 
engineers that Portugal has had. His 
studies of the river Douro ha\e rendered 
him famous among his countrymen. A 
son of the late Baron is one of the Chief 
Justices at Oporto, and other members of 
the family have distinguished themselves 

in various pursuits — literar\-, artistic, and 

.Mr. George BradliLiry f^ooper son of 
•Mr. John K'innersley Hooper who died in 
188.5 and was senior partner in the late 
firm of Hooper Bros., is now connected 
with the ancient Oporto HoLise under 
re\iew. .Mr. Hooper, of whom a portrait 
here is reproduced from a photngraph, 
married .Miss Ellen \\'i-ight, yoimgest 
daughter of the late Mr. JiJin R. Wright, 
resident partner, for many years, in Oporto, 
of the firm of Messrs. Croft & Co. 

An Oforto Bullock Cart. 






'IRST among the recoi-ds 
of the Kingston family 
inOpoi'ti) is the marriage 
(if J. Kingston with 
Catherine Gardner on 
tine Ist January, 1771, 
'ifk- solemnised hy the I'ev. 
-. Williaan Emmanuel Page 

in the presence of ()li\er 
Beekett and Dorothy 
1 will hei'e observe that in that 
\'ear the firm was Messrs. Oliver Beckett 
and Co. It was, however, in 1772 that 
a Mr. Kingston, probably the one above 
named, figures as a partner in the firm 
f)f Messrs. Lambert, Kingston & Co. 
But the firm is beynnd all doubt a very old 
one in the annals of the port wine trade. 
It first appears under the name of Peter 
Dowker in the )ear 1691, and two years 
later as .Messrs. Dowker cv Stake}'. This 
.Mr. Peter Dowker and his contemporary, 
Mr. John Page seem to lia\'e been the 
fathers of the British community in Oporto, 
as in those earl)- days neaiJy all the 
marriages celebrated in the place refer 
either to one name, or the other 

At Doctors' Commons, in the Port 
Factory ]\egister 1 fintl the following 
marriage soiemnisetl by the l\c\'. John 
Bell on the 2btii of September, 1787, at 
S. ,loao da Foz : — Ijenjamin Kingston, 
ISatchelar, to .Margaret Ih-ctt, Widow, in 
the presence of Thomas Staft'ord, Lo\cll 


Penneli and .lohn Webber : and on the 
18th of the same month in the hjllowing 
■year, Robert .Augustus, son of the 
above, was pri\-atcly baptised. Before 
giving the pedigree of the firm, I will 
obser\e that Mr. Peter Dowker was also 
established at Yianna do Castello. wJience 
he shipped wines to England : — 

Peter Dowker 1691 

Dowker & Stukey ... 1694 

Dowker, Stukey & Peak... 1701 
Dowker & Stukey 
Dowker, Stukey & Stert 
Stert, Hayman & Co. 
Stert & Hayman ... 

Sampson i!v Richard Stert 1731 

Stert c<; Lambert ... ... 1740 

lidward Lambert... ... 1743 

Lambert, Croft i?t Lambert 1745 

Kdward ^Thomas Lambert 1759 

Oliver Beckett & Co. ... 1764 

Thomas Lambert. . . ... 1765 

Swarbrcek & Lambert ... 1767 

Lambert. Kingston Ov Co. 1772 

Thomas Lambert... ... 1773 

Mr. John Page, of the firm of .Messrs. 
Hari'is, Page & I'ratt, was married in the 
earlv part of last century to the daughter 
of Mr. Peter Dowker; on the 15th Sep- 
tember, 1723, .Mr. Samson Stert, described 
as of Porto, merchant, was married to 
Mrs. ,\nn .Maskall at S" da Hora, by the 
l\e\. Henr\- l^'akcnham ; Mr. John Swar- 



breck, who arrived in Oporto in 1740, 
married Miss Elizabeth Vinicombeon April 
6th, 1743, the ceremony having been per- 
formed by the Rev. John Nichols, M.A., 
Chaplain to the Factory of Oporto, and 
in fact all the partners above mentioned 
resided in the old \\\ne city, as I am able 
to state by the information c(jntained in 
the referred-to registers. 

The well-known no\-elist, Ali'. William 
Henry Giles Kingston, to whose portrait I 
refer 1113- readers, was born in London in 

had six sons, the above-named William 
Henry Giles, George Templeman, Charles, 
who was born in 1822, and married Miss 
Catherine Woodhouse, Frederick, Edward 
and Francis. 

The aforesaid Mr. John Kingston went 
out originally to his brother Benjamin 
Kingston, who \\-as described as " Ph\-sician 
to the Factory House." Mr. Lucy H. F. 
Kingston died in 1852, and the firm was 
carried on by Mr. Charles Kingston. 

Referring once more to Mr. Kingston, 

The late Ml. Willijm tleniyCiUs Kingston. 

Tin- late Mr. Charted Kingston, 

1814, and died in August, 1880; he was 
for a short time in the employment of his 
father's firm at Oporto, and, therefore, 
descended from Mr. John Kingston, who 
was born in 1736, and married Miss Jane 
Knightley; at one time this Mr. John 
Kingston was .Member of Parliament for 
Lymington, in Hampshire, and died in 
1820. His second son, Lucy Henry 
Francis Kingston married .Miss Frances 
Sophia, second daughter of Sir Giles 
Rooke, in 1812, and died in 1852. They 

the novelist, 1 quote the remarks made by 
the Athciiu'iiiii of .August 14th, 1880:— 
" Encouraged by the success of his first 
work, 'The Circassian Chief,' published in 
1844, he produced, while residing in Por- 
tugal, the • .Marquis of Pombal,' and 
shortly afterwards appeared his • Lusi- 
tanian Sketches,' which were descripti\-e 
of his own tra\-els and ad\-entures in 
P(jrtugal. In 1850 was issued from the 
house at the corner of St. Paul's Church- 
yard, which has for so many years been 



identified witli JLix'eniJe literatLire, iiis first Ejj;an, one uf the merriest of the sons 
book for b())'s, ' Petei", tlie Whaler.' He of Hiliei'nia. Many anecdotes are re- 
has written about one hundred and thir'ty lated of 
vohnnes. The most popular of his booi-ts amusjn^ 
with boys were, undoubt- 

edly, his sea stor-ies, \\hieh 
ha\'e trained for him the title 
of "the modern Alarryat,' and 
the most prominent among 
them were ' The Three Mid- 
shipmen,' ' 'J"he Three Lieu- 
tenants,' and 'The Three 
Admirals.' After a careful 
consultation last June «ith 
eminent medical ad\isers, it 
was clear that the end coLild 
not be far off. He awaited 
it with Christian fortittide 
and calmness, and when it 
came on the 5th of the pre- 
sent month, it foimd him 
resis^ned antl happy, and, like 
the hero he was so fond 
of portraj'ing, strong in the 
eonscioLisness of having done 
his dut}-." 

I have now the pleastn-e 
to present my readers with a portrait e\-er after, 
of the late Mr. Edward Hgan, of the at the cost 

J he lai, Ml.'anl Eg.m. 

him, but one of the most 
is the following : — On one 
occasion, as he was return- 
ing home from a rubber of 
whist and a bottle of port, 
he was waylaid in the Campo 
Pec]uen(^ by some footpads, 
who searched his pocket for 
mone)'. Not finding an)', 
they administered a sound 
thrashing to him, and finished 
off' b)' giving him a crown 
piece, with the admonition 
that if the)- c\'er caught him 
again in that impecunious 
e<jndition they woidd kill 
him. Had these knights of 
the road taken olT his boots 
t h e y w o u 1 d h a \' e been 
rewarded b)' finding his 
gold watch anel chain and a 
pin-se containing a night's 
winnings. " B)- jabers, I'll 
swear b)' Wellington's," 
Mr, Egan used to exclaim 
" for they sa\ed my bacon 
f a hidmg and a crown 

firm of Messrs. Lambert, Kingston & to the good." 

oi.i rn,i t\-uu- i-ioiiiis, ,i.,ii- ;:;.;, 







E know that the sur- 
name Ferreira, \\ ith its 
equivalents in other 
liin,L;uages, is vastly 
more numerous than 
anj' otiier, but it is none 
the less aristoeratic, for 
anions' the Smiths and 
F e r r e r s in E n g I a n d 
alone it can lay claim 
to a connection with m:iny noble families. 
Among the (jermans, in pai'ticular, it 
embi-aees foui--ninths (;f the army, and by 
some interested parties is supprjsed to 
ha\'e been borne by one of the ancestors 
of the Imperial Hohenz(_)llerns, although 
the Schneiders lay claim to the distinction. 
In Portugal those who are ignorant of the 
glori(jus traditions of the Ferreiras ha\e 
attempted a stupid disguise by spelling the 
word Freire, and in this weakness they 
are not singular, fVjr are not among us the 
corrupted forms Smythes and Smithes 
almost as numerous as the fundamental 
Smith ? The clan Ferreira, if I may be 
permitted t(j so style a noble name, is not 
by any means the largest in Portugal ; we 
have the Anjos, tlie Santrjs, Deus, Carmo, 
Trindade, and other heavenly distinctions, 
bLit the most numerous are those derived 
from Judaism, such as Alaia, Pereira, 
Pintcj, Costa, &c. Among Christian sur- 

names in Portugal, Ferreira is the most 
important. In the Province of Traz-os- 
Montes no name has been more honourably 
borne ; it forms as it \\-ere a dynasty in 
the \'inous history of that region. In the 
late D. AntcMiia Adelaide Ferreira the 
nation has lost the richest of its landed 
proprietors, but there are few ladies in the 
land who had seen so little or knew so 
little of the world. Her thousands of 
acres of mountain land covered \\ ith \ines 
were her chief thought. Until her first 
husband, Senhor Antonio Bernardo 
Ferreira, took to planting \ineyards, 
n(jthing in that direction had been done 
on so large and magnificent a scale as the 
Ouinta do \'esu\io. But U. Antonia was 
fortunate in her selection of husbands. 

It was in 1820 that the OLiinta do 
Vesuvio \\'as commenced, and b\' the time 
it \^'as finished a princely fortLine had been 
expended on it. It is of such extent that 
it embraces se\'en hills and thirty valleys. 
The founder was a \'ery wealthy man, and 
his great idea was to possess a Ouinta such 
as had not been seen in the Doliio. To 
carry this project into execution took 
thirteen )-ears, and the result «as one of 
the most marvellous transformati(jns that 
human ingenuity could concei\e. It will 
never be known how much monc)' was 
lavished on the Ouinta das Figueiras which 
Senhor Torres, the second husband of D. 
Antonia, re-named \'esuvio. The residen- 
tial buildings are on a magnificent scale 

F F 


for so wild a part of the country; the out- To him the Portonians owe the elementary 
hoLises are suflicicntly iart;e to acconimo- notions of pavin,;^ streets. He had bought 
date a few battahons ; a carriage-drive was a handsome equipage, and in his stables 
laid down throughout the property; in he possessed some fine horses, but until 
fact, tlie Ouinta reminds one of the (jriental he had rendered the streets fit for carriage 
splendour to be found in the property of exercise, his horses and carriages were of 
the late William Beckford at Cintra, now no avail. In the Largn dn Trindade he 
in the possession of Sir Fi'ancis C(jok, had built a stmiptuous palace, occLipying 
Bart. There never were two men who one whole side of a badly deformed square, 
spent more money in the Doui-o than the There are ball-rooms, dining-rooms, supper- 
two husbands of D. Antcjnia. Both foimd rooms, blue, green, white, and j'cllow 
a good and provident wife in the late drawing-rooms, and all the other apiart- 
deceased lady, for if they had an eye to ments to be met with in a nobleman's 
impro\ing their Ouintas, at any rate she mansion, or a I^rijice's palace. He paved 
had another one open for reaping as good a the square in front of his residence, but 
harvest as possible from the outlay. Her the principal outlet to, or C(^mmunication 
first husband, Senhor Antonio Bernardo with, the Ccdvfeita was inaccessible. A 
Ferreira, was her cousin ; he was a man wealthy widow lady residing in the neigh- 
as fond of society and its sweets as his bcjurhood thought t(j put a stop to his 
wife objected to them. He was a king progress, and would not let him make a 
in — and not of — PortLigal. His name was rc^ad through the PiiiJuiro. She had not 
everywhere connected with fabulouswealth reckoned on the indomitable will and the 
and expenditure. Until he took up his great wealth of the yoLing fldalgo. One 
residence in Oporto carriages drawn by murning when she looked out fmm her 
horses were unknown, the streets wei-e not window she found that the street had been 
paved and the approaches to the houses made during the night. SenlKjr Ferreira 
of the wealthy were the happy hunting only paved one-half of the streets tiirough 
ground of all the P(jrtLiguese descendants which he felt inclined to dri\e. 
of Lazarus. He was not a man to go in Wealth in the hands of such a man 
for agitation ; he knew that he could expect living in a country then so hopelessly 
nothing but promises from the munici- retrograde was a kindly dispensation of 
pality of the city and the Government of Providence. Had he followed the exampit 
the country. His \'ast wealth placed him (jf his countrymen and given of his super 
beyond the caprices of party, of tjiat alumdance to charitable institutions, the 
political heart where the blond of the middle and lower classes, as too often 
eoLUitry stagnated instead of circulating. happens, would not have participated in 
In oi-der to satisfy his own pleasLire, he the luxury to be derixed from wealth, 
most materially contributed to the enjoy- There was nothing of the Pharisee about 
mcnt of his countrymen. He had the him, although many might have been dis- 
happy knack of knowing how to spend posed to question his right to consider 
money on a large scale for broader pur- himself a Sadducee. He did not desire to 
poses than philanthropy pure and simple. be known either as one or the other, but 
He was convinced that what was for his it will always be recorded of him that in 
good must necessarily prove to the benefit pleasuring himself he did most materially 
of many others. He was not an egotist ; contribute to the enjoyment of others, 
he was an original character in da3's when His lavish expenditure throughout all the 
there \\as no one worth copying in Oporto. Dom-o and in Oporto foLiiid employment 






for thousands of the very poorest men and 
women, and while other hig wigs were 
bIfAving their lungs out in the Chamber of 
Deputies, discussing and framing Bills 
that were destined to become dead letters, 
Antonio Bernardo Ferreira was spending 
oF his wealth right lordly by gi\'ing work 
and food to the starving. He died at a 
comparatively young age, leaving one son 
and one daLighter, who have survived their 

1 have for many years enjoyed the friend- 
ship of the present head of the family, 
Senhor Antonio Bernardo Ferix'ira, son 
of D. Antonld. Few Portuguese gentle- 
men have seen as much of European 
centres of society as he. They were gay 
days when, as a young man, he frequented 
the salons of Paris with his friend Richard 
Browne. He familiarised himself with 
all that was worth knowing in England, 
France, and Austria. He learned coach- 
ing in England, and riding in France. His 
wealth gave him the entree to all fashion- 
able society', and beyond doubt he became 
the most popular man in the society of 
his native town. At one time he enter- 
tained royalty at his residence, and 
through more than i>ne channel he has 
long been a pcrsouii <j^r(itii at the Portii- 
gLiese Court. He has had titles offered 
him, bLit has always declined the h(jnour, 
deeming his family name good enough for 
all social piu-poses. His only daughter 
also bears the name of her grandmother, 
D. Antonia. She is married to the late 
IVlayor of Oporto, Senhor Wenceslau de 
Lima, a peer of the realm, a gentleman 
much respected for his many good qualities. 
The present Senhor Antfinio Bernardo 
Ferreira has been a widower for many 
years; his wife was of the Vieira family, 
of Oporto. 

The only daughter of the late D. Antonia 
was married some thirty years ago to the 
Count of Azambuja, son of the Duke of 
Louie by his marriage with an Infanta of 

Portugal, great-aunt of the present king. 
The late Duke of Louie was one of the 
most pi'ominent political figures in Lisbon; 
he was the chief of the Progressist party. 
The eldest son of the Countess of 
Azambuja had a most miraculous escape 
from death when a child. The parents 
had been breakfasting with the late 
Senhfir Luiz Maria Lucio before their 
departure for Lisbon. Many friends went 
to the De\-ezas station to see them off, 
and when the train was well in motion, 
the nurse, who was holding the child out 
of the window, let it drrip on to the side of 
the permanent way, a height of from eii;ht 
to ten feet. When picked up it had 
suffered no liLU't. 

At one time the wine stores of D. 
Antonia Adelaide Ferreira contained a 
larger quantity of the finest and oldest 
wines in the countr)- than any other. 
They alone represented a considei'able 
fortune and were much sought after. 
There is no doubt, howe\er, that the name 
of the owner reflected no small amoLmt of 
repute on the wines. Of course, e\'en now 
the successors of the firm may coimt 
among their thousands of pipes of recent 
vintages not a few to remind one of their 
glorious ancestors, but the rich vines of 
the Aiiudscin da Fcn-tiriiilia have been 
distributed all over the world. 

D. Antonia Adelaide Ferreira was born 
in LSIO, at Regoa, and died at her Ouinta 
das Nogueiras near the said town. In all 
the surrounding villages her many acts of 
charity endeared her to all the peasantry, 
who ha\'e lost in herthe kindest of friends. 
I i-emember her ^\-ell ; her features denoted 
determination, while herehoice of stewards 
proved that she was a thorough woman of 
business. Where such huge estates have 
to be managed, the duties of a steward are 
almost similar to those of Prime Minister 
of a small nation. 

Her first husband, Antonio Bernardo 
Ferreira, was a descendant of Pedrcj Gil 


Ferreira, who was bom some 2S0 years to point out the period of their plantation ; 
ago at Travassos. Her second husband such is the case with the remainder of a 
was Francisco Jose da Silva Torres, who very ancient vineyard of the Ouinta dos 
had been manager of her estates during Negrilhos and with a part of the planta- 
her first husband's lifetime. Senhor tions of the former Ouinta dos Cyprestes ; 
Torres bought a quantity of property the remainder were made on lands pur- 
surrounding the Ouinta do Vesuvio and chased from dwellers of Soutello by Jose 
acc]uired land in other parts of the Douro de Seabra, ancient minister of D.Maria. The 
for the laying out of vineyards. The restoration of all these vineyards, under- 
foll(jwing is a list of some of the principal taken on a grand scale by Senhor Francisco 
Ouintas belonging to the deceased lady :- Jose da Sil\-a Torres, husliand of D. 
Vesuvio, Mileu, Cyprestes, Porto, Pego, Antonia Adelaide, represents the planting 
Piseaes, Villa Maior, Vallado, Diabas, of over 330,000 vines, the production being 
Rodo,Pouso, Lorentino, Travassos, Caldas, 250 pipes of first-class wine. The new 
Santinho, Loureiro, Aloncorvo, Pitaneira, estate, remarkable in many ways, is 
Cerro, Barqueiros. The latest acquisition particularly so owing to the pei-fection with 
was the (Juinta de Monte Meao, situated which its terraces have been rebuilt, and 
not far from the river Sabor. Her by the amplitude of the interior pathways, 
steward, Senlior .Antonio Jose Claro da contrasting favourably in this respect 
Fonseca, devoted much of his time and with the majority of the Ouintas m the 
attention to the laying out of this vineyard Douro." 

which is one of the largest in the world, Senhor Antonio Bernardo Ferreira, 

and capable of producing about 12,000 and his sister, D. Antonia, Countess 

pipes a year. This of itself represents a of Azambuja, are the partners in the 

princely i-evenue. On this property it is firm, which will be carried on under 

calculated that no less a sum than the designation, so I am gi\'en to 

£100,000 was spent in planting \ines understand, of A. A. Ferreira, successors, 

and making I'oads. In former days the manager and steward, Snr. Claro da 

Monte Meao was co\'ered with a dense Fonseca continuing to hold the power of 

forest of juniper trees and stunted oaks, attorney. 1 am also informed that the 

amongst which the wolf and wild boar personal and real estate of the late D. 

sought cover from the men sent out to Antonia Adelaide was returned at 

kill them. Another important Ouinta is ,-£3,350,000. To the hospital at Regoa she 

the Negrilhos which, with the Cyprestes left a legacy of about £6,000. and £500 to 

now forms one \ine)-ard. To these two other institutions. It would be difficult to 

Ouintas was added some neighhom-mg appraise the I'cal value of the estate, but it 

land and the propci'ty occupies the must be almost fabulous, seeing that the 

slopes and \'alleys from the ferry Omnta de Monte Meao alone is reckoned 

of S. Mai'tinho to a spot opposite the to prodtice 12,000 pipes of wine pei' annum, 

Foz-Tua, a distance of nearly half a \\'liich at the low figure of ,£10 per pipe, 

league. I'especting this magnificent pro- vould i-epresent, at 5 per cent., a capital of 

perty, 1 quote the following from the about .£3,000,000. 

valuable work of the \'iseount of \'illa 1). Antonia Adelaide was of a most 

Maior: "The laj'ing out of the se\eral retiring disposition. SincereU- de\'oted to 

vineyartls composing the present Oiiinta her lamib', to the matei-ial progress of her 

dos Cyprestes dates fi'om different epochs country and the comforting of her fellow 

so remote that there is no tradition extant creatures, she had no spai'c time hir the 



gaieties of the world. Possessed of a 
stron}4 will and an exceptionally clear 
jndgment she was able to supervise and 
control the workln:^ of her huj^e estates. 
To her constant residence in the Douitj 
the viticiiltLn-ists of that rej'ion owe 
a deep debt of ,!:^ratitude, for in 
the acquisition of more land year b)- 
year she was the means of maintain- 
ing the value of property at a i"easonable 
standard. She beautified the margins of 
the Doui'o by bringing her vast pecuniary 
resources to the embellishment of her 
vineyards, and she has left behind her an 
example of what a sensible woman can 
achieve even when faced by difficulties such 
as the phylloxeric scoLU'ge presented for 
many years, and which disheartened some 
of the stoutest farmers c^f the I3olu"o. Her 
enormous wealth was, in a g)-eat measure, 
the result of her tact and energ)' ; her 
claim to the lo\'e and respect of present 
and future generations is based on the 
good she did, while her memory will be 
preserved in the gratefid hearts of 
thousands of peasants. 


Y">H1S is a truly gi-and name in 
J ' Oporto society, the \'an Zellers 
ha\ing emigrated to Portugal 
during the commencement of last 
The \'an Zellers are of Dutch extrac- 
tion, and at one time a Mr. F. \'an Zeller 
was for many ^ears Portuguese Consul in 
London. .Another branch of the \''an 
Zellers miirried into the noble family of 
Nevill, from whom is descended Adolphus, 
Baron de Saa\edra, who sold his famous 
Ouinta da Cachucha to .Messrs. Offle\-, 
Forrester (^- Co. Tlie head of the family 
in Oporto is Seiihor Chi'istiano \'an Zeller, 
Alderman and one of our richest xineyard 
proprietors of the DoLiro. His cousin, 
Mr. Henry \'an Zeller, is one of the oldest 
ciiiplovt's of the London and Brazilian 
Bank, in Oporto. 

There is now no member of the \'an 
Zeller family engaged in the business, as 
it was pinx'based b\' the late .Mr. Sharman 
Crawford about the year 1869; it is now- 
being carried on for the benefit of the 
late Mr. George Reid's family who was 
Mr. Sharman Crawfcjrd's partner. 


'HIS firm was established in Oporto 
b)' Mr. Kenneth Mackenzie, who 
had previously been a sherr)- 
T shipper from Cadiz, and for nian\' 
years known to the wine trade 
in England. .Mr. Mackenzie is a native 
of Banffshire, and thus we ha\e one 
more Scottish name connected with 
port \\ine shipping. He has frequentl)' 
visited Oporto and the Douro region, and 
in 1870 he admitted into partnership in 
the Oporto house Mr. William iMinchin 
Driscoll, who had formerly been in the 
employment of Messrs. Sandeman & Co. 


mHlS old firm, engaged as agents 
for many Steamship Companies 
plying between ports of the 
United Kingdom, the Continent 
and Oporto, as well as general mer- 
chants, was started many years ago by the 
late Mr. Charles Coverley, who, while on 
a journey to the West Coast of Africa 
was wrecked on the coast of Portugal, 
and eventuall)' established himself as a 
ship brtjker in Oporto, where he spent the 
rest of his days, hi the earl)- years of the 
present centurj- freights rose veyy high 



from Oporto to England, as much as and his younger brother Thomas who, 
£3 10s., and seldom less than £3 3s., being ho\ve\er, is not a partner in the firm, is 
paid per tLin oF 2 pipes to London. To British V'ice-ConsLd at Leixoes. 
the sniallei' ports the freiglit was nuieli Messrs. Co\erle)' & W'estray are agents 

highei", the master reeei\'ing about Is. per in London inv theOpurto line of steamers, 

and the senior partner, Mr. Thomas 
Westra)', who ^^■as eondeeorated with the 
order of St. Isalxl tine Catholie, is a gr'eat 
fa\-tiurite in the old eit)'. I ha\'e enjoyed 
his fi-iendship for thirt}'-fi\'e years since 
he first A\ent out to Opoi'to as book-keeper 
to the late Mr. Charles Co\'erley. He is 
a man endowed with rai'C commercial 
proclivities, and has eai-ned for himself a 
\ery high reputation in the City of London, 
as well as in other large centres. He is a 
director of the Vallongo Slate and Marble 
Quarries Company, Limited, whose London 

pipe as hat monc)'. Very little is now 
done in sailing vessels, and the present 
partners of the firm, Air. Charles and Mr. 
Roger Coverley.the elder sons of the gentle- 
man above named, are agents lor \'arious 
lines of steamers, among others those 
belonging to Messi's. Palgra\e. MLirphy 
& Co.,pl}'ing between Oporto and London 
as well as Cjlasg(]w; also for Messrs. 
Le\'land'ssteamei-s tradiuL; between Oporto 
and Li\'erpool. Messrs. Co\erle_\' l\' Co. 
are also the pi'oprietors of many lighters young man I spent many en|o\-able weeks, 
and tugs eon\-eying merchandise to the or rather months, at X'allongo, staNini; at 
hai-b(nu- at Leixoes. The present .Mr. the house of the late Mr. Francis L^nnoi", 
Charles CoN'crlc)' is Consid in Oporto for to whom is \ery eonsidci-ably due the 
His ImperiLd Majest)' the Sidtan of Turkey, present prospei'ity of this Company. The 

-1/;. C, /;. Cotvr/.M 

offices arc in C)ueen X'ictoi'ia-strect. As a 



quarries were first acquired by the latter- 
named gentleman's father, Mr. Nicholas 
Hnnor, a Cornish mining engineer, who 
was horn in the village of Wadebridge, a 
few miles distant from Bodmin, and the 

partner in 1882, and in the London house 
in January, 1 8S)2 ; in October, 1897, the 
partnership was (.lissol\-ed by mutual 

iMr. Tait's impressions of (Jporto do 
credit to his judgment. It is a place, he 
says, whei-e you can enjoj- life in a fine 
climate surrcjunded by all the comforts of 
Scotland (jr England. While there lie 
took a prominent part in all the athletic 
sports, and rowed, played cricket and lawn 
tennis tcj his heart's content. While at 
Lisbon he had the honour of playing tennis 
«'ith Don Carkjs. He also seems to have 
entered into the spirit of our wild mountain 
shooting, not only in the Douro, but also 
on the more level ground of Alemtejo. It 
may be truthfully said that there are no 
preserves in Portugal, excepting the royal 
ones, and they arc not of much accoiuit. 
I^Lit if a man be a keen sportsman and up 
to working and walking for his birds, there 
is plenty of shooting to be had. Mr. Tait, 
like all other Scotchmen, likes Portugal 
because its bold scenery reminds him of 
Sc(jtland, especially so the Doui'o. 

present managing director in Oporto is 
my friend Mr. Charles John Ennor, 
son of Mr. Francis Ennor. 

There are some ancient mines at Val- 
longo which were worked by the Romans. 
A rich vein of gold quartz was discovered 
in the locality a few years ago. Nearly all 
the bread eaten by the poorer classes in 
Oporto is baked in Vallongo, and carried 
in every morning on mules. 


WrffyHE Senior partner in this firm is 

'W lL the nephew of Lord Stormonth 

Darling, one of the principal Judges 

in Scotland. Mr. Tait lived foi- 

about twelve years in Oporto on 

behalf of Messrs. Robertson Bros. & 

Co., to which firm he was admitted 

J. H. ANDRF.SEN -Success.jres. 

'LI IS is a name that «ill e\er be 
remembered in Oporto with that 
pride natural to all meixhants 
who gloi'y in seeing a man sur- 
mount all difficulties hereditary to 
humble birth and rise by his ind(jmitable 
energy to a pre-eminent position in a 
fijreign country-. John Andresen was 
born in one of the small islands off the 
northern coast of Germany, and, at a very 
early age, he was sent to sea by his parents 
as a cabin-boy on board a small schooner. 
Had the skipper been a humane man, in 
all pi-obability the little cabin-boy would, 
in the course of years, have passed in sea- 
manship and become a master-mariner, 
but a systematic daily bullying so exas- 
perated him that, on the arrival of the 



vessel at Oporto, he managed to escape 
on shore and concealed himself at Mr. 
Cooper's ship-chandler)- shop. It is a 
common saj'ini;; in Kngland, "you never 
know your luck." it was the tLU-nin,u; 
point in )'oLmf; Andresen's life, but away 
tVom his home and among a forcign- 
speaiung people, «-ithout a cent in his 
pocket and friendless, the chances of 
success seemed against him. He accepted 
a sltLiation in a Portuguese firm as a sort 
of errand boy, and, owing to his con- 
spicuous honesty and careful attention to 

The lull- Mr. J. 11. .-Iiulresa:. 

his duties, he gradually I'ose to a position 
of trList. He was still vei-y yoimg when 
he started on his own account, backed by 
his uncommonly good sense, great integi'ity 
and cnci-gy as the principal component 
parts of his capital, and, meteor-like, he 
spi-ang into notor-iety as one of the ablest 
and most important merchants in Oporto. 
" Hvei-ything he toLiclicd turneei to gold," 
and gradLiall)' he became one of the I'iclicst 
men in tlic eoimtr)'. He married a Miss 
Brito, daLightei- of I)|-. ISrito, of Oporto, 
by whom lie had a large I'amil)', and the 

business is now conducted by his sons, the 
eldest of whom married Miss Lchmann, 
daughter of the capitalist, the late Mr. 
Gustav Lehmann. Mr. John Andrcsen 
was principally engaged in business with 
the United States of America and Brazil, 
and had some large full-rigged ships of his 
own tr-ading with the ports of those 
countries. His sons are now the owners 
of a line of steamers, one of them bearing 
the name " Oevenum," the birthplace of 
their late father. They have a large steam 
CKoperage at \'illa Xo\'a, and their wine 
business is on an e.xtensi\'e scale. As 
landed and house proprietors they are 
amongst the wealthiest in the kingdom. 


g'TjN some of my earlier chapters I have 

j'L- shown that our best and only 

eTs '^'^'•'rthy enemies at sea were our 

I most active rivals in the port 

wine trade. At one time these 

sons of Holland, who had felt and 

appreciated the magnificent rule of 

Charles of Spain, invaded all the principal 

ports of the peninsula on commercial 

pursuits intent, and in their own quiet 

plodding way they wrested from their 

(jiitiinhiiii masters riglits and pri\'ileges 

which the Hnglish claimed later on. The 

Dutch, where\er the)- ha\e been, have 

always Identified themscKes more with 

the natives than the l-aiglish, who, to the 

contrary, ha\e gained in the long race for 

supremacy by always being English, and 

ha\ing as little as possible to do with the 

foreigner, because e\eryone who is not a 

Briton /,s a foreigner, .-\tthe present time 

we ha\e \'ery few Dutch families in 

Oporto; not many )ears ago the ConsLil 

of the Netherlands was a German, biit in 

the old days they were a power in the 

neighbourhood of the IxLia No\a. Of 

course, we all remember the \'an Zellcrs, 

who were great traders in the place 



during the last century, and now hold a 
very high social position. The Van 
Zcllers had, and have, valuable landed 
interests in different parts of f^ortugal, 
and in a previous chapter 1 reproduced the 
photograph of a twelfth-century h(juse in 
the Reboleira, which they acqLiircd, hut 
which had to be demolished to gi\e place 
to improvements. It combines the Gothic 
and Moorish styles of architecture, and 
was built as a postif^o or watch-house to 
command the river. The Niepooi'ts are 
an old Dutch family, and have been for 
many years engaged as shippers of port 
wine. The late senior of the firm was the 
oldest foreign merchant in Oporto. Some 
twenty years ago a disastrous fire almost 
consumed their wine lodges at \'illa i\'o\a, 
which were only partially insured, it was 
one of the first Hres at which the Oporto 
Vulimteei- Fire Brigade appeared, and so 
bitter was the feeling against them on the 
part of the Municipal Brigade that a sort 
of free hght ensued while the fire was 
allowed to have it all its own way. The 
founder of the volunteers, Guilherme 
Gomes Fernandes, is now the captain of 
the Municipal Fire Brigade, and it is one 
of the best on the Continent. 

Mr. Niepoort married a Miss Ehlers, of 
Entre Ouintas, by whom he had two 
daughters, \\'ho married two bi-otliers of 
the name of Breithaupt, officers in the 
Prussian army. The only son, Edward, 
who is a partner in the firm, married Miss 
Emilia Stuve, daughter of Mr. William 
Stuve, of the firm of William Stiive & C(j. 


yi>vOR many years Mr. William Stuve 

X^ was connected with Mr. John H. 

J Andresen, one of the richest mer- 

-'[■' chants of Opoi'to, as well as one 

of the most honoured and most 

honourable members <jf the commercial 

community in that city. He is now 

established under the firm of W. Stiive 
& Co. 

Mr. Stiive is Consular Agent for the 
United States of America, which post he 
has held since 1876. As the name denotes, 
he is a German ; he married iMiss Agnes 
Katzenstein, daughter oi the late Mr. 
Edward Katzenstein, late His German 
Imperial Majesty's Consid at Opoito. 

<5T0Sf^ Monteiro de Castro Portugal, 
j7,' the largest landed proprietor of 
V'!'/ Valladares, a suburb, so to say, 
1 of Gaya, was the hjunder of 

the firm under notice. Unfor- 
tunately he fell a victim to an attack of 
typhoid fever and died at his sister's 
residence, the Ouinta da Chamorra, in 
the early part of 1896. He was a 
gentleman well known and highly esteemed 
by all the members of the commercial 
community at Oporto. The family of 
Castro Portugal has often been ennobled 
in some of its ancestors, not only <jn the 
]-olls of chivalry but also in the more 
pacific pursuit of the bench and bar. The 
present partners are Mr. John Marshall 
Robertson and Senhor Carlos I^oque. 

Mr. Robertson has been connected 
with Oporto for nearly tliirty years; his 
introduction to the old city took place 
w hen he left his native Scotland to occupy 
an important post in the Oporto Branch of 
Messrs. W. & J. Graliam & Co., and he 
has always taken a great interest in the 
place. He was one of the prime movers 
in resuscitating an English School in 
Oporto very similar to the one which the 
Rev. Edward Whiteley c(jnducted for 
nearly half a century. Among the initia- 
tors «-ere Mr. Charles Wright of the firm 
of Croft li Co., Mr. Geo. Hardc) -Mason, 
of the firm of Messrs. C. N. Kopke c^- Co., 
Mr. Arthur Standring, representative of the 
firm of Messrs. Offley, Cramp & Forresters, 

a G 



Mr. Francis Curtis Rawes, Mr. George D. 
Tait, Mr. Charles J. Ennor, Managing 
Director of the Vallongo Slate & Slab 
Oaai'ries Conipan)', and others. The idea 
took practical hjrm in the starting of 
a guarantee fimd in order to ensure 
that SLiecess which the promoters haci 
in \"ie\\", and which, 1 am happy to si\y, 
has been realised. The l\c\-. William S- 
Picken, M.A., was in\itcd to become the 
Head iMastcr, liLit before his arrival in 
Oporto the School HoLise, with large play- 
grounds overlooking the Atlantic and the 
entrance to the l-vi\er Dom'o, was secured, 
and e\'ery precaution taken that the 
arrangements shoLild be equal to those of 
any similar estabhshment in England. 
The r^ritish community in Optjrto has 
thus again impressed its indiN-idualltj- on 
the rising generation, and while the yoLmi.^ 
" Picken Terriers " (as the boys are desig- 
nated) are trained in all the manly 
exercises of the great M(_>ther coimtry, 
they ha\e the advantage of acquii'iug a 
thorough knowledi_;e of the language of 
which, in all probabilit)-, the)' will ha\e to 
avail themselves in coming years in their 
transactions either with DoLiro farmers or 
Portuguese frequenters of the Rua No\'a. 
While this Oporto School is cxelusi\ely 
for the use of the children of British 
parents, it docs not limit its operations to 
those resident in the country. 


gXsT makes me feel old to think how 

Jilt- many 3ears it is since I Hrst had the 

Pjlv.j pleasure of makiiiL; the acquaintance 

I of Mr. Stewart S. Huteheson, who, 

almost on his arri\al at (jpurto, 

became a thorough Portonian. i'or 

many years he was one ol the partners 

ill the Oporto (inn of iMessrs. W. c'v- J. 

Oraham X' Co., aiul when the |iartiiership 

expired by eflluxion of time he st.u'tcd as 

a shipper on his own account. One ni' his 

sisters is married to Mi'. Alfred Tait, 
Baron de Soutellinho, in Portugal, and his 
only daughter is the wife of Air. Charles 
Baker, of the firm of Messrs. Clode & 



tOME forty years ago the subject of 
this notice was my school fellow 
at the Rev. Mr. Whiteley's, in 
I Oporto, when the fine old Magnt^lia 

Grandi Flora, of which 1 have 
already gi\-en a description, was still 
standing in the flower garden which foi'med 
part of OLir playground. There were two 
brothers, John Sebastian, and George 
Henry, sons of Mr. John Fleurriet Dela- 
toree, for nearly sixty years manager in 
Oporto of Messrs. Martinez, Gassiot & 
Co., who tiled in 1881 . 

The Delaforces are an old Huguenot 
family, tracing their history back to the 

.1/1-. G. II. Ih!nl\i:i. 

tune of the revocation of the lidict of 
Nantes, when one of their ancestors, De la 
Foice, was goxcrnor of Foy, and defended 
It against the ro_\al troops, only surrender- 
in,^ It when reduced by famine : howe\er, 



he was allowed to witlidraw with military 
honours. It is recorded that he made 
many a sally a!4ainst the hesiegers with a 
battle cry of " Force et FfA'," \\-hich is 
still the family motto. Aftei- that, the 
membei's of the family went to reside in 
Holland, and there is no dcjubt that it was 
there that they acquired that lu\e for 
Howei's which is inherited by their descen- 
dants. The present IMr. Delaforce's i>rand- 
father was one of the UKjst celebrated tulip 
fanciers of the old days, and even now, 
Delaforce's Klni^ and Gipsj- are among the 
best known varieties. At his death his 
private collection of tulips was sold f(jr 
over £1,000. 

The above-named John Sebastian 
Delaforce died owing to the effects of an 
accident he met with at scho(^l in England, 
and very shortly afterwards his surviving 
brother started in the wine business on his 
own account. His lodges, or wines stores 
are situate at the Oueimados, in \'illa Xova, 
which were rebuilt for him specially in 
1878, where, beyond a considerable number 
of pipes, are U> be seen two huge vats 
capable of holding 12,000 galhjns. 

iMr. Delaforce resides as much in Oporto 
as in England, and is assisted in the busi- 
ness bj' his eldest s(jn, Henry, who also 
travels for the firm ; the second son is a 
Lieutenant in the Royal .Artillery. 

in Oporto for 170 years, which is a not 
inconsiderable time in the histoi-y of a 
family. It was In 178'-! that .Mi'. Nash and 
Ml". Hurmester, s(jn of the founder, dis- 
soU'ed piii'tnership, and e\er since then 
the two firiiis ha\e had no connection with 
each other bej'ond that frieridl_\- intercourse 
which makes (uir Oporto life so pleasant. 
For many years the late .Mr. J. W. Bur- 
mester managed the wine liLisiness of 
Senhor .Manoel de Clamouse-1 ji'owne. 
He married .Miss Bhlers, of Oporto, and 
his son, my good friend Gusta\', is now the 
head of the firm. The untimely death of 
Mr. J. W. r^urmester, a few years ago, 


HE Burmesters are one of the 

oldest German families in Oporto 

— in fact, there are not many 

English names that can g(j further 

back than they. I belie\-e the)' were cast a gloom o\'er the foreign community 

two brothers who first introduced the in Oporto. He was standing (.n the 

name. One of them, Mr. H. Ijurmester, breakwater at Carreiros admiring the 

was one of the founders of the firm of fury of the waves, \\'hen a huge billow, 

Messrs. Butler, Nephew & Co., ^\•hich rising abo\"e the others in power and 

started operations as Messrs. Burmester, volume, caught him and swept him out to 

Nash & Co. This was in 1730, so that sea, beyond the possibilit)- of anj-one being 

we l;now the Burmesters ha\e li\ed able t(j render him any assistance. His 



second son, Hermann, is the a^ent in 
Oporto for some of the principal lines of 
German steamers. 


;HE father of the present partners 
went to Oporto about 65 j^ears 
ago and was in the firm of Messrs. 
Tebbut, Rawes & Co., which after- 
wards became Messrs. Rawes & 
Tait, the latter of whom was appointed 
agent in the North of Portugal for the 
Royal Mail Steam Packet Co. when that 
Company commenced the Brazil and 
River Plate Mail Monthly Service from 
Southampton on the 9th January, 1851, 
with the paddle-wheel steamer " Teviot," 
of 1,794 tons gross register. This was the 
Hrst line of steamers between Portugal 
and South America, and the agency, on 
the death of Mr. Tait in 1865, was handed 
over to his son, the present Mr. William 
C. Tait, who conducted the firm under the 
style of his own name and then of Messrs. 
\Vm. C. Tait & Co., for a considerable 
number of years, until he admitted as 
partner his brother Mr. George Danson 
Tait, when it became Messrs. \Vm. & Geo. 

The accompanying picture is that of 
tile Royal Mail Steam Ship Company's 
'' Trent," commanded by Captain Moir, 
which, on the 8th November, 1861, during 
the struggle between Nortli and South in 
the Civil War of the United States of 
America, was intercepted by the Federal 
fi'igate " San Jacinto," imder the connnantl 
of Captain Wilkes. The "Trent " was on 
her passage from Havanna to Saint 
Thomas, and eoLinted among her pas- 
sengers to Europe ISlessrs. Mason tv 
Sh'dell, the accredited Commissioners to 
liiu-ope from the Southern Confederacy, 
who were forcibly removed as prisoners to 
the " San Jacinto." This actwaseomniitted 
in dcKanee of the ,|omt I'emonstrances of 

the Commissioners, of Captain Mcjir, and 
Commander Williams, the naval officer 
in charge of the mails on board the 
" Trent." The " San Jacinto " was a first- 
class steam sloop of war, of one thousand 
four hundred and forty-six tons and carry- 
ing thirteen guns ; she was I'efitted at 
Southampton in 1854, and on this occasion 
was bound for New York and had arrived 
at Havanna from the Coast of Africa on 
or about the 2nd of the same month. She 
coaled and sailed again on the 4th, and it 
was well known at Havanna that Messrs. 
Mason & Slidell had arrived there on 
board the steamer " Theodora," which 
vessel had run the blockade at Charles- 


T\h- Royil -U.Ml Slrnm Packd " Tn::l." 

town, and that passages had lieen booked 
to Southampton h\ .Mr. Slidell for him- 
self, wife, son and three daughters; for 
Mr. Mason, lor .Mr. Eiistis, sccretarv to 
Mr. Slidell. Luul for Mr. McFarland, secre- 
tary to l\lr. lM;\son. The "Trent" sailed 
at eight o'clock on the morning of the 7th, 
and nothing; occurred wortli\' of notice till 
about noon on the 8th, \\lien, in the 
narrow passage of the old Rabama channel, 
opposite the Paradon Grande Lighthouse, 
the steamer was observed apparently 
waiting but showing no colours ; Captain 
Moir hoisted the British ensign which met 
with no lesponse imtil the two \essels 
were withm a I'uiJont; of each other, then 



the stranger fired a shot across the 
'• Trent's " bow and hoisted the American 
flag. This proceeding was contrary to all 
acknowledged law, as, when one \'essel of 
war wishes anc^ther to stop, it is customary 
to first fire a blank carti-idge. The 
" Trent " was still holding on her way 
when a shell was fired from a pi\ ot gun on 
the American's deck forward, which burst 
about 100 yards fi-(jm the " Trent's " bow. 
A boat consisting of two officers and about 
twenty men armed ^\■ith muskets, pistols, 
and cutlasses boarded the " Ti-ent " and 
demanded a list of the passengers, which 
was refused by the Captain. Lieutenant 
Fail fax, commanding the Amci'ican boat. 

1 lie Royal Mail i,-. " XJ,." 

stated that the frigate was the " San 
Jacinto," and that he was the first 
l^ieutenant. Commander Williams, R.X., 
the Naval agent in charge of Her Majestj-'s 
mails, with Captain .Moir, positiNcl)- ob- 
jected to the removal of the Confederate 
Commissioners and their secretaries, 
denying the right of the Federal officer 
to take any person whatever from under 
the P^ritish flag. 

Lieut. -Fairfax called out the names of 
the Commissioners and their secretaries, 
and said he would take them at all hazards. 
The four gentlemen answered to their 
names, but I'cfused io go unless taken by 
force Air. Slidell saying to Captain Moir, 

" we claim the pi-otection of the British 
Hag." On the Captain of the ''Trent" once 
moi'c refusing to gi\'e up the said passengers, 
thie American Lieutenant said he would 
take chai'ge of the ship, and then Com- 
mander Williams, H.N'., made the follow ing 
declaration " In this ship I am the repre- 
sentati\'e of Her Majesty's Government, 
and 1 call upon the officers of the ship and 
the passengers generally to mai'k mj- words 
when, in the name of that (j<jvernment, 
and in distinct language, 1 dcnoLuice this 
as an illegal act — an act in \iolation of 
international law — an act indeed, of wanton 
pii-acy, which, had we the means of defence, 
)ou would not dai'c to attempt." 

Lieut. -f'airfax then signalled to the 
fi-igatc and three boats containing about 
thirt)' marines and sixty sailors, officered 
and heavily armed came alongside. The 
men at once scrambled on deck, sword in 
hand. After some more parleying, the two 
Confederate Commissioners and their 
secretaries were seized and forced into a 
boat with their luggage, .Mr. Slidell 
exclaiming, as they put off, that he expected 
i-edress from the British Go\crnment foi" 
the outrage committed on them while LniLlei- 
the protection of the British flag, and 
called upon the British Captain to repi'e- 
sent the case to the proper authoi"ities. 

When the news arri\ed in l^ixerpool of 
the lamentable incident which had occurred 
on board the " Trent " it occasioned great 
excitement among all classes, and on 
'Change the utmost indignation was 
expressed. In London, the outrage was 
no less resented than in Li\erpool, and 
from both the cities representations wei-e 
made to Lord Palmerston, who was then 
l^rime Minister, that the release of the 
said ioiir American gentlemen should be 
claimed from the Federal Go\ernment. 
Her Majesty's Minister at Washington, in 
no uncertain language, represented the 
feeling of the British people and \\ hat the 
consequences woLild be if his demands 



were not imniediately complied «ith ; and 
it is well kno«n that the American 
Government very readilj' restored the four 
prisoners to libert)'. 

The accompanying picture is that of the 
s.s. " Nile," one of the most modern 
packets belonging to the above-mentioned 
Company, and to show my readers the 
difference between the packets of to-ciay 
and those of fifty years ago, I give the 
following particulars respecting the di- 
mensions of the paddle-wheel steamer 

The " Teviot " was a sister ship to the 
renowned " Trent " above referred to. 


' Nile." 

Screw Length 

420 ft. 


52 ft. 


34 ft. 

Gross Tonnage 


Net do. 


Messrs. Wm. & Geo. Tait also repre- 
sent the " Adria," Royal Hungarian Sea 
Navigation Co., the " Empreza Insulana," 
and the " Compagnie Bordelaise." The 


My. Gf'ojxc Diinsoii Tait. 

" Teviot," wdTich commenced running 
between Southampton and Brazil and the 
River relate on the 9th January, 1851, and 
those of the s.s. " Nile," one of the largest 
packets on the South American line of 
the Royal Mail Steamship Company: — 

The " Teviot." 
Whole tonnage 1,794 tons. 

Net Register 

1,122 tons. 
214 2/10 ft. 
33 7/10 ft. 
30 tS/lOft. 

senior partner, Mr. William C. Tait, 
married the second daughter of Capt. 
Liot, who, as Hag-captain under Admli-al 
Charles Napier, was well known i\>r his 
brax'cry in Oporto dining the war between 
the Royal bi'others. Air. CjCorge Danson 
Tait married the elder daughter of Mr. 
Henry Tutc Muiat, of the firm of Messrs. 
Nt)hle and Murat and Messrs. Wari-e & 

Mr. Henry Rumsey, son of Air. Henry 
Rumse\', managci- in Oporto of the firm 



of Messrs. Martinez, Gassiot & Co., is the 
junior partner in the important wine and 
brandy distillinj^ business of the firm. He 
married Miss Bowater, a nieee of Mrs. 
Mi^Juel Malheiro. 


^jN some previous occasions I ha\e 

had occasion to mention the Tait 

Jl\/ family especially in connection 

with the a.ijency in Opoito of the 

Royal Mail Steamship Company. 

One of the partners in the above firm 

is the third son of the late Mr. William 

modesty peculiar to the sui-rounding cir- 
cumstances, secretly exploring/ all nicely- 
kept orchai'ds. The schoolboy is a reposi- 
tor}' of much knowledge valuable to him- 
self, but \\-hen he abandons his satchel for 
the office-stool he generally forgets it all. 
Not so with all boys, however! there have 
always been a few who ha\"e utilized, in 
later years, the infoi'mation they gleaned 
in their j'outh when wandering through 
country' lanes, wo(jds, \alleys ;ind (ner 
meadows. The Jjai^on de Soutellmho is 
very fa\'Oiu-ably known m the scientific 
world as a botanist and natui'alist. 
Strangely enough the house he now 

Huron lie Soulclhnho 

Seiihor Antonio Vellozo tla Cr 

A. Tait; he and I \yere boys together, and 
1 know how assiduously he has applied 
himself to the great study of natural 
history, especially from a practical point of 
view. Alfred Tait, Baron de Soutellinho, 
has always been an enthusiastic and care- 
ful observer of the mysterious ways of 
Nature. All our English boys are more or 
less de\oted to bird nesting and, with a 

inhabits was at one time tenanted by Mr. 
Alexander Grant who n(jt only was a cle\'er 
schoolmaster hut a most assiduous student 
of botany and natural history. 

The Baroness de Soutellinho is the 
sister of Mr. Stewart S. Huteheson, for- 
merly a partner in the Oporto firm of 
Messrs. W. & J. Graham & Co. and now a 
shipper on his own account. The Baron 



and his partner Senhor Vellozo started in 
business in 1876, but both of them had 
been eonnected with the ^\ine trade tor 
many j-ears before. Mr. Alfred Tait, the 
present Baron ^\-as for a long time in the 
employment of Messrs. Taylor, Fladgate 
&■ ^'eatman, and, if my memory seves me, 
he was at one time, sub-librarian of the 
British Faetory H(.)use. 

The Baron is a man of excellent taste 
and refinement, one who is wise enough to 
be a student while instructing others. In 
his business avocations he has proved him- 
self as vei'sed in their requirements as in 
the more distinguished patlisof science he 
has shown to the world that man's com- 
mercial laboiu-s are, very often, more 
pleasantly recompensed by a few hoLirs of 
seicntilie recreation than in the heated 
atmosphere oi the theatre or the ball- 
room. The r^aron de Soutellinho is a 
Fellow of the Linnean Society, and a 
Knight Commander of the Order of 

Senhor Antonio Velloso da Cruz conies 
of a good old Portuguese family, and is 
held in high esteem in his native city both 
as a merchant and a politician. He is a 
Knight Commander of the Order of Chrlsto 
and Coneeic:u), President of the Oporto 
Chamber of Commerce, and one of the 
Deputies (Members of Parliament) for 

shipping business in conjunction with his 
relatives, Messj-s. Hdward ^-Theodore Pinto 
l^asto, partners in the well-known Lisb(Mi 
firm of Messrs. E. Pinto Basto &' C<j. 

Mr. Albert Kendall, whose portrait is 
given herewith, was a Lisbonian by the 
accident of birth, but he has resided for 
so many years in Oporto that, by the 
general assent of all the other British 
i-esidcnts, he is a Portonian, a veritable 
Ani^lo-Tripiirn, and no longer an AlfdCinlia. 
Fm-thermorc, he married among us, his 


lY H I S lirm was established nearly 

I'urty years ago, under his own 

name by Mr. Henry Kendall 

cousin of the present senioi 

partner, as ship agents and genei\i 

merchants. Some short time ago it was 

decided amicably to di\'idc and mercasc 

the bi-anchcs of the business, and Mi 

ticni')' Kini_l;dl retained the hankiiii; am 

coal depko-tmcnt, while the present scnioi' 

partner. Air. Albert K'endall. tuok o\er the 

wife hcuig the c;raiubdauL;hter <if our 
f(irmcr clia|Tlam, the late l\ew Hdward 
\\'hitele\'. autl ilauL;hter of Air. F-dward 
Atkmson. whn tor man\' \cars \\as the 
niana,i;er in (Iporto (if the hi'm of Alessrs. 
Small. W'dodhdusc iC' Co. My deceased 
lirotlicr, (V'oi'ge, autl ni\" \oinigcr brother, 
I'ledcrick William, nuo'i'icd respecti\"el\' 
Hikl.i bhuma aiKl Ko/iiuki, the only sisters 
ol' Ml. Alliert Kendall, chddrcn of the 
late A\r. Samuel Kendall, \\liosc wife was 
a Aliss Custancc. of Lisbon. 



Messrs. Kendall, Pinto Basto & Co. 
are the Oporto agents for the Pacific 
Steam Navigation Company ; the General 
Steam Na\'igation Company, of LcMidon ; 
the United Steamship Company, of 
Copenhagen ; as well as foi' the steamers 
belonging to Messrs. Turner, Kdwards & 
Co., of Bristol. 



ff/y\i)F all the annLial visitoi's to Oporto, 

|Jo-J none is more welcome than Mr. 

V/y Harry John Newman to all the 

°\ British community in general, 

and the members of the I-Ji-itish 

Factory House in particulai-, for through 

his newspaper, R'nUcv's Maiitlilv ]Vinc 

and Spirit Trade Ci renin r, of which he 

Wine Trade paper, having been in 
existence now for the long period of 51 
years and enjoying the high reputation 
which it most Luidoubtedly deser\es. Mr. 
Newman knows all that is worth kno\"\ing 
in Oporto as well as throughout the whole 
of the Douro district, which he has visited 
on many occasions, and thus he has 
acquired the most valuable informatirin 
possible aboLit the Ouintas, Vintages, the 
making (jf wine and the appreciation 

Born at Hadleigh in Suffolk on the 9th 
November, 1855, his father, Mr. Henry 
Newman, J. P., sent him to the High 
School at Bishop's Stortford, after which 
he proceeded to Sidney Slisscx College, 
Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. 1877 
and took his M.A. degree in 1881. 

From my very earliest days 1 recollect 
the good work that Ridley's has performed 
on behalf of the I-'ort Wine Ti-ade ; it has 
always been ably edited and fearless in 
exposing the trLLth \\'hene\cr it has felt 
itself called upon to do so. Among other 
contributions to the litei-ar)' world, the 
subject of this memoir is responsible foi' 
the well written and highly instrLictive 
article in the "British Enc)'cloptedia " on 
\\ ines. 


^,F my bi"other it is difhcult f(jr me 

to write, not because 1 might be 

suspected of a natural inclination 

to praise him abo\'e his merits, 

but because 1 could ne\'er do 

■ ■ ." justice to one who so endeared himself to 

all with whom he came in contact. N(jt 

Ml. H.J. Xeu'iiian. ]ong ago his Excellency Viscount de 

Chancelleiros in addressing a crowded 
is proprietor and editor in conjunction meetmg at the Chamber of Commerce, in 
with his partner, Mr. H. H. W. Sparham, Oporto, spoke of George Sellers as of one 
he has identified himself with the best from whom he had learnt much, and whose 
interests of the Port Wine Shippers. As splendid qualities would ever be remem- 
we all know, Ridley's is the oldest British beredby his fellow citizens of Oporto. At 

H H 



a very early age he entered the eounthij^- 
house of Messrs. Offle)', Cramp & Foi'resters, 
where my uncle Henry was manager. He 
had every opportunity of making himself 
thoroughly acquainted with the business, 
and, furthermore, he met with the kindest 
indulgence from the partners. In after years 
he was forsome time with Messrs. Cockburn 

The laic Mr. C,ivr,i;c Hrury Scllas. 

Smithes & Co., and when he left them it 
was to start on his own account. It was 
then that he made the act|ualntance of 
Viscount de Chancellciros, one of the 
largest vineyai'd proprietors in Portugal, 
and it was on the propcrt)' of this noble- 
man at Cortcgajia, that he contracted 
typhoid fever, to which he succimibcd In 
October, 1888. Some years before his 
death he took Into partnership Senhoi- 
Narcl/.o Fcrro. 

It Is but a very small village In the West 
Rkling of ^'orkshlre whence my family 
went to Oporto. |-5enthani is described in 
Bell's "Gazetteer" as "a palish In thc 
western division of the wapcnstakc of 

Stalneliffe and Ewcross West Riding 
county of Yorkshire; the population in 
1801 was 3,957." My grandmother was a 
Miss Knowles, sister of John Knowles, 
senior partner in the port wine shipping 
firm of Knowles, Procter & Bold, of Liver- 
pool and Oporto, and she married my 
grandfather, John Wilcocli, one of whose 
sons, Henry, was in after years admitted 
into partnership when the style became 
Knowles, W'ilcock & C(j. In those da^'s 
Mr. Christopher Bushell, one of the 
" fathers " of Li\-erpool, was the traveller 
for the firm, and my father, Frederick 
William Sellers, and his elder brother 
George Henry, \^•ere partners in the old 
business of Sellers, Gladstone & Co., 
which now is known as Robertson, Glad- 
stone i!v Co., of Liverpool. Christopher 
Bushell, founder of the firm of Bushell 
Brothers, wine merchants, of Li\-erpool, 
married my aunt, Kate Sellers, and it will 
be in the recollection of manv that my 
father entered into partnership with the 
late Mr. James Norris, the firm being 
established as Sellers & Norris at the 
corner- of iMark Lane. Thus was my late 
bi'other descended from a family of wine 
merchants, and the name still sur\i\'cs in 
Oporto as G. H. Sellers ,>t Ferro. and by 
the kind permission of the Editor I am 
enabled to add a portrait of him to those 
which have alreadv appeared. 




\l may well be pi-oud of the fact 
that the most important banking 
establishment m niw ,ild CItv 
I of Oporto is the branch office of 

the London and Brazilian Bank, 
which was started in IS(V_>. Tlic position 
of this establishment Is such that the £20 
shaivs, on which only tilOhavc been called 
up, are quoted at ,t'-!(). 



Mr. Theodore Carter, late chief accountant 
at head office, was sent ocit from London 
in the year when the Bank was established 
to open a branch in Oporto, and a few 
months after\\ards was joined by Mr. 
John Peter Hobkirl;, who was appointed 

Mr. F. ir. Sellers. 

manai^er, and very shortly after his arrival 
Mr. Carter returned to London. On the 
retirement of Mr. Hobkirk in ISfiS, he was 
succeeded in the nianai^ement by Mr. 
Auj^ust Schmidt, who retained the position 

until 1868, when he was transferred to the 
Lislion branch. .Mr. Adcfidato Joaquim da 
Sil\a Lima was appointed his successfir ; 
he was a man of great erudition, and, like 
his predecessors, was \'ei-)' much esteemed 
by the British colony, for, although he was 
Portuguese by birth and name, he had 
lived so long in the British Isles that he 
was as much an Bnglishman by inclina- 
tion as any (jther member of the com- 
munity. He retired in the yeai- ]88(-!, 
when Mr. William James Haynes, who had 
been chief at the Pernambuco branch, 
took the management at Oporto, and 
retained it until the 31st July, 1889, 
when he was succeeded b)' my bi'other, 
Frederick William Sellers, who still holds 
the post, and has been in the service of 
the Bank for ovei* thii'ty one years, and I 
belie\'e that he is one of the oldest of the 
empkjyesof this most successful establish- 
ment, \\liich has deser\-edly earned the 
confidence of the Portuguese, as well as 
of the British merchants. 

I may here remai'k that banking trans- 
actions in Oporto ai"e more difficult to 
manage than they are in London, 
especially so <jf late ^-ears, seeing that the 
exchange on London, Paris, &:c., is con- 
tinually varying, and, therefore, great 
caution is necessary, not onl)- daily, but 
momentai-ily, in attending to the interests 
of the shareholders entrusted to the 
management of these f(jreign branches. 





RHSTER, Barcn cle 
Fori-cster in Portugal, 
was horn in Hull in tlic 
Ncar 1809, and was 
descended from an old 
and esteemed family of 
the city of Perth, his 
father and ancestors for man}' generations 
haxing heen nati\-es and hurgesses of that 
ancient city. His name is so intimately 
connected with l^ortugiiese agriculture in 
all its branches, more especially those of 
viniculture and \iticulture, that his great 
individuality is claimed no less by the 
Portuguese than by his countrymen, and, 
assuredly, no one, since port wine was first 
shipped, has worked more earnestly, either 
from a scientific or practical point of \-iew, 
in the interests of what is one of the 
leading trades of the cormtry than the 
subject of my memoir. He left behind 
him works of the x'er)- highest importance, 
which I will cninnerate further on, and 
hct|Licathed a name which will long be 
remembei"ed and treasm-ed in the annals 
<jf the r_)oin'o. 

It will be recollected that the year 1831, 
when the subject of our memoir arrixed in 
Oporto, was a very eventful one in the 
history of PortLigal, For the Lisurper, Dom 
Miguel, was on the throne, and the yoLuig 
Oliccu, the rightful heiress, was li\ing in 

exile at the CoLirt of Bavaria, Although 
Mr. Joseph James Forrester (who had not 
then been created a baron) belonged to 
the advanced branch of the English ^^'hig 
Party, and e\entually became a distm- 
guished member of the Reform Club, he 
never interfered in Portuguese politics, 
and was, in fact, owing to his excepti(.)nal 
talent — which he devoted to the welfare of 
Portugal — a pcrsoini !_;i-(itc'i with the leaders 
of the opposing factions during the civil 
war of 1832-33 and sLibsequent smaller 
e\'ents. At one time, during the Pntolcia 
revolution of 1847, he entci'tained the 
opposing Generals at his house on the 
same day, but in separate rooms. 

Baron de Forrester was endowed \x ith 
a vast amount of energv. and with a keen 
sense of how to tiu'n brain power to the 
advantage of the people. He had no 
sooner arrived In Oporto than it became 
very c\ Ident that " there was a ehiel 
amang them takin' notes," for he at once 
set t(j work to make himself master of the 
language and to CLiltixate the friendship 
of the higher classes of the people among 
whom fate, or fortune, had located him. 
Nor \vas he immindful of the peasantry 
whose interests in fact he made his own ; 
rather may it be said of him that he 
diligently worked to make the classes and 
the masses recognise that they rcciuire 
each other. 



In 1831 the photoj'raphic art had not 
yet been discovered, for it \\as only in 
January, 1839, that Daguerre reported his 
discovery to the world. But Baron de 
Forrester was so skilRil with lirush and 
pencil that he left behind him, among 

title to tile gratitude (jf the Portuguese in 
particular, and the scientific world in 
general, was his map of the river Douro 
from Vilvestre, on the Spanish frontier, to 
S. Joiuj da F(jz, where it falls into the 
Atlantic. The original chart is in the 

other valuable works, lifelike portraits of possession of Messrs. Offley, Forrester & 
some of the best-known men in the D(juro Co., at 66, Mark Lane, and is on a scale 
wme country, as well as of statesmen of 4i- inches to the Portuguese league. It is 
and military and naval men. Had it not so beautifully executed that it requires an 

been for thi ; expert to 

very valuable 
collection of 
pictures, maps 
and documents 
w h i c h his 
sons very gene- 
rously placed 
at my dispose 1, 
I would have 
hesitated to 
w !• i t e this 
history o f 
" Oporto, Old 
and N e w, " 
because it 
w o u 1 d h a \- e 
lacked much 
of its interest 
shorn of the 
portraits of 
shippers and 
other well 
known and 
di stinguished 
men who lived 
fifty yeai-s ago, 

y hi lali Huron ./i Fo 

and more, and whose features are not 
remembered by the present generation. 

In 1834, when he was but twenty- 
five years of age, he had finished his 
memorable picture of the Rua Nova 
dos Inglezes, to which I have already 
referred, and in which no less than fifty- 
four British and Portuguese merchants 
are represented; but his magiiiim opus, a profound study of the disease ; the result 
that for which he earned his principal being that in 1854 he had completed a 

detect that it 
is handwork. 
This valuable 
a d d i t i o n t o 
r i \ e r charts 
was pi'oduced 
in 1848. 

In a n o t h e r 
map he des- 
cribes the wine 
disti'ict oi the 
Alto Do Li r o 
wliich, again, 
is the only one 
extant of any 
i m p o r t a n c e . 
The first 
edition was de- 
d i c a t e d b y 
royal permis- 
sion to Her 
Majesty Donna 
Maria 11. of 
Portugal, and 
was adopted 
and published 
by the British House of Commons. This 
work alone would ha\e sufficed to render 
Baron de Forrester's name imperishable 
in the land to whose interests he devoted 
so many years of his life. 

In the early 50's the Oidiuni Tuckcri 
attacked the Douro vines, and Baron de 
Forrester immediately set about making 


map, or what he termed an " illustrated Some of his sketches were lithographed 

paper of the vine disease in the districts of in 1835 hy R. J. Lane, A.R.A., as far as I 

the Alto Douro." This is composed of 19 know the only lithographer who ever 

sectional coloured illustrations, descrihing attained tcj that distinction, and the 

the progress of the disease in the \-inc, and following is a list of them:- 1 he Friexo, 

accompanied hy his views on the matter, near Oporto ; The Bridge of B(jats across 

I^ater on, in 1861, he produced another the Douro ; Siege of the Serra Convent; 

great study, in which he demonstrated the View from Arrabida ; View from the 

effect of the disease on the leaves and the Freixo ; Convent of S.Antonio; Castello 

grapes, the latter being magnified to the da Figueira ; Serra Convent; Interior of 

size of a melon. Church of S. Nicolau, and the Cordoaria. 
These two charts represent an exhaus- But there is inestimably more value 

tiveresearchintothecauseandeffect of that attaching to his water-colour portraits of 

terrible scourge first discovered by Tucker, men of note, viz., H.M. King Carlo Alberto, 

and which almost ruined Lhe Douro of Sardinia; the ex-king, Dom Miguel de 

farmers. But we ha\e not yet finished Braganca, taken in London and bearing 

with Baron de Forrester as an eminent the royal autograph, dated 29th April, 

chartographer. In 1855 he prepared his 1851; the fJuke of Saldanha ; Izidro Diaz 

" Second Original Sur\-eys of the Bed and y Arguelles ; Joaquim iMiguel Forjaz ; 

Margins of the Ri\'er Douro, showing the Felix Manuel Borges Pinto ; Domingos 

Rapids and the Geological Formation of Ribeiro dc 1-aria ; Baron dc Ancede ; 

each Locality," w hieh was on view at the Emanoel de Clamouse Bro\N-ne ; the great 

Paris Exhibition. We must not forget that Parliamentaryorator, Jose da Silva Passos; 

all these charts were executed b}' him on Baron de .Alpcndiirada ; \'iscount de 

his own initiative, and that the reward Castro ; M. Soares Leite, X'iseount de 

came afterwards in the shape of a nation's Guiaens, of Lamego, nicknamed " Calcas," 

gratitude. Baron de Forrester worked or trousers, as he was the first Doiu'o 

indefatigably as a merchant, a scientist, a man to discard knee breeches; Miguel de 

\\'riter, and, in his leisure hours, «hich Mendonca Figueiredo d'Azevedo ; Manoel 

could not have been many, as a landscape de Castro Pereira de MesqLiita ; Dr. 

and portrait painter. As an essayist he Edward Rumsey, .M.D ; Manoel Rodrlgues 

gained the Oliveira Prize for the best essaj' d'Amorim, \'iseoLmt da X'arzea, X'iscount 

on " The Capabilities of Poi-tLigal, the de Oueluz, dated London, June, 1851 ; 

Effect of the High Duties on the Wines of Padre, or Fatiier, Jose Antonio Goncalves 

Portugal, the Advantages to be obtained Serodio : Di\ Jose Bento Tcixcna de 

by a Reciprocal reduction of Import FigLieiredo ; CoLuit de Collegno ; S. 

DLities, the Effect of Railroads in the d'Almeida e Brito ; Bara~o de S. Lourenco, 

Kingdom of Portugal, and the bearing of and Geneial Schwalbach. All these are 

these Enquiries upon the Principle of in the possession of Messrs. OfHey, For- 

I-ree Trade." The Prize was awarded hmi i-ester c^ Co., of London, 
on the 16th April, 1853, and the Medal .At the house of Mr. William Offley 

bears the names of the judges who Forrester the following beautiful specimens 

awarded it, viz., Right Hon. C. Tennyson of the Baron's painting are preser\ed : — 
D'Eyneourt, P. C. ; John McGregor, M. P. ; Rua Noxa dos Inglezes ; portraits of 

John P. Gassiot, l-.R.S. ; Admiral Sir Sa' da Bandeira, Conde dc Cazal and the 

George Sartorius ; J. O. Halliwell, F.R.S. ; Spanish General Don Manoel de la 

Gordon W. Gyll ; and Col. Skyes, l-.R.S. Concha, anil Dom Jeronymo. Ijishop of 



Oporto, besides many interesting studies 
of national costume. 

Of the Baron's smaller essaj's we will 
mention the following among many that 
were published and enjoyed a large circu- 
lation : — 

" A Word or Two on Port Wine, 1844 " ; 
" Wine Trade in Portugal, 1845 "; " Rssay 
on the Most Approved Mode of Making 
Olive-Oil, 1844 " ; " Essay Showing the 
Prejudicial Effects of Monopoly on the 
Interests of Portugal, 1849" ; "Statistical 
Account of the Rise and Progress of the 
Port Wine Trade," etc. 

F(jr these valuable works Baron de 
Forrester was elected Member of the 
Royal Academy of Sciences of Turin, of 
the Royal Academies of Lisbon and 
Oporto, of the Royal Geographical 
Societies of London, Paris, and Berlin, 
etc. ; and many of the Sovereigns of 
Europe were not slow to recognise the 
great merits of the chartographer of the 
Douro, for he was awarded the gold medal 
of the first class granted to Siivans 
litniiii^ers, by their Imperial Majesties of 
Russia, Austria, and France, and by His 
Holiness Pope Pius IX. He was fuither 
condecorated with the Stars of Knight 
Commander (jf the Oi'ders of Christ and 
Isabel la Catolica, and Crosses of the 
Orders of Nossa Senhora da Conceicao de 
Villa Vicosa, and Carlos III. by their 
Majesties of Portugal and Spain. 

King Vittorio Emanuele II. of Sardinia 
not only condecorated Baron de Forrester 
with the Order of S.S. Maurice and 
Lazarus, but added his name to the Roll 
of Military Knights of the same Order, 
and in connection with the former honour 
I quote the following passages from 
Senator Luigi Cibi-ario's " Recollections 
of a Mission in Portugal to King Carlo 
Alberto." (It will be remembered that 
the King had arrived in Oporto in April, 
1 849, after the disastrous battle of Novara). 
Senator Cibrario writes, " Among the 

citizens who placed their residences at the 
disposal of the King was the Commen- 
dador Joseph James Forrester, an English- 
man, who, having had the honour (jf 
presenting to Carlo Alberto, and at H.M.'s 
suggestion also to King Victor Emmanuel 
II., the two finely executed maps of the 
course of the ri\er Douro, and of the wine 
district, learned from Chevalier de Launay 
that he had been nominated Knight of the 
Order of S.S. Maurice and Lazarus. 
Pending the arrival of the decoration, 
Forrester having gone to Charles Albert 
to thank him for the honour he had pro- 
CLired for him, the King asked him if he 
had received the Cross." On his answer- 
ing in the negative, the King went on, " lo 
le (hiro una dvlla iiiic : Mi disp'uicc die imu 
e tiiiovii, ma I'lio pminta siil cuiiipd ili 
baftaglia." (I will give you one of mine; 
I am sorry it is not new, but I have worn 
it on the battlefield) and forthwith he 
pinned the Cross on to Mr. Fon-ester's coat. 

Cioss of SS. Mauiice mid Lazatm. 

Special interest, I think, attaches to the 
Diploma conferring this honour upon the 
subject of my memoir, in that it bears the 
signature of the Re Galantuomo, Victor 
Emanuel, and I, therefore, append a 
translation of the document. 


Duke of Savoy, of Monferrato and of Genoa. 
I'rince of Piedmont, 

Grand Master General. 
BY OUR DIPLOM.V of the 15th June last We 
decorated with the Cross of a Knight of the 



Order OF Saints Maurice and Lazarus Giacomo 
(James) Forrester, an Englishman, settled in 
Oporto, who, having applied his uncommon 
abilities and his wealth to useful and learned 
researches at that place, dedicated the same to 
My Lord and Father, -Whose loss we are now so 
greatly lamenting not less than to L'S WE, 
knowing and valuing the prolTers of hospitality 
which he tendered to the Magnanimous King, and 
for which We preserve towards him the greatest 
feeling of appreciation, wherefore WE being 
pleased that he should have been enrolled in he 
Mauritian Order of Knighthood, do with much 
good will grant him, moreover, permission to wear 
the Military Uniforms thereof. For this purpose. 
We have, by these presents, signed with Our 
hand, granted and do grant unto Cavaliere 
Giacomo (James) Forrester the right to wear the 
Ivlilitary Uniform of the Order of Saints Maurice 
and Lazarus, as and in the manner presented in 
the Grand Master's Order of the igth May, 1S37, 
for the degree of Knighthood to which he belongs. 
WE COMMAND whomsoever it may concern to 
acknowledge the possession by Cavaliere Giacomo 
(James) Forrester, of the prerogatives aforesaid 
which .... (here follow three or four words 
covered by the seal). GI\'E.N at Turin on the 
16th October, 1849. 


YOUR M.VJESTY grants to Giacomo (James) 
Forrester, Knight of the Order of Saints 
Maurice and Lazarus, an Englishman, settled in 
Oporto, permission to wear the Mauritian Military 
Uniform prescribed b\' ROYAL ORDER of the 
iQth May, 1S37. 

King Charles Aliiert entered the 
Frontier town of Valenca do Mhiho, in 
Portugal, on the morning of the i3th 
April, 1849, moLinted on a horse belong- 
ing to M. I^icaiit, proprietor of the Hotel 
at Vigo where he had stayed the previotis 
night. He was aeeompanied by his staff' 
and a troop of cavalry, and royal aiul 
military h(jnoLirs wci-e aeeorded him. 
From Valencia he descended the l^i\'ei' 
Alinho in a bai-ge elegantly prepared hir 
him, and, when he reached Caminha, he 
followed the road hy the seaside to 
Vianna do Castello where he spent the 

night of the 16th April. On the 17th 
April he e(jntinued his journey to Oporto 
accompanied hy his staff and a troop of 
mounted sharpshooters. On the 18th he 
arrived at Cazal de l^edro, when he was 
so ill that he had to he carried into a 
miserable inn. 

On the afternoon of the 19th he entered 
Oporto, where he was received by the 
Civil Governor, Commendador Lopes Dias 
de X'asconeellos and a great concotirse of 
people, and put up at a hostelry in the 

Ki igCiilo Mlh-iio. 

Largo dos l-erradores, now known as the 
Praca de Carlos Alheito. .Mr. William 
Offley Foi'restcr has a vi\ id recollection of 
seeing the king pass his father's house in the 
Ramada .Alta, where he and his younger 
brother anil sisters were at a window, and 
thi'cw flowers on to the royal personage 
as he entered. 

The king was destined to close his days 
in the city he had selected for rest and 
retirement after the iiKuiicntoiis termina- 
tion of his campaign against the Austrians. 
His hght I'or the independence of Italy 



ended at N'ovara in the total defeat of his 
army by Radetzky, and after formally abdi- 
cating after the battle in fasoLu- of his son, 
the Duke of Savoy, he turned his face 
towards Portugal. The terrible and crush- 
ing events through which he had recently 
passed had told heavily upon his health, 
and he breathed his last at his residence in 
Entre Quintas on the 28th July, 1849; 
his mortal remains being removed to 
Genoa on board the Sardinian Steam 
Frigate " Monzambano," and fi'om thence 
transported to Turin for sepulture. 

Baron de Forrester married Miss Eliza 
Cramp, sister of his partner, Mr. Francis 
Cramp, by whom he had six children ; 
James, Joseph James, William Offley, 
and Frank Woodhouse, and two daughters. 

Many of my readers will recognise in the 
accompanying picture the Cachao da 
Valleira where, to the great sorrow of the 
nation. Baron de Forrester, \\as drowned 
on the 12th .May, 1861. 

Caihao dn Vallciui. 

I had the privilege of enjoying the 
friendship of this truly great man, as I 
have this day that of his two surviving 
sons. It is a peculiar gratification to me 
to be able to say that I knew one who was 
pre-eminent among his co-labourers in 
working for the good of a land which, if 

not our own, has most undoubtedly won 
our admiration for all that is grand in 
history, and sublime in natiu'c. 

Referring once more to the disastrous 
war between the two Royal Brothei'S, Dom 
Pedro and Dom Miguel, I give the follow- 
ing interesting narrative from a Diary by 
the late Baron who was then li\ing at \'illa 
Nova, in a hot bed of Miguelites, addressed 
to his uncle, James Forrester, residing at 
Oporto, which \\'as in the occupation (jf the 
Pedroites: — 

" Those who have been made familiar with 
danger will confess that familiarit)- soon pro- 
duces indiflerence to it. Soon after the entry of 
the Constitutionalists into Oporto the city was 
besieged by the Royalists from the south side of 
the river. At first, the greatest alarm and anxiety 
prevailed amongst the inhabitants, but as the shells 
were bursting over their heads at almost every 
instant of day and night, I may assert without the 
smallest exaggeration that many persons arrived at 
such a pitch of ability in calculating the curves 
each shell would take, that they were enabled to 
decide with the greatest nicety where the destruc- 
tive engine would fall ; howe\'er, on one occasion. 
a man was moving along by the corner of the 
Factory Plouse carrying a number of fowls in his 
hand when a granaderather unceremoniously shot 
into the middle of the crossing. I saw the man 
drop like one dead, when, immediately after the 
shell burst, the cocks and hens were carried up into 
the air without the aid of their wings being required. 
No sooner had the smoke dispersed than the fallen 
man first popped up his head, then raised himself 
on his hands, and, finding the coast clear, 
reco\'ered an upright position, shook the dust 
from his clothts, and then with the greatest 
san;^ froiJ picked up the fragments of his birds 

and trudged off. On the a tremendous 

bombardment from the South ushered in the 
day and, notwithstanding that this was one 
of the most serious affairs of the kind we had had, 
I was obliged to make my appearance as usual in 
the Rua Nova- As I crossed the I^argo da Feira 
six shells fell within a few yards of me, and before 
I could cross the square I was making every haste 
to a more sheltered spot, when whiz, whiz, whiz, 
came a granade close by me, but not so near as 
to prevent my throwing myself flat on some bags 
of rice on the floor of a grocer's shop. The 
granade immediately afterwards burst, and one 
of the pieces struck a poor girl who was seated 

I I 



on the counter spinning, sl:ie was struck on the 
calf of the leg and pinned thereby fast to her seat. 
The blood flowed plentifully and the first intima- 
tion 1 had (jf her misfortune and my own escape, 
was the blood trickling down from her wounded 
limb on my face, as I still remained in my hori- 
zontal position on the ground. No other assistance 
being at hand, I first with my neckcloth and hand- 
kerchief bound up the wound and then recovered 
the young person from her swoon by the best 
means in my power." 

The above doctiment is dated 1832. 

" On the 5th .\ugust, 1833, it was decided that 
the Company's stores * should be blown up ; as 
much wine was taken awa}' as the army required, 
and trains were to be laid for the destruction of 
the remainder. I took up my position in our lodge 
determined to use my humblest efforts for its 
defence. gTH August. — 150 police and from 
400 to 500 soldiers broke open four or 
five of the lodges and came to ours by 
mistake. ioth August.— Troops returned to 
their old positions and various excesses have been 
committed during the past night, to wit, lodges 
have been broken open, wine robbed and the 
parties in charge of the premises severely dealt 
with. All the military guards removed from the 
lodges. iiTi-i August. — The report current that 
not only sequestered wines are to be removed or 
destroyed, but that all Portuguese property is to 
be sacrificed. Almost every Portuguese lodge 
has put up a British flag. The consequence is 
that when the order has actually been issued to 
remove certain wines a Union Jack has sprung 
up over the door, and for the present baffled the 
intentions of the authorities. The English resi- 
dents ill looked upon. 13T11 August. — At this 
moment everything remains in the same state as 
when I last addressed yon, matches, bags of 
powder and other combustibles were collected by 
the Government for the purpose of setting fire to 
certain property in Vi la Nova, but the execution 
of the measure was suspended in consequence cf 
some communication having been received during 
the evening from the Orestes. i5Tn August. — 
The night has passed over but without more than 
the usual excesses. The Company have recei\'ed 
orders to deliver up the keys of their lodges by 
eight o'clock this morning. iGrit y\uGusT. - 
Still in the most awful slate of suspense as to what 
may be the fate o( Villa Nova, if but one tithe of 
the apparent plan of destruction is carried into 
eflect. The Company's lodges are now fairly Iniilt 

' The stores relerred lo belonged to the Old Opuiio 
Wine Co. 

up in every part of their interior with straw, 
barrels of gunpowder and hand granades, and 
the aimi\:cm de Hesketh may be literally said 
to be full of combustibles. Indeed, in conse- 
quence of events, Villa Nova is in such a state of 
anarchy and confusion that I find I cannot remain 
in the lodges nor go to them with any degree of 
safety. Officers have no longer command over 
their soldiers, and soldiers have no coinmand o\-er 
themselves. My life has been twice threatened, 
and it was with considerable difficultv that I 
escaped yesterday from se\'en exasperated soldiers 
who were inveighing against the English, their 
Government, and their flag, which is now so grossly 
abused with impunity, and flying over the doors of 
many armazems. Having now, therefore, taken 
every precaution for insuring the safety of the 
House's property I have returned again to this 
neighbourhood and shall remain at home as much 
as possible to avoid suffering from the dangers to 
which the very name of Englishman subjects 

" Can no measures be taken for the saving of 
I-Jritish property ; cannot the Consul interfere in 
one way or another? I sincerely hope that the 
ailair will, without the least delay, meet with the 
consideration of the British Merchants. N.B. — 
The fire took place this very pm., when F£l' 
Alves' lodge was burnt - the Union Jack was the 
only thing left. 17TH August.— I am happy to 
inform you that the House is not a suflerer from 
the horrid events of yesterday. The fire which first 
threatened us so appallingly was got under before 
night and our fieis (trusty men) never pro\ed them- 
selves more faithful than they did on this occasion 
in assisting to extinguish the fire. I shall not 
attempt to describe the awful scene of yesterday, 
because you, I do not doubt, witnessed the whole from 
your windows ; sufiiceit tosay that soon after having 
written to you in the morning I was informed that 
at noon the long dreaded event would take place. 
All avenues being blocked up I could not get to 
the lodge till after the explosion, viz., about two 
o'clock, but when I arrived there finding every- 
thing safe, I went to Mr. Ormerod's .jmh.i;,-™ to see 
that proper measures were being taken for pre- 
venting the spreading of the fire. I dii-ected the 
men I found there to remove the wooden hoops 
and shavings that were lying about the Pateo, 
immediately adjoining the burning lodges; they 
remained idly looking on and refused to obey. 
Half-an-hour afterwards the whole of the square 
was in flames. Our danger then became imminent, 
the wine as it streamed from the Company's lodge set on fire by the burning hoops, so that in a 



very short time the flames of the running wine 
communicated with the door of Christovao's Lodge 
and threatened the destruction of the whole pro- 
perty. At this moment I collected all the men I 
could meet with in the neighbourhood, entered the 
Patco where the fire was raging, and, after two or 
three hours' incessant application of water, fortu- 
nately succeeded in preventing the further progress 
of the flames. Whilst thus employed in one part, 
some men went round to the back of the building, 
and, by great exertion, kept the fire from commu- 
nicating in that quarter until after six o'clock, 
when it was completely allayed by the seamen 
from the brigs. Great credit is due to Captain 

E and his officers for the able manner in 

which they gave their assistance. To the Lieu- 
tenant we ourselves are particularly indebted, for 
by his suggestion the burning wine was carried off 
into another channel, and thus prevented from 
reaching Christovao's property." 

At the latter end of 1846, Baron de 
Fori-ester commenced a series of letters 
addressed to bis }>ix-at friend, Mr. Robert 
Woodhouse, from which 1 make the 
following extracts, as they refer to a most 
exciting epoch in the more modern history 
of Portuf^al. It was, in fact, on the 5th 
of December of the above mentioned year 
that he started for the wine ctnmtry, and, 
writing on the 6th from PedrOes da 
Teixeira, he says : — 

"On reaching the barriers I was called upon 
to show my pass, after which no questions were 
asked, and I soon left the good old city of 
Oporto and its fortifications behind me. 1 
have seldom commenced a journey under more 
conflicting feelings : — /« the city a popular 
disturbance, an attack on the part of the enemies 
of the Junta, might compromise my family 
and friends. Out of it, I might have to encounter 
the Miguelites, who are encamped within a few 
leagues of the walls, or, escaping them, I might 
fall in with the Queen's troops under the command 
of the Barao do Cazal - and shd. I proceed through 
one or even both these parties, I might still be met 
by the popular forces of the Junta, or tho' last, 
not the least to be expected, be stopped by 
a body of men who style themselves inde- 
pendent Guerillas — but whom in common 
parlance we should call lawless banditti ~ who are 
now, taking advantage of the present unhappy 
state of affairs, marauding on their own account. 
I carried my Union Jack carefully wrapped up 

umbrella fashion, & Franco, my servant bore a 
white flag in the same manner to serve in case of 
need— I had also passports from all parties. I 
reached Penafiel, six leagues from Oporto, without 
hardly meeting a human being. The whole 
country appeared deserted, and even the bells of 
the muleteers were no longer to be heard on the 
road ! My friend Sebastiao, the Mulatto, alone 
seemed to have something to do- he was busy 
loading carts \vith Indian corn for exportation 
from Oporto. A Miguelite guerrilla had appeared 
in the \'icinity of Penafiel only yesterday, and 
exchanged shots with some of the inhabitants ; 
they did not, however, show themselves to me. 
.A.bout two leagues on this side of Amarante I met 
a small force of about I20 poptulares retiring upon 
Oporto ; they were in a miserable disorderly 
condition, and had apparently had stronger 
motives than their Commander's simple word for 
the 'double quick march' with which they got 
over the ground. They asked me no questions — 
& I took care not to impede their progress ! I 
soon met groups of people on the road, from whom 
I learnt that Cazal had already reached Amarante, 
and that there he intended to remain until morn- 
ing. I proceeded — and when I entered the town 
it was already 1/2 past 6 o'clock, and quite dark. 

" The River Tamega divides Amarante in the 
very centre, but as a fine strong stone bridge 
connects the two banks — the town may be said to 
be composed of one long narrow and dirty street 
— through which I passed as quietly as my fa^,'ged 
horse, stumbling over a miserable pavement in the 
dark, would allow. 

" All the shops and the houses were closed, but 
the buzzing of voices within told me that the 
soldiers were preparing their suppers, and too 
busy to notice a humble traveller like myself. I 
only met three or four men as I crossed the bridge. 
There was no picket— no guard anywhere! Con- 
sequently I went through the town without the 
slightest molestation, and pushing onwards took 
up my abode at the Venda dos Almocreves in 
Padronello for the night — being about a quarter 
of a league distant from Amarante. The ground 
floor of the Venda was divided into two com- 
partments, the larger being a stable capable of 
containing at least 30 mules, and the other a 
kitchen, the smoky ceiling and the clay floor of 
which had certainly not been swept since the first 
tenants took possession of the premises. Here a 
large rough stone table stood in the centre, over 
which hung a long reed cut in notches for the 
purpose of holding small rummers and large glasses 
capable each of holding a bottle and a half of wine. 



On the walls were hung, or placed on rude shelves 
b'ackened with smoke, the earthenware utensils 
used for culinary purposes, and an iron frying- 
pan Jn the chimney, immediately over the wood 
lire (lor here crjal is nett known) hung a few 
sausages well seasoned with garlick', having on 
either side a bunch of nettles to keep off the rats 
— or other intruders who might attempt to touch 
this savoury \'iand, at unlawful hours. In one 
corner was a cask of wine on the tap in airother a 
huge chest capable of holding two cartdoads of 
Indian corn, and in a third near the lare was the 
oven in which bread of Indian meal is baked for 
the use of the house and for sa'e. 

" The nighl being bitterly cold I seated myself in 
the mok of the chimney, and with my hostess' 
permission commenced cooking my supper - for 
there was nothing whatever in the house ready 
cooked. The only meat I could procure was some 
tough cow beef ; this I proceeded to beat with a 
mallet (rolling-pins here being scarce*, and when 
as I supposed sufficiently tender, I took down the 
frying-pan, and went through the whole process of 
cooking my dish, to the no small astonishment of 
the lookers-on 

" During my employment I held a constant con- 
versation with my landlord, and amongst other 
things I learnt from him that in this neighbour- 
hood the farmers, who only two years ago followed 
the pernicious custom of beating their olive trees 
with long poles, and then picked up the fruit from 
the ground, now gather their olives by hand, and 
make the oil without salt or hot water, ha\-ing 
been induced to change their long-established 
custom in consequence of a printed paper which 
had appeared amongst them some time ago, pro\-ing 
the loss the)- sustained by the beatmg of the trees 
and Ijy the old method of making the oil. 

" I ate my supper up-stairs, in a sort of hay-loft, 
with a good appetite, after which, not being dis- 
posed to sleep, I wrote my diary ; I then retired 
to rest on a miserable sacking stuffed with straw, 
and elevated on truckles in a corner of the apart- 
ment. The sheets were coarse but clean ; the 
pillow a cylinder filled with bran and as hard as a 
stone, and the night was cold, but in spile of my 
accommodation and myriads of active companions, 
I slept tolerably well. In the morning I rose 
about 7 o'clock -and had actually to employ at 
least 1/2 an hour in freeing my person, linen and 
clothes from the intruders wdiich had pcrseculeil 

me during the past night 1 U-.ft the \'cnda 

@ iji past A.M. (this d.a)) and o\cTlaking Ihc 
Con-uio (the Oporto post) 1 passed m\ lime 
pleasantly enough conversing as we went along — 

He informed me that, on reaching Amarante, he 
was summoned to the presence of the Commanding 
Oflicer, who, ordering all the mail bags to be 
opened, took out the official despatches and news- 
papers which they contained, and ordered him to 
convey tire pri\ate correspondence to its desti- 

" From .Vmarante to this place the distance 
is about 3 leagues, and we merely met 1/2 a 
dozen poor muleteers on the road ! Alexander, 
the owner of this Inn, apologised to me for not 
gi\'ing me his he^A apartment, the one which was 
built for the Nabobs of the illustrious Wine 
Company of former days,- telling me that he was 
now obliged to con\ ert it into a barn for the storing 
of his Indian corn, as there was no longer traffic 
on the road to compensate him for keeping it 
exclusively for the reception of guests. This poor 
fellow during the late disturbances w-as shot at — 
he is totally at a loss to imagine to whom he is 
indebted for so great a favour! Timepiesses — 
my horse and myself liave had a good rest - fare- 
well therefore until I can again have an oppor- 
tunit}' of addressing you." 

" Pezo da Kego.4, 6th December, 1S46. 
" The road, as you are aware, from yuintclla to 
Padroens da Teixeira once so good, being now in a 
most deplorable state, I walked to Mezao Frio — and 
riding from that town by the river side, reached 
this place this p m at 4 o'clock. Hardlv had my 
friends assured themselves that it was really I, 
their /-rt/riTe, who having dared to travel through 
the country at such a crisis as the present was now 
once more amongst them — than a sergeant and two 
soldiers appearing at the door stated that thev 
came to escort the " Inglez " to head quarters ! 

" My Iriends were thrown into the greatest 
consternation, and my servant entreated me 
not to allow myself to be carried otT a 
prisoner by the rchds ! I'erceiving at once that 
there must be some mistake, but determined to 
f dlow out my principle of alwavs presenting my- 
self to the authorities of the place in which I 
might hippea to be -I at once accompanied the 
escort from I'ezo to Kegoa, and across to the left 
bank of the river to the encampment, as it is 
termed, of the ' popular forces on the south side 
ol the T)ouro.' 1 was immediateh- conducted to 
the presence of the Barao de Castro d'.Vire who 
was at tab'e with his officers — my friend Jose 
r.orges being also there as a guest. If I had been 
surprised at the message delivered by the soldiers 
— my in their turn were not less so — but 
the matter \v,as soon explained. It was Horges, 
who, expecting my arrival, had sent to the House 



to request he might be informed as soon as I 
reached Pezo — but as the right bank of the ri\er 
is now supposed not to be under the rule of the 
Junta, the officer of the picquet did not consider it 
prudent, especially after sunset, to send the 
sergeant who bore the message alone, and there- 
fore ordered two soldiers to accompany him, — 
hence the whole affair. 

"The Barao & I, between whom I found that a 
sort of connexion already existed, soon became 
good friends - and politely saying that he had long 
been acquainted with me through my writings & 
the services which I had performed for the country 
— he very frankly offered to serve me in any way 
in his power. 

"I then presented to him two letters of intro- 
duction — one being from Passes (Manoel) & the 
other from Passos (Jose), which, although perhaps 
under the circumstances not absolutely necessary, 
tended materially to strengthen my position with 
the Barao. 

" During conversation I gradually brought round 
the subject of the great inconvenience experienced 
by the Merchants in consequence of the present 
impediments to the free navigation of the river. 
His Ex.''. candidly deplored the necessity of the 
precautionary measures which the Junta had been 
compelled to adopt in order to prevent the crossing 
of the forces of the Barao do Cazal - but kindly 
agreed to allow my little boat to proceed under m}' 
own orders and without a guard to Roncao— as 
well as to permit 2 Boats of my Casks which 
ha\'e been lying in Porto Manf;o for some time 
past to be brought up the river — and landed in any 
spot on either bank which I might determine. 

" The following are the particulars which I ha\"e 
been able to collect regarding the history or 
biography of my new friend -which may be of 
use to us at a future day. 

" Luiz Malheiros de Vazconcellos e Castro is 
descended from an illustrious family of Castro 
d'Aire, where he usually resides and possesses 
extensive estates. He is the nephew of Luiz 
Vazconcellos Pereira de Mello — Major da Armada 
Real^is short in stature, dark complexion, & 
very deaf. He is about 45 years of age -is a well 
educated and well informed man — and possesses 
great influence in the Circulo de Lamego, which 
at two distinct and very different periods he has 
represented in Cortes. Mr. Vazconcellos e Castro 
was made Barao de Castro d',\ire during the 
administration of Costa Cabral. He, however, 
lived retired in Lisbon during the whole of that 
Minister's administration, and had only just 
returned to bis estates at Casto d'Aire when the 

Junta was being organised at Oporto. The Junta, 
well acquainted with the influence possessed by 
the Barao de Castro d'Aire in the Circle of \'izeu 
immediately appointed him Commandant of all 
the popular forces on the left bank of the Douro, 
which post he has hitherto filled with credit to 
himself and ad\-antage to the I'rovisional Govern- 
ment. The Barao's force is certainly not less than 
I300 men." 

" Pezo da fiEGo.v, 7TH Decr. 1046. 

" The Barao de Castro d'.\ire was as good as his 
word --and during breakfast I received 2 passes. 

" \i II a.m. I crossed the fiiver with Borges — 
and after considerable labour succeeded in extrica- 
ting ray little craft from amongst the numerous wine 
Boats which have been crowded into the mouth of 
the river Baroza. \t 2 p.m. I had the satisfaction 
of seeing it start for the upper fJouro under the 
British flag, and with her beautiful large white 
sail filled with a favourable wind. 

" Thus, singularly enough, it fell to my lot to 
open the navigation at a period when it was 
supposed that such a scheme was altogether 

'" During my \isit to the encampment last night I 
could, of course, see little or nothing of its 
position, but to-day I had ample opportunity of 
looking about me and of informing myself of the 
nature of the defence adopted by the Populares. 
.V breast work of the rudest description composed 
partly of stones, and partly of casks filled with 
earth thrown up on the bank in the middle of the 
river, and which may be washed away, or covered 
by the swelling river in a single night — was their 
only fortification .'.' .' 

" Behind this I saw some twenty tatterdemalions, 
some with hats and shoes, others with night caps 
& soccos, many without any covering on their 
heads or feet, but every man amongst them with 
a musket, and the rest of a soldier's accoutre- 
ments. At the Quinta dos Varaes, the Baron, 
wdth about 200 men had his headquarters. 

"This force, for the most part, was well equipped, 
having had the good fortune to find that the uni- 
forms which the 9th Regiment left behind them in 
Lame.go fitted them admirably. Every man had 
a capital blanket for general purposes, and 
recei\-ed eight vintems daily pay, upon which he 
can do remarkably well, the ordinary pay of 
troops of the line not being more than one half 
of this amount. 

" These populares are a fine set of men, tall and 
muscular, but regular cut-throats in appearance: 
yet their tractability is astonishing, as well as their 
subordination. Many of them come from a great 



distance and must have, therefore, made great 
sacrifices in leaving their homes and their occupa- 
tions. But they do their duty cheerfully and, 
although undisciplined, obey implicitly the com- 
mands of their officers. 

" The manner in which these forces have been 
collected is well worthy of notice. The Junta do 
Porto immediately on their accession to power, 
wherever their rule was acknowledged, turned out 
all the old authoiities and established new ones, 
and these in their turn elected their own sub- 

" As soon as the late events proved to the Junta 
the necessity of increasing their force, orders were 
given to the Regedores to double the number of 
their cahos, so that the above parish might 
possess a constabulary force of 400 instead of 200 
men. This mantjeuvre being carried into eftect, 
the popular battalions were ordered to be 
organised and of course the cahos could not escape 
being at the head of the enlistment, the preser\a- 
tion of their place being the only moti\'e which 
induced them to take up arms. 

" In the Circle of Vizeu, for example a force fully 
equipped, and composed of the local authorities 
alone, has been organised to the number of not 
less than 4,000 men, the watchword of all of whom 
is— prcsi'i'i'afioH of place. 

" Many of these popuhires have been assembled 
also by the nobles, or the wealthy proprietors of 
their respecti\'e districts, \-et the end of these, in 
like manner is the same — patriotism ha\'ing 
nothing whatever to do with the moN'cment. 

" Pezo da Regoa, -th ]>i;cr., ]84r) 

" You ha\e heard of Vie.^'a- the guerrilla chief of 
Castedo. Abr)ut a month ago he summoned all 
the }'Outh of the mountain land of the ,\lto Douro, 
where he resides, and, rel\-ing on the unmhc) of his 
men, and their known courage, he marched upon 
Villa Iveal, despising the small military force 
which then garrisoned the town. 

" The troops and the Guerrillas met, and the 
latter being thrown into confusion, were routed with 
considerable loss. Amongst some of the prisoners 
^vhom the s ildiers barbarously assassinated was 
Viega's own nephew — but there were also the 
nephews and relatives of Viega"s neighbours 
amongst the slain 

" The conquered guerrilla Chief returned aUith' to 
his home to mourn his nephew's death and his 
own misfortunes, but there he found no welcome, 
no one to cheer him in his distress ; his house was 
occupied by one who had lost a paient, another a 
husband, a third a child, one and all calling down 
the vengeance of llea\'en upon him who had caused 
this bereavement. 

" At a future time I may be induced to turn my 
observation to that party against whom the Junta 
are at war, but at present I had rather confine 
myself to incidents which are worthy of being 
noted during my brief excursion through this part 
of the country at this particular period. 

" Oi'ORTo, 14TH Decr., 1846. 
" Monday. 
" The left bank of the River, to the Pocinho, is 
not much less than 24 leagues in e.xtent, and 
its " defence " as it is termed, is one of the most 
ridiculous burlesques which has ever come under 
my ken. 

■' When the Barao do Cazal retreated from 
Oporto, the road by liegoa being the best, he 
naturally took it, but he never made any attempt 
to cross the river, although he marched along its 
banks, and if he did make an occasional feint, it 
was merely to hoax his opponents and keep them 
as much as possible at a distance from Traz-os- 
Montes, which he wished to consider his own. All 
the thousands of cartridges which were expended 
when Cazal marched through I<;egoa were more 
for the employment and amusement of the Patulea 
than to do harm to the Barao do Cazal, who 
leisurely continued his march towards Chaves. 

" Still the ' defence ' is kept up, and a force of 
pnpiiidns of not less than 2,000 men is spread over 
the line, their posts being at the principal ferries, 
and at a distance of half a league, or sometimes a 
league from each other, the intermediate spaces 
being altogether unprotected. 

" Great care has certainly been taken to congre- 
gate all the boats on the left bank, to stop the 
navigation of the river altogether, and even to 
suppress the ferries. Thus all communication is 
completely cut oft between the two banLs boats 
laden with wine or corn or other merchandise are 
laiif up exposed to the inclemency of the season in 
the spots where they happened to be at the moment 
of the thicalciicd crossing of Cazal, the pioor inhabi- 
tants of the country near to the river are unable 
to dispose of their produce, the higlr road to their 
principal market (Oporto) being closed to them, 
and the operations of the wine merchants are sns- 
pcndeil ! And yet what is the real state of affairs 
after all these precautions, paraile and boasting ? 
It is simply and truly this:— There are many boats 
still lying hidden away on the right bank which 
have escaped the vigilance of the populaves and 
there is an abundance of empty casks, odics (skins), 
iVc, for rafts or lloats, so that any person with the 
smallest pretentions to military skill might eftect a 
crossing over the Douro with the greatest ease in 
more than 50 different places and without meeting 
with the slightest obstacle in the execution of his 



enterprise. However, the activity and energy of 
the^o/H^airs is evidently respected by the Cazalislas, 
or they would have acted very differently from 
what they have done. 

" After completinf^ my little tour throughout the 
wine country I obtained permission to return to 
Oporto by water, I left Kegoa accordingly at day- 
light on Saturday the i2th inst. My pass was most 
ample, and my covered boat being painted blue 
and white, with curtains to correspond, and with 
the Union Jack always flying, was a very pretty 
and conspicuous object. Both boat and flag, how- 
ever, were looked 

upon with jealous — -; - -- : 

eye as we passed 
along, and very 

naturally so, and ■< 

nothing but neces- 
sity would have 
induced me, on an 
occasion like the 
present, to make 
such a display. I 
was called to the 
shore at all the 
stations, and my 
pass was scrupu- 
lously examined, 
but general ly 
speaking, a civil 
salute, or an occa- 
sional word with 
the officers, 
enabled me to 
proceed without 
material incon- 

"The wind being ; 
strong against us, 
and the days short, ; 
I o n 1 y r e a c h e d i' i / 

Oporto on the ;.^, __ ^'.' 
Sunday morning 
at II o'clock, when 

I at once ascertained that what I had foretold of 
the inefficacy of Cazal's attempt to enter the city 
had proved perfectly correct, that the city, although 
under martial law, and in a state of siege, is quite 
tranquil, and that the defenders have displayed 
the greatest alacrity and energy in preparing for 
the Baron's reception. 

■' Oporto, i5th Decr., 1846. 
" Wednesday. 

" When Dr. Sebastiao d'Alraeida e Brito was in 
prison I visited him. I was allowed the whole 
range of the wards. As soon as I found myself 

Dr. Sebastiao d' 

within the principal iron grating, I confess 
that I did not exactly like my position. There 
W'jre no turnke}'s or porters to look after the 
inmates, or to show me my ^^'ay ; but seeing a \'er\- 
smart and well dressed officer, and taking him for 
one in authority, I enquired for the cell of Dr. 
Brito, which he politely shewed me. This person 
afterwards turned out to be one who was confined 
for two barbarous murders which he had com- 
mitted, and for which crimes he had been sen- 
tenced to transportation for life, being merely then 
in confinement until a vessel should offer to 

convey him to 
exile. At every 
' . ' turn I met noto- 

rious criminals, 
but the greater 
mass who crowded 
the corridors were 
merely political 
offenders. Brito 
was keeping his 
bed, and I had 
occasion to witness 
the wonderful 
effects produced 
upon him already 
by the loss of 
liberty and the 
impossibility of 
seeking his ven- 
geance. He ap- 
peared soured, and 
the strong linea- 
ments of his 
features even then 
foretold the ex- 
■■ : treme of Kadi- 
c a 1 i s m which 
/.',*; would be adopted 
""■■•'7. in his subsequent 
, : politics. His room 
was forlorn 
enough. It was at 
the top of the building, but had one large iron 
grated window without glass. On the walls were 
several singular inscriptions, amongst which 
were some in the handwriting of the unfortunate 
victims of the Praija Nova during the reign of the 

" I looked around me, I assure you, with no very 
agreeable sensations. It was the first time I had 
entered this horrible den & whilst in it a kind 
friend reminded me that this too was the place 
which I was so nearly occupying once myself, but 
as this is a subject which I had rather not 

■ // 


Almeida e Brito. 



dilate upon at present, I close my letter and bid 

you adieu ... 

" Oporto iqth December, 1S46. 
*' I do not think that you are acijuainted with the 
leader of the Sctembrista party — the ex-dictator 
— the chief of the patulea. A brief description of 
a visit which I paid to his Kxcellency on the even- 
ing of Sunday, the 29th ulto., will introduce him 
to you. 

" Manoel da Silva Passes, or Passes (Manoel) as 
he is more familiarly called, \vas visiting his 
brother Jose da Silva I-'assos at his house in the 
Viella da Neta. My friend Man' Joaquim accom- 
panied me, and on reaching the upper end of the 
alley, our further progress was impeded by a 
crowd of people, all of whom were apparently 
inclined to out-talk each other. 

" My friend and I elbowed our way through the 
crowd and made for the gateway of the house. I 
should have entered the court, but Man' Joaquim 
making a sign to me to remain where I was placed 
his arm within that of an individual who was 
talking very loudly, and warmly embracing one of 
the patulea. I withdrew to a short distance, but 
was speedily joined by Man' Joaqm. and the party 
to whom I have referred. The light of the door 
lamp fell on the features of a man short in 
stature and of sickly appearance. He rushed 
eagerly up to me, and embraced me. I 
regarded him for a moment, and discovered to my 
no slight surprise that Passes (Manoel) was before 
me. He drew me still further from the crowd, his 
manner, and his voice were suddenly subdued, and 
heat once, with the exception of his careless dress, 
became the same as I had formerly known him. 
Manoel Passes is decidedly a man of talent and 
principle, and not averse to popularity, and has, 
without doubt become one of the chief Democratic 
leaders of the day. He it a. progressist. He has 
been watching the political changes which have 
of late taken place throughout Europe, and 
although originally no friend of Great Britain, 
he is convinced that that country will by-and- 
bye be only too happy to form a clo.ser alliance with 
the Setemberists and on a more liberal basis 
than heretofore. 

"Manoel Passes is not a member of the Junta, 
but he aids them materially in their councils, and 
had it not been for his ill health, he would long ago 
have taken a more conspicuous part. 

" t)roKTo, 9T11 Janv., 1.S47. 

" During these troublous times, it is, 1 feel quite 
impossible to close one's eyes, or shut one's cars, 
to politicks -in fact our future position- and our 
property— depend upon the turn which the political 
destinies of Portugal may now t.ike. 

" I have endeavoured, but in vain, to divert my 
thoughts into other channels. It cannot be. We 
are residing in a city under martial law. The 
fortresses and lines of the old siege are not only 
being restored, but the inner lines of defence are 
being projected. The defeat of the Junta's forces 
at Torres Vedras at first produced a panic here, 
but now, owing to the inactivity of the Duke of 
Saldanha, the "patulea" have gained fresh 
courage, become more daring and less scrupulous 
being aware that they will have to pay the forfeit 
if their cause be lost. The Junta Proviseria do 
Governo do Reino attaches too much importance 
to the faction, not of the Sans Culottes (for these 
are their own party) but to the " red trousered " 
Miguelite Chief Macdonald, forgetting that as yet 
no Royalist of note has joined this adventurer, and 
that if the Miguelites or Realistas have kept aloof 
from politics for nearly thirteen years, or since the 
Amnesty of Evora Monte, they are not likely to 
ally themselves to the ultra-liberals, unless it be for 
the simple purpose of using them as tools, or step- 
ping stones for their future restoration to power. 
" Oporto, 25TH Janv., 1S47, 
" The Miguelite General Povoas has accepted the 
command of the two Reiras under the Pro^'isional 
Government, and several Royalist Chiefs ha\e 
come into the city, declaring that if they do not 
actually join the cause of the Junta, they will at all 
events preserve a strict neutrality, A large force 
has been sent into the Minho from Oporto; Maria 
da Fonte is again up ; the Miguelites are making 
for Tras-os-Montes ; Cazal is a fixture between 
Valenja and Vianna, and Saldanha has been 
nearly a month issuing proclamations from the 
vicinity of Coimbra and threats against Oporto 
and the rebels, but there he still remains." 

On the 8th July, 1847, Bai-on do 
Forrester, as I said before, entertained 
the leaders of the two opposing faetions 
at his house in the Ramada Aita at 
Oporto, the Queen's party dinino on 
one floor, while the Jimtistas were 
beina reoaled in a room upstairs. This 
very clearly pro\-es that the Baron did 
not side with either party, but desired to 
be on the best terms possible with the 
Portuguese. He waited upon the Duke of 
Saldanha, the Spanish General Coneha 
and Sir Thomas iMaitland, all of whom 
aeeepted the Baron's hospitality. The 
Duke do Saldanha at the head of his stalT 
and attended by a squadron of Laiieers, 



and General Concha with his staff, accom- 
panied by a squadron of Dragoons, in all 
about 110 horsemen arrived at about half- 
past six o'clock, and were recei\ed at the 
entrance by theii- host. The following is 
a description of what took place : — 

" My wife presided at table, tiie Duke sitting on 
her right and Concha on her left. The entertain- 
ment went off remarkably well without the occur- 
renceof a single [ontfctcmpz. The Baraode Saavedra 
who is very fond of practical jokes, laughingly 
recommended the E)uke not to place too much con- 
fidence in Forrester because he is notoriously a 
Juntista.' The Duke immediately replied: — 
' Not so, Barao — Forrester is only a great 
pipgressisla.' On this I took an opportunity of 
saying my ' say.' I assured bis Grace that ever 
since I had been in Portugal I had had the good 
fortune to enjoy the friendship of the most dis- 
tinguished men of the country - witheut reference 
to their political colour — that Miguelites - 
Setembrists — f<ainhists — Saldanhists -Cabra'ists 
were alike my friends - that Ijcfue the ' conven- 
tion ' thinking it pvobahh that his Grace's part)- 
might suddenly pay me a visit I had pro\-ided for 
their reception, but that now I was bound to con- 
fess that whilst his Grace and the other noblemen 
and gentlemen who had honoured my table this 
day with their presence were listening to my 
explanation, the floor above was occupied by 
members of the Junta and their adherents. 

" My conventional guests left me about ii o'clock, 
when, in the presence of Saldanha himself, and his 
Grace apparently enjoying the joke, I gave the 
preconcerted signal, and, just as the Duke stepped 
into his carriage the place which he had quitted 
was being occupied by one of the members of 
the Junta." 

I have now arrived at the enci of this 
series of most interesting letters, which I 
am certain w\\\ afford very pleasant I'ead- 
ing, not only to those connected with 
Oporto, as well as to that section of the 
English speaking people which delights in 
historical facts. 

The two accompan\-ing portraits, viz., 
those of the Senators Giacinto di Collegno 
and Luigi Cihrario recall one of the most 
disastrous pages in the history of Italy. 
On the 23rd March, 1849, Carlo Alberto, 
King of Sardinia, was defeated by 
the Austrian troops on the battlefield 

of Novara, which stands between the 
Agogna and the Terdoppio on a hill 545 
feet above sea le\'el in the plain between 
the Sessia and the Po. On the followmg 
day the king had abdicated in fa\oLir of 
his son Victor Emmanuel, and at mid- 

Siiiiil<_'r Gmciiilo di CoUc^fto. 

night had already stai-ted on his journey 
to Oporto, where, as I said befui-e, he first 
of all put tip at a small inn situated in a 
square which bears his name, but shortly 
afterwards he took a house in the Enti'e 
Ouintas, as will be seen by the following 
letter written by His Majesty on the 16th 
May of the same year : — 

" On arri\'ing here I had hardly any articles 
'■ of comfort but 1 soon bought tv.o silken 
"counterpanes; what a luxury! I was lucky 
'■ enough daring the first days to meet an English- 
" man who was returning to his country and who 
" let me his small house at a rental of Soo francs 
" per annum ; but this house had onl}- two floors 
" containing three rooms beyond those for the 
" servants ; at the same time the Englishman sold 
" me all his furniture which is simple but pretty, 
" as well as crockery-ware and linen for the table, 
" kitchen, etc., and moreo',-er he leit me his cook 
" and his maidservant. All my expenses in taking 
'■ occupation did not exceed 4,000 francs. 
" I am now established in a pretty little villa at 
" the gates of the town ; the house surrounded by 

K Iv 



" a garden with very fine trees, overlooking tiie 
" river and the sea. I am expecting to see tlie 
" articles which you are sending me, but in case 
" you have not included the portraits of my family 
" which I had in my bedroom, you will oblige by 
" forwarding them as soon as possible. I desire 
" that you should place in tlieir frames the like- 
" nesses of my children." 

Senators Collctjno and Cihrario had 
been deputed by the Itahan Parliament to 
present to the tinfortunate monarch their 
sympathy with him in his sore troubles. 
It seems that they travelled as far as Mar- 
seilles, where they arrived on the 14th 
April, 1849, whence a Spanish steamer 
convej'ed them to Cadiz, touching at all 
Spanish ports on the way. From Cadiz 
they voyaged to Lisbon on an English 
steamer trading between Southampton and 
Gibraltar, btit from Lisbon they could not 
get a steamer for Oporto, so they decided 
on going overdand, which in those days 
was not to be thought of lightly. Senati r 
Cibrario, the biographer of King Carlo 
Alberto, was very enthusiastic about the 
scenery as he approached the Northern 
capital, and when he looked at the old city 
from Villa Nova he was charmed with the 
buildings and the gardens spread out 
before him. Speaking of the Quinta 
where the King was staying he desci-ibcd 
the locality as follows : — 

" Close to the Torre da Marca, in a property 
surrounded by chestnut trees from which the 
winding Douro is seen, we found the residence of 
King Carlo Alberto, where we remained from the 
29th May to the 3rd July." 

The journey of Carlo Alberto from the 
battlefield of Novara to Oporto is so 
interesting that 1 give a summary of it. 
In a tra\'elling carriage the Kini; left the 
battlefield on the 24th March when it was 
already dark. At the end of an hoin- the 
noise of the wheels attracted the attention 
of an Austrian officer in command of ;i 
small detachment, who demantled of the 
coachman the names of the trawllers. 
The King lowei-ing the window informed 
the officer that be was Count Hai-^'c, 

Colonel in the Sardinian army who was 
entrusted with a mission extraordinary. 
The Austrian, not being satisfied, had the 
carriage drawn up close to the barracks 
where he awaited the arrival of General 
Thurn ; on the appearance of the latter 
the king once more lowered the window 
and informed the General that he was 
Count Barge. His passport was then 
demanded, but he had only one from the 

Commander at No\-ai-a. He was then 
invited to alight from the carriage and to 
enter a room where he niii^ht be ques- 
tioned. The King's answers were so satis- 
factory that he was allowed to continue 
his jotu-ney by 8 o'clock next moi'ning. It 
seems incredible that the Atisti-ians had 
not ndticed the motto of SaNoy." 'f'Attaiis 
Moil .Isliirr." on the back of the carriage. 
1-rom iMoneaUo he went to ,Asti, keeping 
outside of the walls, and contintied his 
jcun-ncy to Ni/.za r)imonferralo, where he 
put up at a hostelry until 7 o'clock in the 
evenuig. The night was very tempestuous. 



but, nothing:; daunted, the Kinf< started 
aj^ain at 10 (/clock for Acqiii, and pl■o^c- 
cuted his journey till 6 o'clock in the morn- 
in_<< of Sunday 25th March. It was Passion 
Sunday. He entered a small stall where 
he had a cup of coffee, and then continued 
to Savf)na. At Nizza he obtained from 
General Olivieri a passport for France, 
Spain and PortU!j;al. At 3 o'clock in the 
afternoon of the 27th he continued by way 
of Beaucaire, Pczenas, Toulouse and 
Tarbes, arriving at Hayonne on the 
evening of the 1st Api-il. Next morning 
at 11 o'clock, amiti the acclamations of the 
people, he left this place hjr St. Sebastian. 
On the 3rd April he arrixed at Tolosa in 
Spain, where he met his cousin Carlo 
della Marmora, Pi'ince of Masserano, and 
Gustavo f-'onza, Count of St. Martino, 
who were charged to recjuest his Majesty 
to tell them if he still insisted on abdi- 
cating. Carlo Alberto replied in the 

Next he arrived at Vittoria, where he 
was received with all honours. On the 
5th Api-il, at Torrequemada, the Count 
Montalto, iMinister of Sardinia at Madrid, 
did homage to him, and requested him in 
the name of the Court of Spain to visit 
the capital, wliich, however, his Majesty 
could not accept, as he wanted to arrive 
as soon as possible at his destination. 

Continuing his journey some miles from 
Valladolid on the 6th April, he was 
received by an escort of lancers ordered 
to accompany him. At two miles dis- 
tance from the city an aide-de-camp from 
Prince Don Francisco de Paola, father of 
the King of Spain approached the step of 
the carriage, and on bended knee begged 
the King to make use of a magnificent 
equipage drawn by six horses which he 
had brought for that purpose. His 
Majesty was very grateful for the offer, 
but he did not accept it. 

From Tolosa he went to C(jrunna en- 
countering very bad weather on the 

mountains. On the 15th he crossed the 
ri\-er Minho di\"i(.ling Spain from Poi-tugal 
and entei'cd the fortilied town of \'alenca 
where he was recei\'ed with royal military 
honom-s. In a boat elegant!)- prepared, 
the King and his retinue descended the 
river Minho as fai* as Caminha, crossed 
the bar, and arrived at Vianna where he 
was enthusiastically welcomed by the 
people. On the 17th, accompanied by a 
captain's escort of riflemen, he continued 
his journey to Oporto where he arrived on 
the 19th, and was received by the military 
and civil authorities and a vast concourse 
of people; he put up at a small inn in the 
Largo dos Ferradores belonging to Antonio 
I-jernardo Peixe ; later on he lived in a 
small house in the Rua dos Ouartels, and 
on the 14th May he commenced occupa- 
tion of the suburban \'illa to which I have 
already referred. 

The next portrait to \\'hich I call 
attention is that of Sex'hor Ma.xoel 
Di; Castro Pereira de Mesouita who 
sided, probably against his will, with 
the French army which invaded the 
PeninsLila, as a cavalry officer, not 
because of any want of patriotism, but 
that the idea prevailed in f^ortugal that 
the British foi'ces were n(jt sufficiently 
numerous to cope successfully with the 
troops of the first Napoleon and therefoi^e 
they threw in their lot with the Corsican, 
and after the French had been beaten on 
many a battle-field in Spain and Portugal 
by the allied forces under Sir Arthur 
Wellesley these Portuguese gentlemen 
who had, as I said before, enlisted in the 
French army, were f(Mxed to join the 
expedition to Russia which ended in the 
terrible disaster at .Mfjseow in 1812. On 
the 13th of September, six days after the 
Battle of Borodino, the Russian trofjps 
evacuated Moscow, lea\-ing 1,100 wounded, 
and the next day the French occupied the 
Kremlin. The same night, while Napoleon 
was waiting for a deputation of Moscow 



nobles and received only a deputation of 
tine rich merclTants, the capital was set on 
fire by its own inhabitants, the (3ostinoi 
Dvor with its stores of wine and spirits, 
&c., becoming the first prey to the flames. 

Senlwr ilanoci dc CrJiv I\ 

ra lIi: MiSqmta. 

The inhabitants abandoned the city, and 
it was pillaged by the French troops as 
well as by the Russians theniscK'es, and 
the burning of Moscow became the signal 
of the general i-ising of the peasants 
against the French. The want of supplies 
and the impossibilit)- of «'intering in 
a ruined city, continually attacked by 
Cossacks, compelled Napoleon to leave 
Moscow on the 19th October, after he had 
unsuccessfully ti'ied to blow up certain 
parts of the Kr-emlin. 'I'lie SLifl'erings of 
these Portuguese gentlemen during that 
terrible campaign must have been Far more 
severe than those of the French because 
they had been obliged against their will 
to leax'C their natixe coimtr)- anil engage 
in a war-hire which could neither benefit 
them nor Portugal. 

The subject of this brief memoir was 
fin-thei-more a rich lauded proprictoi- of 
Terra (jLientc, Moncor\d, and l-rcixo de 

Nusna~o, in the Douro. In 1837 he became 
Minister of Foreign Affairs ; he was after- 
wards sent as Envoy Hxtraordinary to 
Madrid, and sat on many occasions as 
deputy, or member, of Parliament ; he was 
also known as a writer. He married Donna 
Clara Braancamp, sister of the Barcjn de 
Sabrao by whom he had no issue, and 
died in 1870. 

Antonio Vii^ira de Maoalhaes, Baron 
d'Alpendurada, was a wine merchant and 
a rich landed proprietor of Marco de 
Canavezes, Amarante, Arouca, etc. He 
was a man of many parts and a distin- 
guished member of society. His son, the 
Count of IMagalhaes, -was well known in 
the Diplomatic circles of Europe, but he 
resided for many years in London, \\here 
he was engaged in the wine business. In 
later years the Count \\as made Minister 
of State and raised to the peerage. The 
successor of the late Baron, who was 
President of the Municipality of Oporto 
and had many condecorations bestowed 
on him, is his grandson the present Count 

Siiihor Alltoni ' I uii i It Mi llh us I tun i i If^Ln.liirada. 




was one of the most highly educated men in 
the North of Portugal. For many years he 
was a Director of the Oporto branch office 


Sciiltor Doviingos Rlbcivo dc Farla. 

of the Bank of Portugal, where his services 
were highly appreciated ; he was also 
President of the Municipality of Oporto, 
a position which corresponds to mayor in 
England. Being a very wealthy man, his 
entertainments were on a great scale, and 
he was highly mourned by all classes and 
conditions of his fellow citizens when he 
died. His son, of the same name, suc- 
ceeded him in the Directorate of the Bank 
of Portugal and took the degree of LL.D. 
in the University of Coimbra. 

D. Jeronymo Jose da Costa Rebello 
was Bishop of Oporto from 1834 to 1855. 
Oporto has always been subject to small 
revolutions, but these have, on many 
occasions, been made more of than they 
deserve. I have experienced a few of 
them, and I am told that in 1847, the year 
in which 1 was born, shot and shell were 

flying innocently about the pix-mises while 
I was in my cot. These poptilar (jutbiirsts 
are not worth much, although they 
generally end in a certain amoimt of blood- 
shed. The Bishop was \ei-y instrumental 
in quelling the insubordinations of the 
military, and I recollect as a boy when the 
18th Regiment of Foot shot the Colonel 
and some other officers on the parade 
ground, a scene \\hich I shall n<jt easily 
forget. It was very much feared that the 
whole division would mutiny, which most 
likely would have happened had it not been 
for the moral suasion of D. Jeronymo and 
his clergy. Since 1820 Oporto has passed 
through many \'icissitudes, and it is much 
to the credit of the priesthood that they 
have always been on the side of law and 

When a Bishop in Portugal takes pos- 
session of his See he ought, according to 
the ancient rules of the kingdom, to enter 
the city riding on a white mule or ass, 

Dum Jeronymo da Co'Ja Rcbcllo, Bishop of Oporlo, 



with a sword in his rit;ht hand and a 
crucifix carried before iTini ; but this no 
l(Mi_^er is the case, and tlie late Cardinal 
Bishop, D. Americo, was the first prelate 
in Oporto to use horses instead of mules 
for drawinti his carriage. 

Sknhor Jose Henriours Soares, Baron 
D'Ancede, owing to the vakiable sei'vices 
he rendered to the fine arts and sciences 
of his native countrj- as well as tcj States- 
manship, was created a peer of the PortLi- 
guese realm; he was an important 
merchant and capitalist of Oporto. He 

Si'iilior Jijic llaunjuc So.iu'i, Ilaiuii U'Aiicdc. 

was born in 1785 and died in 1853, leaving 
a very large fortune. He married Donna 
Anna Maxima de Lima and was sLicceeded 
by his Sf)n, Henrique Soares, second 
l5aron d'Aneede, since deceased. The 
daughter- (if the nobleman imdcr re\'iew 
married Viscount de Villai'inho dc S. 
Ronialj, grandson of ]\lr. Hmmanuel de 
Clamouse l!ro\\ne, closely connected with 
the noble family of Clanricarde, and a 
welbknoun frec|Licnter of the K'ua dos 

This gentleman also owned some pro- 
pei'ty in Gaia about which place popular 
fanc)', assistetl by tradition and histor}', has 
woven the following amusing" and interest- 
ing narrative : — 

" In 932 the Emir of Gaia, just opposite 
Oporto, was one AI-Boazar-al-Bucadan, 
the brother of the beautiful and accom- 
plished Zahara. Peace had been declared 
between the Christians and Moors and 
Al-Boazar, who \\'as famous for his hospi- 
tality, opened the gates of his castle to the 
warriors of both creeds ^^•here they might 
pass their time either in eating or in tilting 
at each other. Among the guests was D. 
Ramiro II. king of Leon who, disguised as 
a troubadour, made love to the Princess 
Zahara and succeeded in persuading her 
to accompany him to the Christian terri- 
tory where she embraced her lover's faith 
and was baptised and named Arpida. As 
we may imagine, her bi-other was very 
sh(jcked and anncjyed when he heard of 
his sister's escapade, and, in the orthodox 
manner of the age, he swore to banish the 
royal minstrel Ramiro who had so dis- 
honoured his house. I must at this point 
express my sympathy with the Emir 
AI-Boa/.ar for history declares that the 
peccant and musical monarch was already 
possessed of a wife when he abducted 
Zahara, and the only thing in his favour is 
that he had her christened so that she 
might no longer be a disgrace to the 
religion she had abandoned. The Moor 
himself disgLiised as a minstrel set oLit for 
L:on, and, arri\ing at the profligate's 
court, he immediately set about making 
desperate love to the Christian king's 
wife, Donna Uri-aea, who seems to have 
been easily persLiaded to abandt)n her 
husband and children and acccMiipany him 
to the lantl of the Saracens. 

Nemesis equipped as a minstrel presented 
herself at C5aia \\hei-e a glimpse was 
caught of faithless Urraca, and revealed 
her place of lefuge to her angry 



husband who, no longer disguised 
as a troubadoLU-, liastened to the 
castle, seized the former partner of his 
joys and sorrows as well as her paramour 
and carried them off towards Vianna. He 
was, however, in such a hurry to feel the 
taste of the sweets of revenge, that, 
before he arrived at his destination he put 
the naughty Emir to death in the most 
approved style of the I^ed Indian depicted 
by Fenimore Cooper, and then, tying an 
iron anchor to his faithless spouse's neck, 
he had her conveyed a few miles further 
north when she was cast into a swift 
running river where she perished. Since 
that time the river has borne the name of 
Ancora. The name of King Ramiro is 
preserved in Gaia, the principal street 
being known as the Rua do Rei Ramiro. 

Jose Joaouim Gomes de Castro, 
Viscount de Castro, was a very impor- 
tant personage in the war between the 


Jos/.' Joagti'in Gomi:s dc Castro, I'nLOtiiit de Castro. 

two royal brothers ; he was born in 1794 
and died in 1878, ha\'ing previously been 
created Count de Castro and a Peer of 

the Realm, furthermore he was Councillor 
of State and Cabinet Minister on many 
occasions and was the recipient of twenty- 
one Grand Crosses. At the commence- 
ment of his career he was a merchant of 
Oporto, but he entered the pcjlitical arena 
and had a most brilliant career, as he was 
not only a most capable statesman as well 
as one of the best writers belonging t(j 
modern I^ortuguese literature. 

Viscount da X'arzea. — Joa^j da SiKcira 
Pinto da Fonseca, 2nd Viscount, son (jf 
Field Marshal Beinardo da SiUeira Pinto 
da Fonseca, was born in 1805 and died in 
1858. He \\'as a rich landed propi'ictor 
(jf Varzea, Valdigem and Camhres, in the 
Douro district. He was Chairman of the 
Oporto Wine Company to the day of his 
death, and was sLiccecded in this post by 
his son, Bernardo da Silveira Pinto da 
Fonseca, who was b(ji-n in 1839 and 
married Miss Cecilia de Brito Sandeman, 
daughter of Mi-. Thomas Glas Sandeman 
and his wife Donna Ermelinda de Brito. 
The grandson of the nobleman \\-hose 
portrait is given on page IKS is now the 
3rd Viscount; he married Donna Helena 
de Vasconcellos, daughter of the Marquis 
of Castello Melhor, one of the richest 
landed proprietors in Gollega and Riba- 

Senhor Felix Manoel Borges Pinto, 
who served throughout the Peninsular war, 
was a rich landed proprietor in the 
Douro, being the owner of the Ouintas of 
Folgosa and Tedos. He represented in 
Parliament the Old Oporto Wine Com- 
pany, and lived in Lisbon during ten years 
in very grand style. He had one son, wh(j 
was created Viscount de Castelk^ de 
Borges. A portrait of him is given on 
page 1 17. 

\'iscouNT DE OuELuz. — Antonio Bar- 
tholomeu Pires was a Military Surge(jn, 
as well as of the Royal Household : he 
followed the ex-king and usurper Dom 
Miguel in his exile and ne\'er returned to 



Portugal. He married a German lady of 
high social position, Fraulein Malvina de 

1 / / -^ 

r / 1 III I u II I, II 

Llli iicnsttiii W'crtiicm Frcndenherg. He 
died in 18(S() \\ithoiit leaving issue. 

ViscocNT DE Gui.AES. — Jose Taveira de 
Car\'alho c Alenezes \\'ent throLiglioLit the 
whole of the Peninsula campaign ; he was 


['Isctiiitil (If Giiiiiis. 

a rich landed proprietor of Lamego and 
Guiaes, close to Regoa. He was born in 
1778 and died'in 1866 ; he married Donna 
Anna de Souza e Alvim, and was succeeded 
in the title liy his daughter, Donna Maria 
Anton ia Taveira, 2nd Viscountess de 
Guiaes, who married the 2nd Viscount da 

Senhor Dr. Jose Bi-.nto Teixeira de 
FicuEiREDO was a man well-known and 
highly esteemed hy all tlie British wine 
shippers frequenting the Douro. He was 
a rich land proprietor, and among others 
he owned the Quinta Nova, situate next 
to the Cachucha, the property of Messrs. 
Offley, Forrester & Co. He was a native 
of Covas do Douro, and took a patriotic 
interest in e\ery department of viticulture. 
It is recorded of him that on one occasion 
lie was visited by the expert Oporto thief 
Fajardo, who pretended to be com- 
missioned bj' an Oporto firm to buy large 
c]uantities of wine. 1 recollect Fajardo 
very well, a tall, thin man, \\'ith a small 
moustache and a very plausible st\-le. Dr. 
Bento had already seen him, and was, 
thercFore, fully prepared for all that 
might be sLiggested hy the modern 
Barabhas, who was led into the wine 
stores in order to taste the wine. Fajardo 
apprt)ved of the whole stock and instructed 
Dr. Bento to have it fcirwardcd to Oporto, 
but before doing so he desired to be paid 
a brokei'nge as intermediary. "You 
want," said the doctor, " a i:iiii;ii (load) of 
wine, but foi- yoLU' pains and as a com- 
mission 1 will gi\e you a iiir^'if (fr Iiiilui 
(a good hiding)," and he failed not in his 
promise, foi- he was a man of his word. 

The following twelve portraits are of 
emment men who were Contempor'ary 
with Ixiron de 1-orrester, and most of 
them were well known in the Rua dos 
Ingle/es. 'There are still a few of their 
countrymen li\ing who will recognise them, 
and be able to fmnish the present genera- 
tion w ith the information respecting them 
which, unfortunatelv, I am unable to do. 



/v. /. Rentn Teixeira tld Fij^ueirt-iio. 

Mr. E. C. B>owu 

Seiihor M. di Figueiia d'A zei-edo. 

L L 



l-Sauio de S. I.o 

The Oialor, Jose da Sdva Fassos. 

Condciii '■„'.„/, 

Senlioi- Mi^iii! Tiixcir.-i dc Sou:.] 



Gt-ncral 1 H>n Manuel dc la Cciidhi. 

Si ilior A. R. Saraiva. 

Sd d.i Bandeiia. 

:,C0!iid do p-.r. .\ ) c 



At the time of Massena's campaign in instrumental in effecting a peace between 

Portugal the Portuguese showed the feel- her son, D. Affonso lY., and his unfortunate 

ing of a truh' heroic nation. When Lord brother, D. Affonso Sanches. But inas- 

Wellington determined to retire to the much as S. Isabel was of a most pacific 

lines of Torres Yedras, he commanded and nolsle turn of mind, Maria da Fonte 

all the peasants to desert their fields and had absolutely nothing to I'ecommend her 

to the notice of the 

, • h i s t o r i a n b u t h e r 

leave nothing for the 
French to subsist 
u p o 11, and the y 
obeyed hi m w i t h 
touching fidelit}'. The 
Portuguese troops 
fully proved their 
valour as soldiers, 
and they well deserve 
the praise bestowed 
upon them by Wel- 
lington and Beres- 
ford, and the enthu- 
siastic reception they 
met with when they 
r e t u r n e d h o m e i n 

All coimtrics ha\'e 
had their popular 
heroines, and Portu- 
guese histoi-y re- 
counts the actions 
of a few who, with 
the exception of 
Maria da Fonte, 
were noted for their 
many virtues. DLu-ing 
the siege of Monc;w by the Spaniards in 
1638, the women, under the leadership of 
Helena Pires, assisted the soldiers in 
repelling the assaults of the Spaniards who 
were commanded by the Marquis of X'ianna. 
Then we also read of S. Isabel, who was 

Maria da Fonti 

savage nature and her 
unprincipled love for 
anarchy. The accom- 
panying portrait is 
from a copy of a litho- 
graph which was sold 
in the streets of 
Oporto during the 
Revolution of 1846-47, 
caused by the dislike 
of the population to 
the Prime Minister, 
Costa Cabral, who 
afterwards became, if 
I am not mistaken, 
Conde de \'albom, 
and was for many 
years Portuguese 
Minister at the 
Vatican. The onlj^ 
pleasant part in the 
history of this female 
rebel is the spirited 
song w h i c h w a s 
written to glorify her, 
and which was deeitledly worthy of a more 
exalted cause. It was a fortunate thing 
for Portugal that the \ast majority of 
the people pi-efcrred their good Queen 
P. Maria da Gloiia to the wretched 
heroine of the bom-, Maria da Fonte. 





BLDOAl in the history 
ijf mankind has such 
a terribly sanguinary- 
scene been recorded 
a s t h e li a 1 1 1 e and 
storming of Oporto 
by the French forces 
under the command 
of Marshal Soult. It 
will be recollected 
that d u ]■ i n g the 
invasion of Portugal by the veterans of 
Buonaparte, independent yuntas were 
established in various parts of the king- 
dom in order to administer local affairs 
as, owing to the departure of the Royal 
Family for Brazil, there was no central 
constituted authority to control the 
business of the State. In Oporto the 
President of tlie Junta was Antonio Jose 
de Castro, Bishop of the Diocese, who was 
among the first to appeal to Great Britain 
for assistance after the battle of Braga in 
March, 1809. Soult did his utmost to 
convince Bishop Castro that it was useless 
for the Portonians to attempt to defend 
their city, as they had no properly trained 
tnjops, anyhow not a sufficient number of 
them, and that the noisy crowd would soon 
run away when the experienced troops of 
France approached. The inhabitants of 
Oporto, however, believed that from behind 
their sti'ong forts, earthen ramparts, loop- 
holed houses, ditches and felled trees 
which they had prepared on the heights 
surrounding the city, they would be able 

to resist their (jppressors. It was a motley 
army which the Bishop and his two 
Generals Pareiras and Lima commanded ; 
it was a weird sight to contemplate these 
unfortunate wretches behind the stockade 
shouting themselves hoarse in their 
attempt to make themselves appear brave. 
As they would not listen to any advice, 
Soult commenced his march from Braga, 
and with his Generals Foy, Merle, Fran- 
ceschi, and Laborde appeared in front of 
the fortifications on the 27th of .March of 
the same j'ear. 

The extreme Portuguese wing was at 
the Repouso extending to the heights over- 
looking the river ; from the Repouso they 
had thrown up earthworks as far as the 
strong forts at Bomfim, and the few inter- 
vening houses were all loopholed. The 
entrance to the principal streets was 
barricaded by felled ti'ces. The forts at 
Bomfim commanded the road to Vallongo; 
again earth ramparts were thrown up 
between this place and the road to S. 
Thyrso and Guimaraes, and at this point 
as far as Paranhos was the centre and 
stronghold of the defending forces. 
Through the parish of Paranhos runs the 
rijad from Braga, and it was to this point 
that Soult directed his attention as he had 
resolved on entering Oporto by the Lapa, 
and, by a strategic movement, to cut off 
communication between the Portuguese 
left and right wings. The extreme left 
wing, which, owing to the nature of the 
territory, was the weakest point, com- 


menced outside Foz. The bar entrance advance he very prudently withdrew, and 

to the river was protected by the Castle handed over the command to Generals 

and by chains thrown across. The prin- Lima and Pareiras. Those who have 

eipal fort was at the Luz, and earthworks lived in Oporto know how excitable the 

were thrown up from there to Nevogilde, inhabitants ai-e, and they can, therefore, 

then past \'an Zeller's Ouinta and in a easily imagine the clanging of all the bells 

straight line to Ramalde, through which from the steeples, firing of rockets, revelry 

runs the road to Villa do Conde, and a and devilry during the afternoon and night 

continuation of ramparts and small forts of that memorable 27th March. The 

extended as far as Paranhos. Thus Bishop was away from the tumult ; he 

the NorthA\'estern and North-Eastern had taken refuge in the Serra Con^■ent 

boundaries of the city were protected, overlooking the river Douro, which was 

while, on the South side, the river Douro tlien spanned by a bridge of boats, of 

was dominated by the strong fort of the which the accompanying picture by the 

Serra do Pilar, at Gaya. To further late Baron de Forrester is a representation, 

strengthen the Portuguese left wing a On the Serra were mounted 50 guns 

body of OnlciuiJiciis in charge of a few which not only commanded the river but 

guns was posted on the Villa do Conde Oporto and Villa Nova. Two hundred 

road. With a \-iew to obliging the Portu- guns were mounted on the forts and earth- 

guese to withdra\\' a part of their forces works surrounding the North-Eastern and 

from the centre, Soult ordered Merle's North-Western approaches to Oporto. 

division to advance on the I^ortuguese left. b5ehind the entrenchments numbers of 

This had the desired effect, for General tents had been pitched for the accommoda- 

Lima immediately reinfcjrced this point, tion of the noisy rabble, and when night 

thereby considerably weakening his centre, came they sought shelter in these as the 

This feint was a grand move, but almost i-ain commenced to fall in torrents, 

at the same moment the Portuguese Suddenly there was a vivid flash of 

simulated a desire to surrender, and lightning accompanied by a terrific squall 

General Fo)', accompanied by an officer, which, whistling among the tents, made 

approached within speaking distance, when the PortugLiese imagine that the French 

the defenders opened fire, shcjt the officer were on them. Running to their guns, 

and made a prisoner of Foy. Great was fuze in hand, a terrific cannonade com- 

the delight when they saw among them a menccd from the 200 guns while the 

prisoner of so high a rank, especially as infantry discharged their pieces, and what 

they tliougiit he was theii" dreaded foe with Heaven's artillery and the reply of 

Loison, The men, women and children the 50 guns from the Serra the terror- 

clamoiu-ed for his blood, and he was sti-ieken inhabitants of Oporto rushed 

huri-ied awa)- to imdergo the same treat- wildly about the streets not knowing where 

ment which had been practised on some to go for safety. 

of his more unfortimate comitrymen. Next morning, which was to prcne a day 

Hearing them call him Poison he raised of blood and sorrowing, broke with a 

both hands, and thus pro\ed that the\- had loxcly blue sky; the earth bad been 

made a mistake, because Poison had lost relVcshed by the rain and the defenders' 

a hand, and was know 11 to the Portuguese appearance had also benefited thereby; 

as the Miii/ild. He was locked up for the thcorgiesof a nightwcre to be succeeded by 

night in the common -aol. a frightful reckoning. From their tents, 

When IrSishop Castro saw the French the Portuguese soldiery heard the sound 


of drums and the shrill note of the bugles. stricken that they threw themselves into 

Looking over their ramparts they saw the the river with the idea of swimming 

glitter of thousands of bayonets. The across. A few of them got into Caicos 

attack was about to commence in earnest, and other small boats and thus escaped. 

Shortly after seven o'clock Laborde and General Lima tried to dissuade them from 

Franceschi assailed the extreme right, entering on almost certain death, hut he 

while Mermet's division, strengtliened by was shot by the runaways in sight of the 

a brigade of dragoons, advanced on the French. Had it not been for Lorge's 

centre. But the battle commenced by the mo\e in cutting off the ordcnaiigas these 

wings. Lorge was ordered to cut off the would probably have thrown themselves 

Portuguese ordeiKiiicas posted with some into the river and been drowned, 
guns on the road to \'illa do Conde. But far more shocking scenes were being 

Mermet's division was kept back purposely, enacted in the streets of Oporto, where 

and Lima and Pareiras, thinking that they the battle was raging fiercely between the 

grasped the situation, endeavoured to two French battalions detailed from the 

strengthen their flanks where the attacks centre and the inhabitants and native 

were being made, and thus they once more soldiers. The carnage was ghastly, and 

weakened their centre. the cries of the people that were being 

It was at this moment that Soult butchered mingled with the incessant 

ordered his reserves to advance on the clanging of the bells and the noise of the 

centre, and, with a rush, they broke fusilade. Gradually, and at the point of 

through the entrenchments and took the the bayonet, the people and soldiery were 

two principal forts, entering by the dri\en towards the Ribeira. The Rua 

embrasures and killing, or disarming, all Nova de S. Jo:k) was a seething mass of 

within. Two battalions were told off to humanity trampling over one another in 

attack the Portuguese left wing in the their eagerness to get away. They could 

rear so as to cut them off from re-entering hear the steady- tramp of the French 

the city, while two others marched into \eterans ; already they saw their baAonets 

Oporto past the Lapa, making for the glittering as they emerged from the Largo 

bridge of boats. By this ruse Soult de S. Domingos. The bridge of boats was 

very cleverly contrived to separate the crowded with fugiti\es, and the doors of 

Portuguese wings and his victory was all the houses were locked, barred and 

complete. bolted. 

Laborde was equally successful in cap- Suddenly, and \^ith a rLishing sound as 

turing a number of forts and 30 pieces of of a tornado, a troc^p of Portuguese 

artillery and reached the proximity of cavalry was seen in full flight alon" the 

Campanha, where he was soon joined by Rua Xo\a dos Inglezes and dashed into 

Franceschi, who had been engaged on his the Rua Nova de S. Jinfo, " tramplin« a 

left. The Portuguese who managed to bloody pathway to the river," as the "reat 

escape were forced back on the upper historian of the Peninsular war terms it. 

Douro, and were hotly pursued by Arnaud. .\s soon as the French arrived on the quay 

Merle saw that his success was complete, the battery of the Serra, where the Bishop 

so he brought up his left flank, carried all was, opened Hre. The Portuguese cavalry 

the forts to his right, and drove the made for the bridge which gave wav owing 

defenders towards Foz, where some sought to the great weight, and thousands of 

refuge in the Castle, while others fled defenceless men, women and children sank 

towards the Cantarelra, and were so panic in the Douro to rise no more. All honoui- 



to Marshal Soult and his men for havin.q 
done their utmost to sa\e Hfe in which, 
however, they were not very successful. 

The horrors of that ever memorable day 
were not even then finished. It seemed as 
if the cry for blood had been answered by 
the avengin,!^ angel. So far it had been a 
battle ; now was to be witnessed the 
ferocity of man in its most frightful form. 

Had tlney been transformed into panthers 
the thirst f(jr blood would have been more 
easily assuaged. From the windows of 
the Bishop's palace a party of 200 Portu- 
guese opened a musketry fire on the 
French who happened to be within range. 
The doors were burst open and all 
who were found inside were put to the 

— K^^-AT- —*-*««■" /^tf r^^JV -Jj^*^ *V f ^V i.-t^^ -B-SEp^ ^ 

The Scrra Cinvmt after the S'i;f, from a draw'in^ by the late Baron tie Forrestc. 






N attempting to gi\'e a 
description of the British 
and Portut;iiesc troops 
in Oporto, under tlie 
command of Sir Arthur 
Wellesley, afterwards 
created Dulie of Wel- 
Hngton, I ^\•ould ask my 
readers not to forget tliat 
the great Captain had 
1 i,^!^^mi> "^''sited the city on the 
\^ifr^ 22nd July, 1808, thj.t is, 

ten months befoi'c he 
accomplished liis brilliant passage of the 
Douro, which ttujk place on the 12th iMay, 
1809. It is well to call attention to this 
fact, as it shows that in three days he had 
made himself acc|uaintcd with all the 
approaches to the heroic city, and had 
fathomed the patriotism of the inhabitants. 
We read that on the 21st July, 1808, Sir 
Arthui- Wellesley left Corunna for Oporto, 
but before doing so he made certain that 
the fleet conx'cying his troops was in 
readiness to set sail and keep ho\-ering 
about the c last not fLirther North than 
Oporto, \\-hicb was then the sc;it of 
the provisional patriotic Government 
representing the liberated districts of the 
North of Portugal. The Prime iMiuistcr 
was the wai--likc kjishop of the Diocese, 
with whom Sir Arthiu- Wellesley conferred, 
and leai-ned that large bodies of pcasantr\' 
were anxi(jus to be armed and discipllncti 
into i-cgular corps to act against (he 

French ; also that an armed native force 
was stationed in Oporto and the \icinity 
sufficiently strong to repel any French 
forces which might be likely to enter 
Portugal hy way of the Douro. He was 
further informed that another armed force 
of 5,000 strong was at Coimbra, about 
eighty miles from Oporto, and he made 
an-angements that this last force shoLild 
be united to his army, which he intended 
to land, and did land, at iMondego Bav. 

Sir ArthLir Wellesley sailed from Oporto 
on the 25th Jul)-, rejoined the fleet the 
same day, and on the 1st August olu- 
troops were being landed at Alondego Bay, 
but, owing to the ground swell, this opera- 
tion lasted until the 5th of the same 
month. I need not, howxwer. continue to 
cuLimerate what passed during this eventful 
year which culminated in the disgraceful 
con\ention of Cintra. nor will 1 attempt to 
repeat what refers more to the history of 
[Portugal in genei-al than to Oporto in 
particular. In fact 1 am foi-ccd, as It were, 
mto a dcsci-lptlon of the passage of the 
Douro, as it is more or less b(uind up with 
the wine trade of the city, for it nuist not 
be forgotten that it was not laily from a 
strategical piant of view that the British 
(jo\crnmcnt decided (mi assisting the 
Portuguese to dri\e the la'cnch from their 
territ(M-y. There were important com- 
mercial interests to be considered. Interests 
which Britain had not been slow to recog- 
nise for some centuries before the war 








6 th 


2 ad 

took place. Strangely enough Sir Arthur 
Wellesley's operations in 1809 ^vere again 
formulated at Coimbra, on the iMondego. 
The follo\\ing document is of interest as 
shf)\\-ing the disposal oi the force \\liich 
Sir Arthur Wellesley had at Ctjimbra : — 

G. O. Coimbra, 4th ^lay, 1809 

The army will be brigaded and stand in line, as 

follows, until further orders : — 

14th Light fJragoons 

20th ,, ,, 

3rd ,, ,, K.G.L. j 

i6th ,, „ ) 

Coldstream Guards, ist Batt. | 

3rd ,, ,, ISt Batt. 

1st Comp., 5th Batt. 60th Beg. J 

I 3rd, or Buffs 

ISt Comp., 5th Batt., 
\ Ooth f<eg. 
/5 Companies, 5th Batt., 

6oth fieg. 
] ist Batt. Portuguese 

' Syth 
1 1st Batt. loth I-'ortu- 
guese Reg. 

1 53r'l 

4th Comp., 5th Batt., 
^ Ooth f<eg. 

2nd Batt. loth Portu- 
I guese Reg. 


ist Crimp., sth PSatt., 
Goth R-eg. 
fist Batt., Detachments 

ISt ,, lOlh I^ortu- 
guese fieg. 

2nd Batt. Detachments 
1 2nd ,, 16th Portu- 
guese Reg. 


ist Comp., 5th Batt,, 

6oth Reg. 
I 27th Reg. 



Brig. -Gen. 
F. Campbell. 


Major Gen. 

Brig. -Gen. 
A. Campbell. 

Brig. -Gen. 

R. Stewart. 




rBrig.-Gen. Langwerth ) Major- Gen. 
^'^•'^■■'^■'1 Drieberg , Murray. 

Writing on the Sth May, 1809, from 
Coimbra, to Major-General Hill, whn was 
in command of the 1st Brigade, Sir Artliur 
Wellesley says : — 

" I recommend j-ou to cook a day's pro\'isions 
at Aveiro for your men for the loth, and to refresh 
your men at Ovar, while )0U are waiting there to 
learn the progress of General Cotton with his 
ca\"alry. Having communicated with that General, 
you will then move from Ovar by the road that 
leads from Ovar to (Villa da) Feira, till that road 
meets the great road from Coimbra to Oporto. 
You will halt there till you shall be joined by the 
cavalry. My intentionis to push the enemy as far 
as I can on the loth.even into Oporto if possible." 

This brigade, under Major-General Hill, 
was oj-dered to lea\'e Aveiro early on the 
9th inst., and to embark (jn the same day 
on board the boats in readiness for it. 
The boats were to bring-to about si.x miles 
on the soutJT sideof 0\"ar and remain tliere 
till slack water on themorningof the 10th, 
so as to pre\-ent the French from becom- 
ing aware of General Hill's approach until 
the advanced guard of the ca\alry under 
General C<jtton should arrixe near the 
enemy's (jutposts. 

General Hill was to land three com- 
panies of Light Infantry on the western 
side of the lagaa (lago(jnj of A\-eiiTj, about 
half a league from Ovar, on which town 
this force was to ad\-ance rapidly and take 
it, in order to facilitate the landing of the 
rest of the brigade. In the wake of 
General Hill was Brigadier-General 
Cameron, who was in c(jmmand of the 
7th Brigade. He was instructed to be at 
Aveiro on the 10th with a brigade of 6- 
pounders ; the boats were, therefore, to be 
sent back from Ovar for the conveyance 
of these troops. Major-General Cotton, 
at the head of his cavalry, began his march 
during the night of the 9th, or in the early 
hours of the 10th May, and by day-break 
he arrived at the outposts of the Poi^tu- 
uuese troops under the command of Col. 



Trant. General Stewart's brii^ade of 
infantr\-, with halt' a lTri,L;ade of (i-pouiiders, 
f(jllo\\"cd the ca\"alry, then eame the Ger- 
man Let^ion nnder General Alurra)'. 
General Paj-ne \\'as instrueted toendeavcjur 
to surprise the enemy's ad^•aneed _i;uard at 
Albert;aria-a-Xin'a, in whieh, however, he 
was not suceessfLiI, although he dro\'e the 
enemy haek and gained grcninel as far as 
Oliveira d'Azemeis. Writing to Marshal 
Beresford from the Convent at Grijo, only a 
few miles to the south of Oporto, Sir Arthur 
Wellesley says : — " Remember that yoLi are 
a Commander-in-Chief of an ami}', diid 
iiiiisf not be hcdtiJi 

This was addressed to the Marshal on 
the 11th May, when he eontemplated 
attaeking Amarante and \'illa Real in 
aceordanee with pre\"ious instruetions 
received from Sir Arthur Wellesley, dated 
the 9th May, from the Ouinta da Graciosa. 
It will he remembered that Amarante was 
of immense importanee to Marshal Soult, 
as the possession of it was necessary, not 
only for maintaining bis communications 
with the North of Spain and with France, 
but also for dri\'ing back the PortLiguese 
forces from the \'ieinity of Opcjrto. In 
connection with Amarante the death of 
the gallant Col. Patrick will ever he linked. 

It is strange that Soult did not make 
himself better acquainted with the mo\e- 
ments of the British forces ad\aneing on 
Oporto; he had some of his army in 
pursuit of gallant Silveira, others to 
suppress the insurrection on the Lima, 
and a part in Opcjrto. As an authority on 
the matter says :-- 

" His army at tliat moment lay so far out- 
stretched from wing to wing, witli onh' (he lioat- 
bridge at tiporto to connect its parts, that three 
days would lia\e been reijuisite to unite it on its 
centre, and five dajs to concentrate it on its 

Soult was, bowexer, one of the bra\-est 
of tile bra\'e, and when be disco\ei-ed how 
be bad been outstripped hy Sir Artbtn- 
Wellesley, he luiri'ied on the arrangements 

f(jr nio\'ing towards Spain, sent on the 
greater part of his gtins and stores to^xards 
Amarante, and did everj-tbing he could 
dex'ise to close the passage of the Douro 
against the British, and so efl'ect an 
orderly e\-acuation of Oporto. 

As ni)' readers will ba\e seen, Sir 
Artlun- Wellesley's plan of operating 
against Soult was matured very shortly 
after his arrival at Coimbra. Bej-ond the 
brigades I have already mentioned. Sir 
R(.)bert Wilson was at the head of a con- 
siderable force of Portuguese lc\ies at 
Vizeu, and Col. Trant in command of the 
moi-e experienced Portuguese forces con- 
tin tied to watch the French outposts on 
the X'ouga. The Forces under Marshal 
bieresford, in the vicinity of Lamego, con- 
sisted of 6,000 ti'Liincd Portuguese soldiers 
and some small select bodies of British 
troops, \iz., two battalions, fi\'e companies 
of riflemen and a sc]uadron of cavalry. 
The army which was dispatched from 
Coimbra consisted of 14,500 infantry, 
1,500 cavalry and 24 guns. 

On the 11th May, 1809, Sir Arthur 
forwarded the following dispatch to the 
Right Hon. J. Villiers:— 

" I haxejust time to tell you that we drove in 
tile enemy's ca\"ahw and either posts Xorth of the 
\'ouga yesterday, and gained ground as far as 
Oliveira. AVe attempted to surprise theca\alry, 
which attempt failed from causes into which it is 
not necessary to enter ; and afterwards we did not 
do as mucla as we ought against the ca\alrv. With 
the infantry we gained a good deal of ground- I 
hdpe that we shall have finished with Soult before 
the reinforcements shall arrive, of vhieh l-rere has 
gix en intelligence. They tell me that the Portu- 
guese rillemen— the students, f believe — behaved 
remarkably well." 

On the same day, but writing later on, 
Su' .Arthur savs : - 

■■ We h,ne coini.]elel\- hcaten a corps of about 
I ooo inlantry that was opposed to us in two 
alfairs, first with its supports and then with itself. 
The corps engaged were the first battalion of 
detachments, two battalions of Iv.G.L. and Col. 
1 >oyle's battalion of the ibth Portuguese Regiment. 
The last regiment behaved remarkably well. I do 



not know whether they propose to give us another 
field-day on this side of Oporto but I should think 
not, as they did not show their cavalry this time. 
If they should do so I shall have my whole corps 
upon them." 

1 must now revert to tlie Flotilla whieh 
was navigating the lake at Aveircj. These 
forces gradually coneentrated at Carvalhos, 
where Sir Arthur W'ellesley spent tlie 
night of the 11th May, in the \ery house 
which had just been \-acated b)- f(Hn- French 
Generals. It will thus be seen that between 
the rivers Mondego and Douro, the enemy 
had been dislodged, and with Marshal 
Beresford at Lamego, the advance of the 
French Legions from Arag(jn was check- 
mated. It seems incredible thatwhile this 
web was being woven round. Oporto Soult 
should have been unaware of the fact ; he 
relied too much on the precautions he had 
taken to render impossible the passage of 
the Dour(j. With this end in view he 
caused the bridge of boats, which spanned 
the river from almost opposite Messrs. 
G. G. Sandeman c^- Co.'s stores to the 
Caes da Ribeira, to be destroyed on the 
11th May, anci seized on all the boats on 
the Villa Nova side and had them sunk or 
taken over to Oporto. It may not have 
dawned on the mind of Soult that he was 
being opposed by the most skilful and 
courageous of great Captains to whom 
nothing was impossible. Furthermore, 
he had a blind confidence in his own 
process and perspicacity. But, inasmuch, 
as Sir Arthur had made himself respected, 
if not loved, for his sense of justice to all 
who came in contact with him, Soult was 
detested for his many acts of cruelt)' and 
overbearing militarism. Sir Arthur was a 
liberator, Soult was an oppressor ; the 
former could reckon not only on his officers 
and men but also on the inhabitants who 
had become infected, as it were, with his 
devotion to the cause of civilization and 
progress ; the latter could not even depend 
on his officers, among whom a spirit of 

defection had arisen ; as for the populace, 
he had taught them tu hate him. 

Standing on an almost pirpendicular 
ele\'ati(_)n on the south bank of the Douro, 
and commanding nearly tlie whole of the 
cit)' of Oporto, is theCon\'entof theCruzios, 
general!)' known as the Seri'a Convent. 
Frcjm this spot to Carvalhrjs the distance 
is abotit six miles and the coimtry is 
pectiliarly fa\'ourable to the mo\"ing of 
artillery, cavali-y and infantry. In those 
days the convent was surrounded by fine 
old elm and (jak trees which ser\ed to 
conceal an ad\-ancing force, but if the 
Serra had been strongly f(jrtified by the 
French, Sii' Ai'thur Wellesley's task would 
have been far more formidable, as the 
approach to it on all sides coidd ha\'e been 
swept by artillery fire. This important 
position was, however, not made use of by 
Soult. He knew that his noble opponent 
would be iotli to cannonatle the city of 
Oporto, as by so doing he would bring on 
himself the censure, and possible hostility, 
of the natix'es if they saw the second city 
in the Kingdom destroyed ; but to cross 
the ri\'er without boats seemed impractic- 
able. And so it might have appeared to 
many other Generals ; however, beyond the 
difficulties offered by the position, Sir 
Arthur Wellesley knew he could reckon on 
the material assistance of the her( ic 
inhabitants of Oporto. 

Dtiring those anxious days preceding 
the great battle, the British Merchants 
who were interested in the port wine trade 
were in a most unenviable position. Soult 
was in possession of Oporto and had taken 
up his residence at the Palace of Car- 
rancas ; his soldiers patrolled the streets 
and made searches into all private dwelling- 
houses. It was no longer safe for them 
to remain in the city ; their wine stores at 
Villa Nova were at the mercy of the French 
troops, who, as usual, showed their utter 
disregard for private propert)'. The 
inhabitants were taxed to the utmost iii 



order to maintain tlieir foes who were 
billeted on them and took possession of the 
best rooms, eat of the best and drank of 
the noblest. The 1-rench soldiery ga\e 
themselves up to the most brutal form of 
riotous living, and all that is held sacred 
by family ties and affection was ruthlessly 
despoiled by them ; the churches were 
turned into barracks and stables, the silver 
candlesticks and other valuable requisites 

and were not made in English vessels nor 
to British ports, although eventually the 
ships did manage to land their cargoes in 
England. Naturally all interested in the 
commerce of Oporto were the losers by 
the French occupation ; the ledgers of 
those days are, in many cases, so man)' 
blank pages ; the \ ineyards were left almost 
unheeded ; the peasant abandoned the 
plough for the sword, and while Wellington 

Sena Coju'ijil, /,„.;,i/,- ,/,i!ti(i rivn. Jioiii <, <ii,iK'n:L: I'v JIjioii ih' Fonfslri. 

of the Catholic religion were robbed, and advanced on Opoiiu the whole district was 

the convents and monastei-ies resoinidcd 
to the ribald songs of the oppressor-s. 
Pillage was the order of the day. 

The British Merchants wei-e obliged t( 
place their wine stores in chars^c of tlicii 
Portuguese employes, and, in fact, with 

in a state ol' ferment. From the Porta 
Nolirc to the Codecai the old city wall was 
cqLupped with ginis and gimners: the Rua 
Nii\a dds Inglezcs became the parade 
!.;roLUKl h)i- the French troops quartercil in 
the Church .if S. l-iancisco, and SouU's 

but one or two exceptions, their names cooks were preparing a feast tor the next 
disappeared from the export lists. The day, at which (alas, for the irony of fate!) 
shipments were on a very reduced scale. Sir Arthur WcUeslcy presided. " 





LBSLliY had in- 
foi-med liis (}o\'ern- 
ment (in the 7th 
Maj', 1809, that he 
intended that the 
army under his 
eommand should 
mareh on the 9th 
from Coimhra to 
dislodge the enemj^ from Oporto. As I 
have already had occasion to mention, the 
cavalry started on tlie 7th under Generals 
Payne and Cotton, and had halted on the 
8th to afford time f(M' Marshal Beresford 
with his f(jrces to arrive on the Alto Douro. 
The infantry of the army was formed into 
three divisions, of which two, consisting of 
the King's German Legion and General 
Stewart's brigade, with a brigade of six- 
pounders, under General Sherbrooke, 
moved by the high road from Coimhra to 
Oporto, and one composed of Major- 
General Hill's and Brigadier-General 
Cameron's brigades of infantry, and a 
bi-igade of 6-pounders, under the command 
of Major-General Hill, by the road from 
Coimhra to Aveiro. 

On the 11th May the ad\anced guards 
and cavalry continued to move on the 
high road towards Oporto with General 
Hill's division on a parallel road which 
leads from Ovar. On the arri\al of the 
advanced guard at Vendas Novas, between 
Souto Redondo and Grijo, they fell in 

with the outposts of the enemy's advanced 
guard, which were immediately dri\en in ; 
and shortly afterwards the ad\anced 
guard was discovered, consisting of about 
4,000 infantry and some squadrcjns of 
ca\'alry stronglj' posted on the heights 
above Grlj(j. The enemj-, although pro- 
tected bj' woods and broken ground, was 
dislodged b)' a movement u'cll executed b)' 
General Murray \\'ith General Lang- 
werth's brigade of the King's German 
Legion; while the 16th Portuguese Regi- 
ment, of General R. Stewart s brigade, 
attacked their right, and the riflemen of 
the 95th and the flank companies of the 
29th, 43rd and 52nd (jf the same brigade, 
under Major Way, attacked the infantry 
in the w(j(xls and \'illage in their centre. 
Owing to these attacks the enemy was 
obliged to give way, pursued by two squad- 
rons of tlie 16th and 20th Dragoons, undei- 
the command of Major Blake, who suc- 
ceeded in killing many and taking several 

On the night <jf the 1 1th May the enemj' 
crossed the river Douro and destroyed the 
bridge of boats, and Sir Arthur Wellesley 
rec(jgnised that, with a view to assisting 
the operations of Marshal Beresford, he 
should attack Oporto w ithout delay. The 
British halted at dark while the French 
were destrcjying the bridge of boats over 
the Douro, and were despatching all their 
heavy artillery and baggage still in Oporto 
to Amarante. Soult ordered all the craft 



in the Dourc) in Inis front to be secured, 
and placed guards at convenient points, 
resolved to h(jld Oporto diu-inj4 the 12th, 
so that Lorgc's dragoons and the different 
detachments might have time to concen- 
trate at Amarante. The attention of the 
French was, however, directed more to 
Foz than to above bridge, for they expected 
the British to make their attempt by sea. 

almost equally as high as the Serra 
Convent. This building was surrounded by 
a high wall, which, extending to the water, 
enclosed an area sufficient for two batta- 
lions in order of battle. The only egress 
from this enclosure was by an iron gate 
opening on the Vallong(j road, and the 
building itself commanded everything in 
its vicinity. There were no French posts 

\-uw 0] III,- Sen 

At 8 (j'clock on the morning on the 12th near, and the diix-ct passage from the 

May,theheads(jftheBritishcolumnsarri\ed S.'rra across the ri\cr to the bLiilding \\as 

just behind the Serra Convent, and they hidden from the troops in the town. All 

were thus hitldcn from view of the Frcncli. that was wanting was a boat, and this was 

From this eminence Sir Arthur searched provided by a poor barber who had evaded 

all the opposite bank and the city and the French patrols and had crossed during 

counti'y be)'(in<_l it. Suddenly he espied a the night in a small skiff. Colonel Waters, 

large unfinishei-l buikhng, called the Semi- a stalT officer, discovered this, and, assisted 

nary, on the FLast side of Oporto, and by the barber and the prior of Amarante, 



who j^allantly offered his services, imme- beat to ar 
diately crossed the river, and, in half-an- and tlie 
horn', returned with three larj<e barj^es, in i^esticulat 
the meantime, Sir ArtliLn' 

had placed ei.tjbteen __^__.----- ^ _ 

pieces of artillery on the 
Serra where the Con\ent 
stands, and General 
AUn-ray was dii-eeted to 
mo\e with the German 
brij^ade, some squadrons 
of the 14th DrajJOons and 
two t*uns to Avintes, a 
little higher up the river. 
He was instructed to seek 
for boats, and effect a 
passage there also if pos- 
sible, and \\hen Waters 
returned some of the 
English 1 1- o o p s were 
pushed towards Murray 
in support, while others 
cautiously approached the 
brink of the ri\er under 
the Serra. It was now 
ten o'clock in the 
morning, and the French 
were still unsuspicious. 
Sir Arthur was informed 
that one boat was ready. 
" Wdl, let the men cross," 
was his reply, and \\ith 
this simple order an 
officer with twenty-five 
soldiers of the Buffs 
embarked, and in a 
quarter of an hour after- 
wards were silently placed 
in the midst, as it were, 
of the enemy's army. 
Thus was the Seminary 
gained; all was quiet in 
Oporto, and a second 
boat followed the first ; 
a third boat crossed higher up the ri\er 
but scarcely had the men from this appear w 
last boat set hxjt on shore when drums struggle 

I'yu'iild of tii€ Buffi or East Kail Regitfifiit 

,f tht 

ms, shouts arose from all parts, 
inhabitants were seen wildlv 

ng and making sij^naU from the 
houses, while confused 
masses of Fi'ench ti-oops, 
hLM'rying fui'th fmm the 
streets by the higher 

- , grounds, threw out 
swarms (jf skirmishers 
who fui'iDusly attacked 
the S e m i n a r y . T h e 
British ai-my instantly 
crowded to the bank of 
the ri\-er, Paget's and 
Hill's di\'isions at the 
point of passage, and 
Sherbrooke's division 
where the bridge of boats 
had been cut away from 
\'illa Nova. Paget had 
passed in the third boat, 
and, ha\ing moimted the 
rfjrjf of the Seminary, was 
k n o c k e d d o w n w i t h a 
dangerous wound. Hill 
took his place. The 
musketry fire was ten-ific, 
and increased as t h e 
numbers on both sides 
accumulated, but the 
French attack was eager 
and constant ; their fire 
increased faster than that 
of the English, and their 
artillery began to play 
on the Seminary. The 
British guns from the 
Serra c o m m a n d e d , 
indeed, the whole en- 
closure r o Li n d the 
Seminary, and swept the 
left of the wall in such a 
manner as to confine the 
French attack to the side 

■on gates ; but Murray did not 

ith his German legion, and the 
became so \iolent and the 
N N 



moment so critical that it was \Aith 
difficulty Sir Ai'tliur was constrained tVdni 
crossing and Icadmg in person. 

I am indebted to iMessrs. Otfiey, For- 
rester & Co. for the accompan^-ing portrait 
of Major John AlcCrohan of the Buffs 
who crossed with his regiment, and who 
eventually liecame a resident in Oporto. 
But, to revert to my subject, at this critical 
moment some citizens came over to N'illa 
Xova with se\'eral large boats, and thus 
General Sherbrooke's troops began to 
cross in large bodies just when the waxing 

Miijoi Join! McCiohan 

(jf handkerchiefs fi-om ever)' window 
announced tliat the Fi'ench had abandoned 
the lower pai-t of the city. AUirray's 
troops were now seen descending the right 
bank from A\intes ; tliree battalions wei'c 
in the Seminar)-; Hill, adx'uncing to the 
enclosure wall, opened a withering lire on 
the French columns as they passed in haste 
and confusion along by his front by the 
Vallongo Road. l-i\'e pieces of artillery 
came dashing out IVom the City, but the 
gunners coidd not face the terrible line of 

musketry, and the drivers pulled up. A 
voile)' from behind stretched most of them 
on the ground and the rest took to flight, 
lea\'ing their guns behind them. This 
voile)' was given by some of Sho'brooke's 
men, «ho, ha\'ing forced their way through 
the streets, thus came upon their rear. 
On the left. General Sherbrooke, with the 
brigade of guards and the 29th regiment, 
had seized the town and was pressing the 
rear of the enem\' as it t]uitted the streets. 
General Hill held the Seminar)- with the 
gallant Buff's, the 48th, the 16th Portu- 
guese and a battalion of detachments, and 
this line \\-as prolonged on the right b)- 
General Alurra)-'s Gernian Legion and t\\-o 
squadrons of the 14th Dragoons. This 
General did not follow up the advantage 
gained b)- his comrades, so that General 
Charles Stew-art and Major Her\-ey, im- 
patient of this timidity, charged with the 
two squadrons of dragooiis, unhorsed 
Laborde and wounded Fov ; but brave 
Hervey lost an arm, and his gallant horse- 
men, recci\-mg no suppoi-t from Miu-rav, 
had to fight their w-a\- back with loss. 

General Sherbrooke's troops crossed the 
river from the \'illa No\a side, between 
where the pi-esent bridge now stands and 
the Freiras, and landed in parties of from 
thirt)- to fift)- strong close to the Escadas 
da Raiidia, \iz., on the Caes da Ribeira. 
From this point some of them ascended 
the Rliu de S. Joali, past the British 
Factor)- HoLise, across the Largo de S. 
Domingos, throLigh the Rua das Flores. 
and thence Lip to the LarLji) da Batalha. 
From c\er)- window" shouts of 1'/^',;;)/ e5 
Iii'^lc'iis w-crc raised, while the ladies 
wa\ed their hanLlkerchiefs. Other parties 
ascended b)- a precipitous street, long after 
known as the Rua do W'ellesley, and 
these were protected b)- 18 guns which had 
beei-i mounted on the Serra. These 
detached bodies graduall)- con\ci'ged at the 
Fontainbas, which place con-iniands the 
river DoLiro, fron"! the poliit on the North 



side down to the bridf^e. For nearly all 
these details I am indebted to Naplei-'s 
" Histoi-y of the Peninsular War." 

It was 8 o'clock in the morninji when the 
Britisli troops appi'oached the Serra Con- 
vent ; at 10 o'clock some of the Buffs were 
within the enclosure of the Seminario, 
and within a few hoLirs the city of Oporto 
was in possession of the allied forces. You 
must see the position which the French 
occupied to he able to realize the difficult 
task that lay before Sir Arthur VVellesley. 
As soon as the last French combatant had 
disappcaretl, the British and Portut;uese 
troops, as they cntei'ed the city, some 
throLi;^'i the Hua do Sol, (others b)' the Rua 
Direita, became theobject of aspontaneous 
and splendid ovation, because it was heart- 
felt. There \\'as not (jne soldier among 
them but what had often been under hre ; 
their tattered uniforms ga\'e evidence of 
the heavy times they had <4one throLii>h ; 
but now they were to have a few daj-s well 
earned rest in the City of Wine, and many 
a cask was emptied that ni,i;ht in drinkini4 
to the health of the Ijritish liberat(ji-s 
and their invincible leader. Opoi-to was 
not then like what it is now. The Largo 
da Bataiha was an unpavcd and waste 
piece of land ; on the East side stood the 
Palace of the family of Pangim, on the 
South-West the Opera House which was 
built in 1780, but beyond a few small tene- 
ments between the above-named buildings 
there was ntjthing to render it aristocratic 
in appearance. At the top of the l^ua de 
S. Antonio, the old Church of S. Ildefonso 
rang out a meri'y peal as the British regi- 
ments mai'ched past, and the bells from 
the steeples of the Congregad(js and the 
Clerigos took up the spirit of the day and 
rang out loud and clear a welcome to the 
\ictors over the invaders. 

On the afternoon of this memorable day 
Sir Arthiu- Wcllesley made his entry into 
Oporto and proceeded by the Rua Nova 
dos Inglezcs, the Ferreira Borges, the 

Taypas, and the Fogueteiros to the Palace 
of the Carrancas, and, w ith some of his 
Generals, partook of the dinner v\hich had 
been prepared for Mai'shal SoLilt, « ho was 
on his way to Galicia. On that same day 
the great British General wrote one of his 
laconic dispatches to the Right Hon. Mr. 
X'illiers, informing him of the success of 
the allied forces. 

That was a night of boisterous revelry ; 
bonfires were lit in every street and rockets 
were exploding in all directions. The 
French flag had disappeared from every 
official building and fortress, and the 
people gave themselves up to such frantic 
rejoicings that no one thought of retiring 
to rest. But the ever thoughtful Sir 
Arthui", knowing that a jubilant rabble is 
very easily led into acts of excess, had the 
streets carefull)' patrolled, and on the 
morning of the 13th May he pub- 
lished a proclamation to the inhabitants, 
in which, after mentioning the victory the 
allied forces had won, he commanded them 
to be merciful to the Fi-ench whom they 
had made prisoners, as well as t(j those 
who were lying ill in the hospitals. Of 
these latter there were no less than 750, 
and as the surgeons at the disposal of the 
English were not enough to attend to so 
many wounded of the enemy beyond those 
they had to tend of their own. Sir Arthur 
Wellesley addressed a letter to Alai'shal 
Soult, in which he asked him to furnish a 
few French doctors to look after their 
sick in the hospitals, and that when these 
had sufficiently I'ecovered the doctors 
should be allowed to rejoin their respec- 
tive battalions. To this message of mercy 
Marshal Soult, however, did not vouchsafe 
a reply. Some of these French prisoners 
remained in Oporto for many years 
after, and one of them, Colonel \'iller, 
was my first French master. Thus 
ended the brilliant passage of the Douro, 
which preceded the memorable battle of 




thp: war between the two brothers. 

Peninsular War 
in ]^ortu_;j;al, 
for he \\'as so 
terrihl)' an- 
noj-ed when 
he li e a r d 
that Junot 
was ad\anc- 
ing on Lis- 
Ii o n that, 
\\' i t h his 
mother, he 
embarked at 
B e I e m o n 
board a shi|i 
a n d sail e (.1 
lor Rio de 
Janeiro, tn 
w h i e h c i t y 
he renioN'ed 
the seat of 
Before leav- 
ing Lisiion 
iie appointed 
a coimeil of 
Iv e g e n c y 

OM JOAO y\. was un- 
doubtedly the weakest 
Sovereign of the House 
of Bi'aganea, even if we 
include Donna Mai'ia 
I., who became insane, 
and for whom Dum 
JoaTj, her son, acted as 
R e g e n t d u r i n g t h e 
eventful times of the 
But he did not remain 

with instructions to preserve the peace in 
the country, and to make the French 
in\"aders as comfortable as possible on their 
arrival. If Dom JoaTi \'l. -was a weak 
King, hisOueen, Donna Carlotta Joaquina, 
was aboLit the most intriguing woman 
the Country had c\er known. This royal 
coLiple had two sons, the elder was Dom 
Pedro, the younger, Dom Miguel. Dom 
Pedro was in fa\'our of gi-anting Parlia- 
mentar)- Go\ernment to the Portuguese, 

and his fa- 
ther agreed 
\\- i t h hi m , 
but o n a 
more modi- 
fied scale; 
Dom Miguel 
wOLdd have 
n o t h i n g t o 
d o w i t h a 
re p rcsenta- 
tive Go\ern- 
ni e n t , a n d , 
w i t h hi s 
mother, did 
his u t in o s t 
to prcscr\c 
the absolute 
form of Go- 
\ e r 11 m e n t . 
i n w h i c h 
e n d e a \' o ii r 
he was se- 
conded by 
the Clergy 
/'..'/.' n- a n d t h e 



Nobility. On March 20th, 1816, Donna 
iMaria I. died at Rio, and her son was pro- 
claimed l(in<^ under the title of Dom Joal) 
VI. His long absence from Portugal 
caLised great dissatisfaction among his 
subjects in Europe, and although the 
British Cabinet urged him to return he 
remained inflexible in his determination 
not to quit Brazil. Furthermore the 
P(jrtuguese «-ere uneasj' about their 
vast dependency in South America fearing 
that it would declare its independence, and 
when Dom Joa7i 
was forced to re- 
turn to Portugal, 
at the instigation 
of England, his 
Brazilian subjects 
revolted, and con- 
stituted them- 
selves a separate 
Government. On 
his arrival in Lis- 
bon he solemnly 
swore to uphold 
the Constitution 
of 1822, by which 
protection was 
afforded everyone, 
and property was 
guaranteed, and 
a m o n g o t h e r 
things, liberty of 
the press an tl 
equal it)' before 
the law. But this 
did not last long 
Clergy revolted am. 
the Constitution of 1822. A new Consti- 
tution was prepared, modelled on our 
English system, but the Queen-Consoit 
and her son Dom .Miguel placed thcmseKes 
at the head of the discontented Nobility 
and Clergy ; an insurrection was raised in 
Lisbon, the Marquis of Louie was assassi- 
nated, and the King was confined as a 
prisoner in his own palace. The foreign 

the Nobility and 
the King abrogated 

Ambassadors intervening, the insurrection 
was suppressed, and the King was restored 
to po\\ei'. Foi- this, Dom Miguel was 
banished and the Duke of Palmella \vas 
app(^inted Piime Minister. In 1824 Dom 
.loaT) returned to Brazil, and on his arrival 
at Rio he recognised his son Dom Pedro 
as Emper(^r of Brazil. Now, this is the 
point where the Pedroites and the 
Miguelites joined issue because the latter 
maintained that, as Brazil was now an in- 
dependent empire, Dom Pedro, by his elec- 
tion as Emperor, 
was no longer en- 
titled to the Portu- 
guese succession. 
T he Pedroites 
replied that, as 
Dom Miguel had 
been guilty of 
high treason, for 
which offence he 
had been exiled 
from his father's 
realms, he was in- 
eligible. pLirther- 
Z) more, by his \\\\\, 
Dom Joab VI. had 
left the regency of 
Portugal to his 
daughter, Df)nna 
Isabel Maria, 
much to the an- 
noyance of r^om 
Miguel : but this 
fact, it was argued, 
seemed to show that he did not look 
upon Dom Pedro as his successor, for 
otherwise he would have allowed him 
to appoint his own regency. Dom Pedro 
married the Archduchess A'laria Josepha, 
daughter of the Emperor Fi-ancis 1., of 
Aiistria, by which marriage he had one 
daughter. Donna Maria da Gloria. This 
matrimonial alliance with the Hapsburghs 
gave Dom Pedro more importance than 
the pcjsition he held of Grand Master of 



Portuguese Masonry, and he was joyfully the Praca de Dom Pedro, in Oporto, for 
acclaimed by a certain section of the no other offence than that of being accused 
people as King, under the title of Dom 
Pedro IV. During this time Portugal was 
in the occupation of the British forces 
under Lieut. -Gen. Sir William Clinton, 
but shortly afterwards these troops «ere 
withdrawn, and in 1827 Dom Pedro com- 
mitted the great error of recalling his 
exiled brother, and appointing him to be 
Regent of 

Portugal for 
the j'oung Queen 
Donna Maria, in 
whose f a \' o u r 
he, Dom Pedro, 
had resigned the 
Throne. In July, 
1827, Dom Mig- 
uel WAS declared 
Regent, and it 
was settled that 
he should marry 
his niece, Donna 
Maria, w h e n 
she became old 

D o m M i g II e 1 
accepted the 
conditions im- 
posed, but in 
May, 1828, a 
Cortes was con- 
vened at which 
the Bishop of 
Viz eu offered 

him the Crown """ ' 

on behalf of the Clergj' and Nobility, and he 
was proclaimed King. The Parliamentar)- 
party was banished and sought refuge in 
England, where the young Ouccn ^\■as 
staying. The reign of Dom i\ligiicl has 
left bcliind it a history of blood and 
imprisonment. The citizens of Oporto 
could not tolerate him, and tlic islands of 
the Azores had never recognised him. In 

of liberal ideas. One of them was Senhor 
Antonio de Brito e Cunha ancestor of my 
good friend John Brito. 

In 1831 Dom Pedro resigned the crown 
of Brazil in favour of his son of the same 
name, the late lamented Emperor, and 
left the country to take charge of the 
movement in favour of his daughter 
which had been 
,' ' , started by Pal- 

mella, Guerreiro, 
and Villa Flor, 
at Terceira. 
First of all he 
came to London 
and obtained a 
large loan in his 
daughter's name, 
and secured the 
services of many 
English soldiers. 
On the 8th July, 
1832, the ex-Em- 
p e r o r, accom- 
panied by 7,500 
Bi-avos landed 
at Mi n dell o 
(Arnosa), and 
m a r c It e d o n 
Oporto, distant 
about ten miles. 
It was a triimi- 
phal march, a 
pageant such as 
the Portuguese 
. The citizens of the hn'al city 
him with open arms, and his 
brother Dom Miguel laid siege to the place. 
A great number of the British merchants 
put up at Cosmc's Hotel in the Rua do 
CaKario. Cosnie was a niggci-, and an 
enthusiastic bclicxei' in the rights of Dom 
Miguel, but he was not a\-crsc to taking 
English money, in fact he preferred it to 


one day ten gentlemen were hanged in Portuguese promises. Stopping at this 



Hotel, among others, were Mr. F. F. R. 
Shore, Mr. George Kno\vesley,iMr.Oiiillin;in, 
Air. Fdward Kehe, and my uncle Henry 
Wilcock. "i"he Pedroite army \\as com- 
manded hy Alajor-General JoiTo Carlos 
Saldanha de OH\eira e DaLin, at'terwai'ds 
created Duke of Saldanha, \\ ho for many 
years was well known \n London as the 
Portuguese Minister at the Ccjiirt of St. 

C a p t a i n 
Charles Na- 
pier, of the 
British Navy, 
Admiral Sar- 
tor i o u s a s 
Admiral of 
the Fleet, and 
he gainect a 
signal victory 
over the Mig- 
uel i t e s off 
Cape St. Vin- 
cent on the 
5th July, 1833. 
Saldanha de- 
feated t h e 
army of the 
Condes de S. 
Lourenco, and 
das Antas, and 
on the 26th 
May, 1834, 
Portugal saw 
the last of the 
Usurper, who 
on that day surrendered to the Constitu- 
tional forces, and, hy the convention of 
Evora Monte, abandoned his claim to the 
Throne of Portugal in exchange for an 
annual allowance of £15,000. During all 
this time the young Queen haci been living 
abroad ; for some time she resided in 
London, and was well received h}' George 
I\'. In 1829 she went to Fi-ance and took 
up her residence at the Chateau de 

Vain Pcdio r 

Meudon. (n 1833 her father declared hei- 
of age, although only 14 years old, and 
a year later fJom Pedro 1\'. died at 
Oueluz on the 24th September. In 1835 
she married the Duke of Leuchtenben^, 
second son of Eugene de Beauharnais, 
by P]-incess .Augusta of Ba\aria. The 
Duke died two months after he arri\ed in 
Lisbon, and, as tliere was no issue, she mar- 

ried Prince 
Ferdinand of 
Gotha, nephew 
of Leopold, 
King (jf the 
Belgians, and 
cousin of our 
e\er lamented 
Prince Con- 
sort, by whom 
she had five 
sons and two 

Queen Maria 
da Gloria died 
on the 1 5 1 h 
.\ o V e /ii her, 
1853, and her 
eldest son, the 
r^Like of Alcan- 
tara, WHS pro- 
claimed King 
under the title 
of Dom Pedro 
\. As, how- 
e\er, he was 
a minor, his 
father, Dom Fei-nando, became Regent. 
In 1855 Dom I-^edro V. assumed the reins 
of go\'ernment and made himself belo\'ed 
by all his subjects. He married the lo\ely 
Princess Estephanie of Hohenzollern- 
Sigmaringen, who died in child-birth. 
Dom Pedro \'. never got o\er the loss of 
his wife, and on the 11th No\-ember, 1861, 
he, to use his own expression, rejoined 
her. Never was there a nobler King ; his 



reign was one of love and justice. He 
was succeeded by liis second brother, 
Dom Luiz, Duke of Oporto, the sailor 
Prince, who married Princess Maria Pia, 
second daughter of Victor Emanuel, King 
of Italy, by whom he left two sons, the 
present King, Dom 
Carlos, and the Infante 
Dom Affonso, Duke of 

In some of my previous 
chapters I have referred 
to the Bridge of Boats, 
which was done away with 
in 1842, on the opening to 
the public of the Sus- 
pension Bridge built by 
the French Engineer, 
Stanislas Bigot. In the 
course of years it was 
found inadequate for the 
traffic between Oporto 
and Villa Nova, and a 
contract was entered into with an im- 
portant engineering firm of France to 
construct an iron bridge after the Eiffel 
model with two roadways, the upper one, 
as I have already had occasion to state, 
connecting the Eastern Borough of 

Oporto with the High Road leading on 
the Villa Nova side to S. ChristovM, 
while the lower span places the Ribeira in 
communication with Villa Nova proper, 
just at the foot of the Serra Convent 
Hill. This wonderful bridge, constructed 
on a plan of which there 
are as yet very few exam- 
ples, was opened by the 
late King of Portugal, on 
November 1st, 1886, and 
occupied less than fi\e 
years in building, at a cost 
of about £82,000. The 
metal employed weighs 
3,300 tons. The higher 
level is 200 ft. above 
the river at low water, 
and carries foot pas- 
sengers and a tramway ; 
the lower level, 166 ft. 
beneath it, is intended 
for foot passengers and 
The total length is 566 ft. 
Thus war has been replaced by the 
peaceful pursuit of the arts and sciences, 
and under the beneficent sway of the 
present illustrious .Monarch a still greater 
advance will he made. 

The Duke of Saldanha. 

carriages only 

Old Suspension Bridge. 





IHE derivation of the 
> word Portugal has 
engaged the attention 
nf many writers during 
the last five centuries 
and at the start I must 
admit that my opinion 
is worth no more than 
theirs; 1 simply sub- 
mit it to the apprecia- 
tion oi my readers 
some of whom are better able to judge of 
the importance, if any, to be attached 
to my deductions from the works at my 

In the first place, ancient Lusitania by 
no means represented the kingdom of 
Portugal and the Algarves as now known. 
According to some, it is said that before the 
time of Augustus Ctesar, Lusitania was 
bounded on the north by tlie Ocean, thus 
comprehending the province of Galicia, 
which is now Spanish, and on the south by 
the river Tagus. Others maintain that 
the river Douro was the northern boLuidai-y 
and the Guadiana \vas the southern. 
According to the division of Spain under 
the Roman Kmpire there were fourteen 
" Conventus," i.e. Pro\incial Parliaments 
or Assemblies made by a combination of 
as many communities or townships, and 
Lusitania was formed of thi-ee, Hmerita 
Augusta the principal. Pax Julia (the 
modern Beja), and Scalabis, not far from 
the mouth of the Tagus. To the arrival 

of a large number of Gauls at Oporto is 
ascribed the derivation of Portugal, the 
ancient city having been called Portus 
Gale, and this explanation would be highly 
satisfactory if we could only find out 
something more about these Gauls and 
what they were doing there than the bare 
statement that they were there. 

Oporto was not the capital of the Earl- 
dom of Portugal when it was made over 
to Count Henry of Burgundy who, as I 
have already stated, established his court 
at Guimaraens after the example of his 
predecessor, the Gothic king, W'amha. The 
latter built a palace for himself situated in 
the heart of the city whereas the Count 
erected a strong castle, with moat and draw- 
bridge, on the OLitskirts of the city where 
his eldest son was born, and no history has 
proved to my satisfaction that the redoubt- 
able Burgundian held peaceful sway over 
the ancient city of Oporto. Of course, when 
Affonso Henriques came to the throne his 
kingdom was alread)' described as Portugal 
and, therefore, in treating about this part 
of Portuguese history we are no nearer 
the derix'ation of tine name of the country 
which, with the rest of the Iberian 
Peninsula, was at one time colonised by 
the Pluenicians and conquered by the 
Carthaginians. It was overrun by the 
Vandals, Alans and Visigoths, and eventu- 
ally conquered by the Arabs in the 8th 
Century. In 997 Bermudo II., King of 
Galicia, won back the first portion of 



modern Portugal from the Mohammedans 
by seizing Oporto and occupying the pr(_)- 
vince now known as Entre .Minho e Doui'o. 
Once again I will remind my readeis 
that the province of Gaiicia formed part 
of the Earldom of Portugal because the 
theory which I have to expound turns on 
the name of this province as well as on the 
people. Ethnologically the Galicians are 
allied to the Northern Portuguese whom 
they resemble in appearance more than 
the other inhabitants of the Peninsula. 
To the Ancients, this province was known 
as Gallaecia or Callsecia. The country of 
the Gallaici was bounded on the South by 
the Douro including the city of Oporto. 
On the partition of Spain which followed 
the successful invasions of the Sue^■ians, 
Alans, and Vandals, Gallaecia fell to the 
lot of the first-named, about 411 A.D. 
The principal ports of Galhecia were re- 
peatedly ravaged by the Norsemen and, 
therefore, the inhabitants had recourse to 
the more dangerous harbour of Oporto for 
their expeditions to sea because the bar 
presented an almost insuperable difficulty 
to all invaders. Thus Oporto, although not 
by any means the finest port in that 
region, became the most important one, 
and the city was made the centre of com- 
merce and probably became known to the 
Norsemen and other free-traders of those 
days as Portus Gallaici, and, as language 
became modernised, or corrupted, was 
turned into Portugal. 

This theory of mine may not be worth 
more than those which other writers have 
already presented, but I claim for it this 
advantage that whereas I derive the name 
from the Gallaici, who availed themselves 
of Oporto as a means of communication 
with the outer world, others have sought 
to prove that Gaya was supposed to have 
been anciently called Calle, and that from 
this fact the kingdom derived its name. 

It must be remembered that whereas 
the Phoenicians seldom went beyond the 

sea-ports of the countries they visited, the 
Burgundian knights and their followers 
usuall}' inhabited the inland towns, where 
they built castles to defend themselves 
from the attacks of the natives, whom they 
had partially subjugated. The Phoenicians, 
on the other hand, v ere navigators in the 
broadest sense of the word, and it is easy 
to note their descent to this day among 
the fisher people inhabiting the coast of 
Portugal and Spain. The Galicians of the 
interior are, beyond doubt, Goths, and so 
are the majority of the inhabitants of the 
North of Portugal. .\o Teutonic nationality 
fills so great a place in the political and 
military history of the 4th, 5th and 6th 
centuries. Strange that so great a people 
have not for many ages existed anywhere 
as a distinct nation, nor ha\e they given 
an abiding name to any part of Europe. 

I know full well the dislike, if not con- 
tempt, in which the Poi'tuguese hold 
Galicians ; the former, however, advanced 
in all the branches of civilization, while the 
latter remained stationary, owing to 
centuries of misgovernment. 

\\'hen Affonso Henriques succeeded his 
father in the Earldom of Poi'tugal the 
country was still regarded as fief of 
Gaiicia, and, after nearly twelve years of 
incessant fighting, he bequeathed to his 
son an independent kingdom. The battles 
were fought on the Galician frontier with 
\arying success, and the independence of 
Portugal from Gaiicia being thus finally 
achieved, the idea of extending the 
dominion towards the north was aban- 

It is asserted by all writers that Portu- 
guese is a distinct language from the 
Spanish, which really means nothing, as 
the adjective Spanish applied to the 
language of Spain is a misnomer. The 
title of the King of Spain correctly ren- 
dered is Rcy de todas las Espahas, or " King 
of all the Spains," signifying that the 



different kingdoms of Granada, Leon, 
Aragon, etc., were united under the crown 
of Castile, and as these kingdoms, or 
provinces, had their different dialects it 
was found convenient and necessary to 
recognise the language spoken by one of 
the States as that of the whole nation, 
and, therefore, to this day the language of 
Spain is the Castilian. The North of 
Portugal which, as I said before, was at 
one time subordinate to Galicia, had its 
own dialect, but more similar to that of 
Castile than those employed by the natives 
of the other provinces. In some ancient 
books written in Castilian 1 find many of 
the words written in the Portuguese 
language, but when we come to study the 
literature of Portugal we see it is absolutely 
distinct from that of Spain. Strangely 
enough, although at one time the Spaniards 
and the Portuguese formed integral parts 
of Iberia, and were, therefore, often 
called upon to fight together, they became 
alienated, and their ambitions and aspira- 
tions joined issue when the two countries 
were at the zenith of their power. Por- 
tuguese has retained more of its affinity 
to Latin than is the case with the Cas- 
tilian language, and there are instances 
where poems and letters have been written 
which are capable of being read in either 
language, as will be seen by the following 
well-known example : — 

" O quam f^loriosas memorias publico, conside- 
rando quanto vales nobilissima lingua T^usitana. 
Cum tua facundianos provocas,excitas,inflammas ! 
<Juam altas victorias procuras, quam celebres 
triumphos speras, quam excellentes fabricas fundas 
quam perversas furias castigas, quam feroces 
insolentias domas, manifestando, de prosa e (t) de 
metro tantas elegancias I.atinas.'' 

The brightest star in the Porttigtiese 
literary firmament is undoubtedly Camoens, 
the author of the Lusiads, as well as of 
some tuneftil sonnets, which were beauti- 
fully rendered into Bnglish by Miss 
Blizabeth Barrett. Luiz de Camoens 
was born in 1324 in the city of I^isbon, 

and was of noble parentage. The clas- 
sical school of Sa de Miranda had already 
given a polish to the Portuguese language ; 
this great Lyric poet was born at Coimbra 
in 1495, studied at the Universitj', and, 
after travelling through Spain and Italy, 
settled himself in his Ouinta da Tapada, 
near Ponte do Lima, where he was visited 
by all the celebrated writers of his time, 
and stood high in the favour of the King, 
D. Joa"o III. He fell violently in love, 
after returning from his tra\els, with D. 
Briolanja de Azevedo, who was so much 
older than himself and so exceedingly ugly, 
that her father, for some time, refused 
consent to the marriage, fearing that Sa 
de Miranda would soon become disgusted 
with stich a bride. The marriage, however, 
took place, and the poet and his wife lived 
most happil}' together to the end of their 
days. He survived her three years, dying 
in 1558. His works were not published in 
his lifetime ; they consist of Eclogues, 
Sonnets, Blegies, and Odes, in the last of 
which lies the chief excellence of Sa de 
.Miranda. The following forms the subject 
of one of his most charming lyrics : — 
" O'rio de Leya, 

Fructos em Janeiro 

Nascerao primeiro 

Que eu de ti me esque^a ! 

Primeiro em Agosto 

Nevara com calma 

Que o tempo d'esta alma 

Aparte o teu rosto ! " 

All that remains of the early poets of 
Portugal is not very \i_)luminoLis, but it 
proves that the courtly troubadotu-s of the 
West were cei'tainly not inferior to the 
better known singers of Pi-ovence. The 
national poetr-y, how ever, gradtially became 
affected in its literary foi-ni by foreign 
influences, and the name of only one 
undoubtedly Portuguese troubadour of the 
period of Affonso Henriques has survived, 
namely, Joa'b Soares de Paiva. Some of 
the Galician poets frequented the Court of 
King Sancho 1. and mixed with their Pro- 



vengal rivals who were more heartily 
welcomed than all others, owing to the 
King's marriage with a daughter of the 
Count of Provence. French influence 
prevailed during the reign of Affonso III., 
as when this King returned from the Court 
of France he was imbued with northern 
rather than with southern sentiments, and 
the nobles who had accompained him 
were " trouveres " rather than "trouba- 
dours," and it was one of these gentlemen, 
Affonso Lopes de Baydxj, who wrote the 
first Portuguese gesta, " A Gestn dc Mill- 
dizer." Among the Court poets of this 
period were Joab de Aboim, author of 
several sirdoites and tciisuiis, and FernaTj 
Garcia and his brother Joab. The singers 
who wandered from Court to Court were 
termed segrcis. To this period also belong 
the prii'udos Fern;K) Fernandes Cogominho 
and Estevab Coelho, the latter of whom 
is accountable for two lovely scrra)iilhas 
still e.xtant, written and conceived in the 
purest Galician form and feeling. I^ero 
da Ponte and Affonso Eanes de Coton, 
both of Galicia, were guests of the Portu- 
guese King, Affonso III., while Alphonso 
the Wise of Castile entertained the 
Portuguese poets Pero Gomes Barroso, 
Goncalo Eanes de Vinhal, and Payo 
Gomes Charrinho. The royal pupil of 
Aymeric d'Ebrard, of Cahors, afterwards 
Bishop of Coimbra, succeeded to the 
throne of Portugal in 1279 as D. Diniz. 
He was the greatest poet of his time ; he 
introduced the Courts of Love, and the 
Limousin decasyllabic replaced the native 
octosyllabic metre; thus the ancient forms 
were lost in the intricacies of the ritoiiritcllc. 
During this reign a distinct literary revival 
of the national poetry took place, and, at 
the hands of the King, received a polish 
which had been somewhat lacking before. 
The lyric forms of the present day owe 
much of their great beauty to the effects of 
D. Diniz's influence on Portuguese poetry. 
As in France, epic poetry was a later 

literary de\elopment than the lyric. It 
was owing to the marriage of D. Jofw with 
our Phiiippa of Lancaster, in 1387, that a 
knowledge of the Arthurian cycle spread 
through the Peninsula, and thus the Pro- 
phecies of Merlin and kindred works were 
popularised almost to the exclusion of the 
(tntvias or tales of battles with the Arabs. 
One of the early Portuguese prose 
writers was Vasco de Lobeira who trans- 
lated the romance of A nitidis of Giutl 
into Portuguese. I do not purpose giving 
a complete account of the rise of Portu- 
guese literature, but I will mention that 
the 16th and 17th centuries were the era 
of epic poems. Unfortunately the wh<jle 
history of the country itself has not been 
written ; it was commenced by Alexandre 
Herculario who is called by some the Portu- 
guese Macaulay, and I much regret that it 
has never been translated into English. 
Among the modern prose writers are 
Rebello da Silva, J. G. Gomes Coelho, 
('fulio Doniz), Mendes Leal, Bernardim 
Ribeiro, Arnaldo Gama, Camillo Castello 
Branco, Teixeira de Vasconcellos and Eca 
de Oueiros. Among the poets of recent 
times are Joab de Deus, Theophilo Braga, 
Anthero do Ouental, Guilherme Braga, 
Thomas Ribeiro, Candido de Figueiedo, 
etc. The late King D. Luiz I. translated 
some of the plays of Shakespeare, among 
them the " Midsummer Night's Dream " 
and " Hamlet." I have already referred 
to Camoens and the beautiful episode 
about D. Ignez in the " Lusiad," and I 
must crave the indulgence of my readers 
for reproducing the two following verses 
as they represent what is grandest in the 
Portuguese language : — 

" Estavas, linda Ignez, posta em socego, 
Dos teas annos colhendo o doce fruto ; 
Naquelle engano d'alma ledo e cego 
Oae a fortuna nao deixa durar muito ; 
Nos saudosos campos do ^londego 
De teus formosos olhos nunca enxuto 
Acs monies ensinando, e as ervinhas, 
O nome, que no peito escrito tinhas. 



" Do teu principe alii te respondiao 
As lembran(;as, que na alma Ihe moravao, 
Uae sempre ante seus olhos te traziao, 
Ouando dos teus formosos se apartavao ; 
De noite em doces sonhos, que mentiao 
De dia em pensamentos, que voavao: 
E quanto em fim cuidava, e quanto via, 
Erao tudo memorias de alegria." 
Unlike Spain, Portugal, with the 
exception of Grao Vasco, can boast 
of no painter (jf any world-wide 
celebrity, but in ecclesiastical architecture 
the Portuguese from the 14th to the 
16th centuries pro\ed to the world their 
great skill. The Monastery of Batalha is, 
in some parts, about the finest specimen of 
late Gothic, with the happy survival, here 
and there, of early pointed features. The 
structure was erected owing to a vow made 
by D. Joao on the field of Aljubarrota, and 
the letters of donation were Issued from 
the camp before Melgaco, in 1388, in 
which year the work was commenced and 
continued till 1515. From a distance, the 
edifice has the appearance of a confused 
mass of pinnacles, spires, pierced battle- 
ments and flying buttresses. There is no 
doubt that the orginal church \\-as finished 
before 1416. The I.mperfeita has 
claimed the attention of many writers of 
celebrity; the chapel itself is octagonal, 
each side being triapsidal. " The gloiy of 
this chapel is its Western Arch, the 
Western side of which has seven orders of 
the most elaborate foliation springing 
from hollow sockets, and, amongst knots, 
flowers, and foliage, the words Tdiiiiis drcv 
are repeated o-\'er and over again." Al- 
though the meaning of these words has 
been much disputed and probably dis- 
torted by antiquaries i have no hesitation 
in giving the following as a correct version 
of wlnat they were intended to represent. 
First of all it must be remembered that 1). 
IVlanoel conceived the idea of imitating 
Henry VII. 's Chapel at Westminster by 
the Capella Imperfeita, translating hither 
the remains of the earlier Portuguese 

monarchs and ti.xing the place of his own 
sepulchre among the tombs of his ancestors. 
With this idea in view he, or his architect, 
probably conceived the happy idea of 
introducing some suitable maxim or motto 
among the elaborate foliation after the 
style of the Arabs who introduced the 
words " God is great " on most of the walls 
of their mosques and palaces, but in this 
case the cryptographic form has been 
adopted, the deciphering of which I make 
out to be the following : — 

Ta, according to Vieira's dictionary, is 
an exclamation, and signifies " Preserve 
silence " or " Be silent." The next letter 
is a sign which, in Portuguese sculptural 
writings, generally represents the abbre- 
viated form of the preposition em sounded 
in its nasal form ;;, meaning " in " or 
" here," and the next syllable is the well- 
known but corrupted form of the Latin 
jacet, jas " lies," or " is buried," so that 
with the following words el rev italicised 
among the floriation we have the sentence 
" be reverent," or " silent " " here lies the 
king." Respecting these letters, our late 
Consul in Oporto, Mr. Oswald Crawfurd, 
in his most amusing and interesting book, 
"Travels in Portugal," gives it as his 
opinion that the motto signifies Arte c 
Liiilds, which is a most plausible explana- 
tion from the tourist's point of view, hut 
is not worthy the ingenuity of the writer 
(if " Portugal, Old and New," and other 
valuable works. I have no hesitation in 
stating that no author has written in a 
more friendly spirit, and with a more 
graceful pen about Portugal, than Mr. 
Crawltu-d, who li\-edfor many j'ears among 
us as H.R.M.'s representative. Mr. Craw- 
lurd not only made himself acquainted 
with the language by mixing with the 
higher classes of the people, but he took 
the trouble to study the literature of the 
country, and his name will never be for- 
gotten by educated Portonians. 

Another writer, treating on the same 



subject, will have it that Taiiins is the 
name of the architect, but as Mr. Crawfurd 
very clearly puts it, such a surname is not 
recorded in any of the ancient registers of 
births, and it is very unlikely that in a 
work of such magnificence, designed as a 
resting place for the Royal family, the 
sculptor's name would be allowed to appear 
as representing a tribute to the then 
reigning monarch. I forget how many 
works have been written on the subject, 
but I think there can be no doubt that the 
motto, for it is not, properly speaking, a 
cryptogam, speaks to the visitor telling 
him to preserve that silence so much in 
harmony with the resting place of 
immortals. I am open to correction, but 
I have been congratulated by a few literary 
men on my ingenuity, and I leave it to the 
readers of this work, who thoroughly know 
Portugal and the language, to say how 
much merit attaches to me, or to my 
friendly critics. 

The next works of art I will mention are 
the Convent of the Order of Christ, the 
pilgrimage Chapel of Our Lady of Piet}-, 
and the curious Bridge, at Thomar. At 
onetime this Convent was almost unrivalled 
in Europe. It was in the time of Conde 
D. Henrique that the Templars entei'ed 
Portugal and settled at Thomar under 
their Master, Gualdim Paes, during the 
regency of D. Teresa. In 1311, when the 
Order of the Templars was suppressed, 
D. Diniz resolved, as I ha\e stated in 
another chapter, on instituting another 
which should occupy its place and succeed 
to its property, and the result «as the 
creation of the Order of Christ, in 1319. 
The huge Convent stands on a steep hill ; 
the Southern entrance is of the richest and 
most extravagant fiamboyant. Fi'om an 
eminent authority I give the following 
description of the Church: — 

■' The plan of the Cliancel is perhaps unique. 
Opening out of the wide late pointed nave is a 16- 
sided choir, supported by a central pier in the 

form of an octagonal turret, within which is placed 
the high altar. The turret is Romanesque in two 
stories, the carving of its capitals scmetimes 
approaching Byzantine ; and the whole surface is 
co\'ered with diaper. On the piers are figures of 
kings and ecclesiastics, and behind the altar are 
three elaborate flamboyant canopies. The hi'nitier, 
and four pilasters of the chancel railing, are of 
handsome Airabida hreccui. 

" Under the coro ciUo is the chapter-house, low, 
and well vaulted in two bays, with lattice-work at 
the W. end, and one of the most extravagant 
doors of P. IManoel's architecture on the South. 
It was copied by the late I). Fernando, at Cintra. 
The Claustro dos Felippes is a handsome cinque- 
cento erection of two stories. In a belfry on the 
ICast end hangs the largest bell in Portugal, with 
the legend, Benedictiis Dins et Pater Domini Jesu 
CInisti qui comfortat tws in omnihus tribiilationitbtis 
nosiiis. From hence the visitor will be led through 
the other cloisters, which are no less than nine in 
number. The principal one contains a corridor in 
the shape of a T, on either side of which were the 
rooms of the brethren, 

" To the North of the church is a verv elegant 
cloister of First Pointed work, though the foliation 
of the capitals disposed stiffly in 2 rows, sometimes 
indicates a later date. It is prettily tiled with 
azulcjos and planted with orange trees. To the 
West of these cloisters is the sacristy, a Grecian 
liuilding. From the ruined castle walls a good 
view is commanded of the well-watered city 
immediately below, with the long white line of 
steps ascending to the Fitdade Chapel on the left, 
and the church of the Olivaes in the distance to 
tlie ri,t;ht ■ 

Not the least interesting of the remains 
of the \arious races and people inhabiting 
the Peninsula are the Dolmens or Crom- 
lechs til be foLuid in different parts, 
especially at .Arraidlos. and of which 
Oeorge Borrow gi\cs a description in his 
'• Bible in Spain." Of course we know- 
nothing about these pre-historic structures 
left by prmicN al man, and the only interest 
they arotise in tis is as to their date and 
purpose as well as the degree of civilisa- 
tion which they manifest. 

I know nothing respecting these pecu- 
liarly shaped stones commemorative of a 
time to which is attributed the initiation 
of mysteries which have been perfected by 



the ingenuity of modern tiiinkers. For 
my part I attach absolutely no importance 
to speculative theories respecting these 
Druids and the supposed craft of which 
many imagine them to have been members. 
It is easy to beheve anything, and build 
up a wonderful fabric of high sounding 
words instead of bricks or stones. To 
suit his purpose, man revels in ploughing 
up the vast fields of an age which we 
cannot fix, and of which we know but 
little. These menhirs and crouilcclis, these 
rude monoliths placed at intervals of a few 
yards, to be found in various parts of the 
world — not only in Europe, for I have 
seen them in South America — ai'e no 
doubt parts of an archaic alphabet which 
we cannot easily decipher, although 
it probably represents the history of 
people, or of various peoples, who gave 
expression to their thoughts and feelings in 
this rude way. The conclusions at which 
man sometimes arrives, on the flimsiest 
evidence, are so ridiculously speculative 
that, after having wasted my eyesight in 
perusing volumes of this wonderful lore, 
I find that I am no wiser than they, and 
I can only regret that I should not have 
devoted more of my time to the far more 
stupendous work of knowing myself. 

Referring once more to the Cromlech 
at Arraiolos I will remark that Borrow' 
calls it " a Druidical Altar, and the most 
perfect and beautiful one of the kind ^^•hich 
I have ever seen. It was circular, and 
consisted of stones immensely large and 
heavy at the bottom, which towards the 
top became thinner and thinner, having 
been fashioned by the hand of art, and 
something of the shape of scalloped shells. 
These were surmounted by a very large 
flat stone which slanted down towards the